ARKOPAL N 070
CAS number : 9016-45-9
IUPAC Name: 2-[2-(4-nonylphenoxy)ethoxy]ethanol
European Community (EC) Number: 500-024-6
Chemical characterization: Nonylphenol polyglycol ether
Industry sector : Industrial Performance Chemicals
Type of use : Pigment preparation
Ethoxylated nonylphenol appears as colorless liquid or white solid with a mild odor.
May float or sink in water.
A low molecular-weight polymer.
Used as a non-ionic surfactant, as an emulsifier, or as a metal cleaner, depending on the degree of polymerization.
Both the chemical and processing characteristics of the Arkopal N grades depend largely on the ration of hydrophobic molecules (nonylphenol) to the hydrophilic – i.e. water solubilizing – polyglycol ether chain (number of ethylene oxide molecules).
Being nonionic, the Arkopal N grades are compatible with all other nonionic, anionic or cationic substances.
Electrolytes, for example neutral salts, alkalis and – to a lesser extent – acids, reduce the water solubility of the Arkopal N grades and may lead to their salting out, especially at high concnetrations and temperatures.
Decomposition of the products does not occur.
For solutions containing high amounts of electrolytes, Arkopal N grades with with long polyglycol ether chains may be used because, being more hydrophilic, they are not so easily salted out.
The Arkopal N grades have excellent resistance to
compounds that cause hard water, to metal salts, including those of heavy metals, acids, alkalis, reductive agents and oxidative agents based on peroxide.
With regard to oxidative agents giving off chlorine, the stability, as in the case of all polyglycol ether derivatives, is limited to the use of dilute solutions.
The preparation of highly concentrated mixtures of oxidative or reductive agents and polyglycol ether derivatives is not possible.
The solubility in water increases with the length of the polyglycol ether chain.
Arkopal N 040 is practically water insoluble.
Arkopal N 060, on the other hand, gives cloudy solutions.
The other Arkopal N grades form clear, aqueous solutions at 20°C.
Dilution of the Arkopal N grades with water initially results in a significant increase in viscosity.
With the mean ethoxylation stages (Arkopal N 080 to Arkopal N 150), this increase in viscosity leads, in certain concentration rages (45 – 70%) to the formation of fairly stiff
gels that are not readily diluted with cold water.
To avoid this gel formation, dilution and dissolving are
best carried out by stirring the Arkopal N grades into warm water.
Gel formation can also be overcome by the addition of alcohols, glycols and other solubilizing agents as well as by addition of salt.
Stable dilutions of Arkopal N 060, which gives cloudy solutions with water, cannot be prepared with water alone withless than 40% active substance.
By using solubilizing agents, for example isopropyl alcohol, glycols or suitable anionic compounds, it is, however, possible to obtain clear, stable dilutions at low concentrations.
b) In organic solvents and oils
In non-aqueous media, the solubility of the Arkopal N grades also depends on the degree of ethoxylation.
In aliphatic hydrocarbons, the solubility quickly decreases
with increasing length of the polyglycol ether chain.
In mineral oil, petrolatum and paraffinic hydrocarbons, therefore, only the slightly hydrophilic products Arkopal N 040 and Arkopal N 060 are soluble.
In aromatic hydrocarbons, in alcohols, ketons and similar polar solvents, and in chlorinated hydrocarbons all Arkopal N grades are soluble.
In contrast to the anionic compounds, the water solubility of the nonionic Arkopal N grades decreases with increasing temperature.
Aqueous solutions that are clear at room temperature become cloudy as soon as the temperature is raised to the so-called cloud point.
The cloud point increases with the length of the polyglycol ether chain and with the different Arkopal N grades.
Products with a high degree of ethoxylation,
Nonylphenol polyglycol ether
(x = number of added-on molecules of ethylene oxide)
The first two digits indicate the approximate number of molecules of ethylene oxide forming the hydrophilic polyglcol ether chains.
The third digit indicates the concentration of the products (o = approx. 100 % active ingredient).
Arkopal N 070 can be stored for at least to 2 years in original sealed containers at room temperature under the recommended conditions.
Protect from exposure to cold during transport and storage.
The properties of Arkopal N 070 are reversibly altered by exposure to cold.
If Arkopal N 070 becomes to cold, thaw slowly at room temperature and afterwards stir briefly.
Polyethylene Glycol Mono-4-nonylphenyl Ether
4-Nonyl Phenol Diethoxylate
Polyethylene glycol mono-4-nonylphenyl ether (n~2)
Polyethylene glycol mono-4-nonylphenyl ether (n~20)
4-n-Nonylphenol-di-ethoxylate 100 microg/mL in Acetonitrile