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CAS Number: 9016-45-9 
Chemical Formula: C17H30D2O2 
Molecular Weight: 270.447

ARKOPAL N 090 is a nonionic surfactant for the chemical industry. 
ARKOPAL N 090 is a nonylphenolpolyglycolether with 9 Mol EO. 
ARKOPAL N 090 is most suitable for aromatic hydrocarbons.

Structure of ARKOPAL N 090:
The first two digits indicate the approximate number of molecules of ethylene oxide forming the hydrophilic polyglycolether chains. 
The third digit indicates the concentration of the products (0 = approximately 100 % active ingredient).

Characteristics of ARKOPAL N 090:
Both the physico-chemical and processing characteristics of the ARKOPAL N grades depend largely on the ratio of hydrophobic molecules (nonylphenol) to the hydrophilic – i.e. water solubilizing – polyglycolether chain (number of ethylene oxide molecules).

Compatibility of ARKOPAL N 090:
Being nonionic, the ARKOPAL N grades are compatible with all other nonionic, anionic or cationic substances.
Electrolytes, for example neutral salts, alkalis and – to a lesser extent – acids, reduce the water solubility of the ARKOPAL N grades and may lead to their salting out, especially at high concentrations and temperatures. 

Decomposition of the products does not occur. 
For solutions containing high amounts of electrolytes, ARKOPAL N grades with long polyglycolether chains may be used since, being more hydrophilic, they are not so easily salted out.

Stability of ARKOPAL N 090:
The ARKOPAL N grades have excellent resistance to compounds that cause hard water, to metal salts, including those of heavy metals, acids, alkalis, reductive agents and oxidative agents based on peroxide. 
With regard to oxidative agents giving off chlorine, the stability, as in the case of all polyglycolether derivatives, is limited to the use of dilute solutions. 
The preparation of highly concentrated mixtures of oxidative or reductive agents and polyglycolether derivatives is not possible.

Solubility of ARKOPAL N 090:

In water:
The solubility in water increases with the length of the polyglycolether chain. 
ARKOPAL N 040 is practically water insoluble. 

ARKOPAL N 060, on the other hand, gives cloudy solutions. 
The other ARKOPAL N grades form clear, aqueous solutions at 20 °C.

Dilution of the ARKOPAL N grades with water initially results in a significant increase in viscosity. 
With the mean ethoxilation stages (ARKOPAL N 080 to ARKOPAL N 150), this increase in viscosity leads, in certain concentration ranges (45-70 %) to the formation of fairly stiff gels that are not readily diluted with cold water. 
To avoid this gel formation, dilution and dissolving are best carried out by stirring the ARKOPAL N grades into warm or hot water.

Gel formation can also be overcome by the addition of alcohols, glycols and other solubilizing agents as well as by additions of salt.
Stable dilutions of ARKOPAL N 060, which gives cloudy solutions with water, cannot be prepared with water alone with less than 40 % active substance. 
By using solubilizing agents, for example isopropyl alcohol, glycols or suitable anionic compounds, HASTACERIN is possible to obtain clear, stable dilutions at low concentrations.

In organic solvents and oils:
In non-aqueous media, the solubility of the ARKOPAL N grades also depends on the degree of ethoxilation. 
In aliphatic hydrocarbons, the solubility quickly decreases with increasing length of the polyglycolether chain. 

In mineral oil, petroleum and paraffinic hydrocarbons, therefore, only the slightly hydrophilic products ARKOPAL N 040 and ARKOPAL N 060 are soluble.
In aromatic hydrocarbons, in alcohols, ketones and similar polar solvents, and in chlorinated hydrocarbons all ARKOPAL N grades are soluble. 

Physico-chemical Data of ARKOPAL N 090:

Cloud point of ARKOPAL N 090:
In contrast to the anionic compounds, the water solubility of the nonionic ARKOPAL N grades decreases with increasing temperature. 
Aqueous solutions that are clear at room temperature become cloudy as soon as the temperature is raised to the so-called cloud point.
The cloud point increases with the length of the polyglycolether chain and with the different ARKOPAL N grades. 

Products with a high degree of ethoxilation, such as ARKOPAL N 230 and ARKOPAL N 300 do not show a cloud point in water up to boiling point. 
By the addition of salts, such as sodium chloride, HOSTACERIN is possible to depress the cloud point so that HASTACERIN determination is possible.

Clouding is a reversible physical process.
The solutions clear as they cool. 

The action of the ARKOPAL N grades is not adversely influenced, with a few exceptions, by the cloud point. 
They can, therefore, in most cases be used even at temperatures above cloud point. 

The cloud point is determined in water, 25 % aqueous butyldiglycol solution and in 10 % sodium chloride solution. 
Butyldiglycol serves as solubilizer and permits the determination of cloud points of products with low degree of ethoxilation which are either insoluble in water or give cloudy solutions.

Surface-active characteristics of ARKOPAL N 090:
Like solubility, surface-active characteristics vary with the degree of ethoxilation.

Surface tension:
The maximum reduction in surface tension is achieved with ARKOPAL N 060. As the degree of ethoxilation increases, so the action on the surface tension of water is reduced.

Dispersing action:
The values for lime-soap dispersion power established according to DIN 53903 indicate the excellent dispersing action of the ARKOPAL N grades. 
They have, however, only limited application for other materials to be dispersed.

Wetting action:
The wetting action of the ARKOPAL N grades also greatly depends on the degree of ethoxilation. 
The most effective grades are ARKOPAL N 090 and ARKOPAL N 100.

Foaming power:
Being ethylene oxide derivatives, the ARKOPAL N grades are characterized by moderate to low foaming action. 
Their foaming increases with the degree of ethoxilation but at no time reaches the foaming of other anionic compounds such as the alkylsulphates, alkylarylsulfonates etc. 

Emulsifying action:
The excellent emulsifying action of a number of ARKOPAL N grades allows the preparation of stable emulsions. 
The selection of the most suitable degree of ethoxilation depends on the type of oil or organic solvent to be emulsified and on any other components that may be dissolved in the oil or solvent.

The following ARKOPAL N grades are the most suitable for the various oils and solvents:
ARKOPAL N 040 to ARKOPAL N 060 for mineral oils, petroleum and similar aliphatic hydrocarbons.
ARKOPAL N 080 to ARKOPAL N 130 for aromatic hydrocarbons.

ARKOPAL N 090 to ARKOPAL N 150 for chlorinated hydrocarbons.
ARKOPAL N 230 and ARKOPAL N 300 for fatty acids (olein) and waxes.

By combining various ARKOPAL N grades, emulsifier mixtures for particular conditions can easily be prepared. 
Mixtures of products whose degrees of ethoxilation vary greatly are frequently particularly effective. 
Combinations with  anionic or cationic products are also possible and are of advantage in many cases. 

Properties of ARKOPAL N 090:
Active substance content: about 100 %
Appearance at 20 °C: viscous, slightly yellow liquid
pH value (DIN EN 1262), 1 % in water: about 6 – 8
Solubility at 20 °C in water: clear
Density (DIN 51757) at 50 °C: about 1.0 – 1.1 g/cm³
Viscosity (DIN 53015) at 50 °C: about 65 mPas
Cloud point (EN 1890): about 52 – 54 °C (1 % in water)
Melting point: about 7°C
Flash point (DIN/ISO 2592): > 250 °C
Lime -soap dispersion action (DIN 53903): 3-4 %
Surface tension (DIN 53914) at 20 °C: 30.2 mN/m (1 g/l)
Composition: Nonylphenolpolyglycolether with 9 Mol EO

Further ARKOPAL N grades:

Other Products:
ARKOPAL N 040: Nonylphenol ethoxylate with 4 EO About 100 % Liquid  36 – 38 (2)
ARKOPAL N 060: Nonylphenol ethoxylate with 6 EO About 100 % Liquid  61 – 63 (2)
ARKOPAL N 080: Nonylphenol ethoxylate with 8 EO About 100 % Liquid  32 – 34 (1)
ARKOPAL N 090: Nonylphenol ethoxylate with 9 EO About 100 % Liquid  52 – 54 (1)     
ARKOPAL N 100: Nonylphenol ethoxylate with 10 EO About 100 % Liquid  62 – 65 (1)     
ARKOPAL N 130: Nonylphenol ethoxylate with 13 EO About 100 % Liquid paste  83 – 86 (1)
ARKOPAL N 150: Nonylphenol ethoxylate with 15 EO About 100 % Pasty  92 – 95 (1)
ARKOPAL N 208: Nonylphenol ethoxylate with 20 EO About 80 % Liquid  70 – 73 (3)     
ARKOPAL N 238: Nonylphenol ethoxylate with 23 EO About 80 % Liquid  73 – 75 (3)     
ARKOPAL N 300: Nonylphenol ethoxylate with 30 EO About 100 % Waxy  76 – 78 (3)     
ARKOPAL N 307: Nonylphenol ethoxylate with 30 EO About 70 % Liquid  76 – 78 (3)     
ARKOPAL N 308: Nonylphenol ethoxylate with 30 EO About 80 % Waxy  76 – 78 (3)
ARKOPAL N 407: Nonylphenol ethoxylate with 40 EO –

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