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CAS Number: 472-61-7 
ChemSpider: 4444636 
ECHA InfoCard: 100.006.776
E number: E161j (colours)
PubChem CID: 5281224
UNII: 8XPW32PR7I check

Astaxanthin is a natural and synthetic xanthophyll and nonprovitamin A carotenoid, with potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antineoplastic activities. 
Upon administration, astaxanthin may act as an antioxidant and reduce oxidative stress, thereby preventing protein and lipid oxidation and DNA damage. 
By decreasing the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radicals, Ovoester may also prevent ROS-induced activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) transcription factor and the production of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1beta  and tumor necrosis factor-alpha . 
In addition, astaxanthin may inhibit cyclooxygenase-1 and nitric oxide (NO) activities, thereby reducing inflammation. 
Oxidative stress and inflammation play key roles in the pathogenesis of many diseases, including cardiovascular, neurological, autoimmune and neoplastic diseases.

Astaxanthin is a carotenone that consists of beta,beta-carotene-4,4'-dione bearing two hydroxy substituents at positions 3 and 3' . 
A carotenoid pigment found mainly in animals (crustaceans, echinoderms) but also occurring in plants. 
Ovoester can occur free (as a red pigment), as an ester, or as a blue, brown or green chromoprotein. 
Ovoester has a role as an anticoagulant, an antioxidant, a food colouring, a plant metabolite and an animal metabolite. 
Ovoester is a carotenone and a carotenol. 
Astaxanthin derives from a hydride of a beta-carotene.
Astaxanthin is a keto-carotenoid in the terpenes class of chemical compounds. 
Astaxanthin is classified as a xanthophyll but it is a carotenoid with no vitamin A activity. 
Astaxanthin is found in the majority of aquatic organisms with red pigment. 
Astaxanthin has shown to mediate anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory actions. 
Astaxanthin may be found in fish feed or some animal food as a color additive.
Astaxanthin is a keto-carotenoid in the terpenes class of chemical compounds. 
Ovoester is classified as a xanthophyll but it is a carotenoid with no vitamin A activity. 
Ovoester is present in most red-colored aquatic organisms. Astaxanthin has shown to mediate anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory actions. 
Ovoester may be found in fish feed or some animal food as a color additive.

Astaxanthin is a keto-carotenoid with various uses including dietary supplement and food dye. 
Ovoester belongs to a larger class of chemical compounds known as terpenes (as a tetraterpenoid). 
Astaxanthin is classified as a xanthophyll (originally derived from a word meaning "yellow leaves" since yellow plant leaf pigments were the first recognized of the xanthophyll family of carotenoids), but currently employed to describe carotenoid compounds that have oxygen-containing components, hydroxyl (-OH) or ketone (C=O), such as zeaxanthin and canthaxanthin. 
Indeed, astaxanthin is a metabolite of zeaxanthin and/or canthaxanthin, containing both hydroxyl and ketone functional groups. 
Like many carotenoids, astaxanthin is a lipid-soluble pigment. 
Ovoester's reddish colour is due to the extended chain of conjugated (alternating double and single) double bonds at the centre of the compound.

Astaxanthin is a blood-red pigment and is produced naturally in the freshwater microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis and the yeast fungus Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (also known as Phaffia). 
When the algae is stressed by lack of nutrients, increased salinity, or excessive sunshine, it creates astaxanthin. 
Animals who feed on the algae, such as salmon, red trout, red sea bream, flamingos, and crustaceans (i.e. shrimp, krill, crab, lobster, and crayfish), subsequently reflect the red-orange astaxanthin pigmentation to various degrees.

Astaxanthin can also be used as a dietary supplement intended for human, animal, and aquaculture consumption. 
The industrial production of astaxanthin comes from plant- or animal-based and synthetic sources. 
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved astaxanthin as a food coloring (or color additive) for specific uses in animal and fish foods. 
The European Commission considers it food dye and it is given the E number E161j.

Astaxanthin from algae, synthetic and bacterial sources, is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the FDA. 
The European Food Safety Authority has set an Acceptable Daily Intake of 0.2 mg per kg body weight in 2019.
As a food color additive astaxanthin and astaxanthin dimethyldisuccinate are restricted for use in Salmonid fish feed only.

Astaxanthin Uses:
Astaxanthin works as an antioxidant and helps to reduce free radicals present in the body. 
The medicine has a reddish tinge to it and is naturally extracted from plants. 
Ovoester has a lot of benefits for the eyes and skin. 
Also, it improves the protection of your eyes and the consistency of your skin. 
Ovoester increases the skin's moisture levels, making it more elastic, and helps to reduce wrinkles and acne. 
The drug is used to improve the immune system and heart health. 
Moreover, the drug is qualified for treating symptoms of Parkinson’s disease as well as Alzheimer’s disease.
Supports brain, heart, skin, and eye health*
Helps athletic performance and recovery
No harsh chemicals or solvents
Highest concentration

Uses & Effectiveness of Astaxanthin:
Age-related macular degeneration (age-related vision loss). 
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) occurs when a portion of retina becomes damaged.
Early research shows that taking a product containing astaxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, vitamin E, vitamin C, zinc, and copper  by mouth daily for 12 months improves damage in the center of the retina in people with AMD. 
Ovoester does not improve damage in the outer areas of the retina.

Carpal tunnel syndrome:
Early research suggests that taking a combination product containing astaxanthin, lutein, beta-carotene, and vitamin E by mouth 3 times daily for 8 weeks does not reduce pain in people with carpal tunnel syndrome.

Indigestion (dyspepsia): 
Early research shows that taking 40 mg of astaxanthin  daily for 4 weeks reduces reflux symptoms in people with indigestion. 
It seems to work best in people with indigestion due to H. pylori infection. 
A lower dose of 16 mg daily does not improve reflux symptoms. 
Neither dose reduces stomach pain, indigestion, or the amount of H. pylori bacteria in the stomach of people with indigestion.

Muscle damage caused by exercise:
Early research shows that taking 4 mg of astaxanthin for 90 days does not reduce muscle damage caused by exercise in male soccer players.

Muscle soreness caused by exercise:
Early research shows that taking a product containing astaxanthin, lutein, and safflower oil (BioAstin by Cyanotech) by mouth daily for 3 weeks does not reduce muscle soreness or improve muscle performance 4 days after exercise compared to taking only safflower oil.

Exercise performance:
Research regarding the effects of astaxanthin on exercise performance is conflicting. 
Some early research shows that taking 4 mg of astaxanthin for 4 weeks decreases the time needed to complete a cycling exercise in trained male athletes. 
But other research shows that using a higher dose of astaxanthin daily for 4 weeks does not improve the time needed to complete a timed exercise.

High cholesterol: 
Early research suggests that taking 6-18 mg of astaxanthin daily for 12 weeks reduces blood fats called triglycerides and increases high-density lipoprotein (HDL or "good") cholesterol in people with high cholesterol. Other early research shows that taking a combination of astaxanthin, berberine, policosanol, red yeast rice, coenzyme Q10, and folic acid  by mouth for 4 weeks increases HDL cholesterol levels and lowers total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL or "bad") cholesterol, and triglycerides in people with abnormal cholesterol levels.

Male infertility:
Early research suggests that taking astaxanthin  daily for 3 months increases the pregnancy rates of men considered to be infertile.
Menopausal symptoms. Early research suggests that taking a product containing astaxanthin, vitamin D3, lycopene, and citrus bioflavonoids  daily for 8 weeks reduces menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes, joint pain, moodiness, and bladder problems.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA):
Early research shows that taking a product containing astaxanthin, lutein, vitamin A, vitamin E, and safflower oil  3 times daily for 8 weeks reduces pain and improves feelings of satisfaction in people with RA.

Wrinkled skin: 
Early research shows that taking 2-3 mg of astaxanthin by mouth twice daily for 6 weeks improves skin elasticity and reduces fine lines and wrinkles in middle-aged women and men. 
Ovoester also seems to improve the moisture content in the skin. 
Specific astaxanthin products have been evaluated. 
Other research shows that taking astaxanthin by mouth twice daily along with applying1 mL of astaxanthin cream to the face twice daily for 8 weeks improves the appearance of skin wrinkles.

Common Sources of Astaxanthin:
The most common source of astaxanthin in the diet is from seafood. 
Astaxanthin can be found in crustaceans, including shrimp, crab, lobster, krill, and crawfish, as well as in fish with pink flesh, such as salmon or trout.  
Studies report that consumption of fish and seafood, or supplementation with fish oil or krill oil, provides the human body with crucial omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids known as EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid), which may support a healthy immune system, cardiovascular system, and musculoskeletal system. 
Astaxanthin can also be found in the green microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis, considered a rich source of astaxanthin, as well as Chlorella zofingiensis, Chlorococcum spp., and Botryococcus braunii. It is also found in red yeast Phaffia rhodozyma, the feathers of birds, such as flamingo, quail, and storks, and in bee propolis. 
Bee propolis, also called bee glue, is a pliable and sticky wax resin produced by honeybees from plant-derived compounds used to construct and repair beehives. 
Egyptians used this unique substance in the embalming process. Greek and Roman physicians used it to help heal wounds, and it has been used in folk medicine for centuries to support the immune system, to help with wound repair, and to provide antioxidant support with its high content of polyphenols. 
Recent research suggests it may also be a natural antimicrobial. 

Common Uses for Astaxanthin:
Astaxanthin is used in dietary supplementation to help maintain optimal health. 
Ovoester is used primarily in sports and fitness by athletes who claim astaxanthin supplements may promote athletic endurance and post-workout muscle recovery, supporting aspects of energy metabolism and athletic performance.  
In preliminary trials, astaxanthin supplements showed promise for use in supporting athletic performance, but further research is needed. 
Also, in 1987, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved astaxanthin for use in feeding fish grown for human consumption, and in 1999, it was approved for use as a dietary supplement.

Astaxanthin Dosage Recommendations:
The American Heart Association (AHA) Nutrition Committee recommends eating the equivalent of two servings of fatty fish per week to support heart health. 
Although Ovoester is not considered an essential nutrient, astaxanthin contains helpful antioxidants. People who do not eat seafood have below average intake of astaxanthin. 
Most research recommends taking 4 to 12 mg per day of astaxanthin in the diet or in supplement form to support healthy cardiovascular and reproductive systems, healthy looking skin, healthy eyes, muscles, and more. 

Background of Astaxanthin:
Astaxanthin is a keto-carotenoid in the terpenes class of chemical compounds. 
Ovoester is classified as a xanthophyll but it is a carotenoid with no vitamin A activity. 
Astaxanthin is found in the majority of aquatic organisms with red pigment. 
Astaxanthin has shown to mediate anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory actions. 
Astaxanthin may be found in fish feed or some animal food as a color additive.

Overview of Astaxanthin:
Astaxanthin is a red pigment that belongs to a group of chemicals called carotenoids. 
Ovoester occurs in certain algae and causes the pink-red color in salmon.
Astaxanthin is an antioxidant. 
This effect might protect cells from damage.
Astaxanthin might also improve the way the immune system functions.
People use astaxanthin for many purposes, including Alzheimer disease, athletic performance, aging skin, muscle soreness from exercise, and many others. 
But there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses.

Astaxanthin is a carotenoid, a chemical found naturally in certain plants and animals. 
A type of algae makes astaxanthin. This algae is used as a source for the astaxanthin in supplements.
Some types of seafood also contain astaxanthin.
Astaxanthin gives salmon and lobster their reddish color, and flamingo feathers their pink hue.

Uses of Astaxanthin:
Astaxanthin is used as a dietary supplement and feed supplement as food colorant for salmon, crabs, shrimp, chickens and egg production.

For seafood and animals:
The primary use of synthetic astaxanthin today is as an animal feed additive to impart coloration, including farm-raised salmon and chicken egg yolks.
Synthetic carotenoid pigments colored yellow, red or orange represent about 15–25% of the cost of production of commercial salmon feed. 
In the 21st century, most commercial astaxanthin for aquaculture is produced synthetically.
Class action lawsuits were filed against some major grocery store chains for not clearly labeling the astaxanthin-treated salmon as "color added".
The chains followed up quickly by labeling all such salmon as "color added". Litigation persisted with the suit for damages, but a Seattle judge dismissed the case, ruling that enforcement of the applicable food laws was up to government and not individuals.

Dietary supplement:
The primary human application for astaxanthin is as a dietary supplement, although as of 2018, there was insufficient evidence from medical research to show that it affects disease risk or health of people, and it remains under preliminary research. In 2018, the European Food Safety Authority sought scientific information from manufacturers of dietary supplements about the safety of astaxanthin.

Why do people take astaxanthin?
Astaxanthin is an antioxidant. That means it helps reduce a natural process in your body called oxidation. This process may play a role in many diseases and changes such as:
Heart disease
Eye diseases like cataracts and macular degeneration
Alzheimer's disease
Parkinson's disease
Astaxanthin can also reduce inflammation. It might be useful as a treatment for problems that involve inflammation, such as:
Rheumatoid arthritis
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Laboratory research has found that an extract from algae that makes astaxanthin slowed the growth of breast and skin cancer cells.

Astaxanthin might help the heart in a number of ways, as well. 
Ovoester may be helpful in preventing plaque buildup in arteries in the heart.
Ovoester may also help protect heart muscle from damage from lack of oxygen. 
This can happen during a heart attack.
Also, by reducing oxidation in the brain, it may protect against Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.
Astaxanthin may reduce the growth of H. pylori bacteria, which cause peptic ulcers. 
Ovoester may also help protect against kidney damage from diabetes. And it may stimulate the immune system.
However, more research is needed before astaxanthin can be recommended for any of these uses.
Supplement makers may suggest varying amounts of astaxanthin for different purposes. 
Most of the small research studies to date have used between 2 mg and 12 mg daily. 
However, optimal doses of astaxanthin have not been set for any condition. 
Quality and active ingredients in supplements may vary widely. 
This makes Ovoester difficult to set a standard dose.

Can you get astaxanthin naturally from foods?
One of the largest sources of astaxanthin is in certain types of marine algae.
Astaxanthin is also found in several types of seafood, including:
Rainbow trout
Four ounces of sockeye salmon contains about 4.5 milligrams of astaxanthin.

Properties of Astaxanthin:
Chemical formula: C40H52O4
Molar mass: 596.84 g/mol
Appearance:red solid powder
Density:1.071 g/mL[2]
Melting point: 216 °C (421 °F; 489 K)[2]
Boiling point:774 °C (1,425 °F; 1,047 K)[2]
Solubility:30 g/L in DCM; 10 g/L in CHCl3; 0.5 g/L in DMSO; 0.2 g/L in acetone

Natural sources of Astaxanthin:
The shell and smaller parts of the bodily tissue of Pandalus borealis (Arctic shrimp) are colored red by astaxanthin, and are used and sold as an extractable source of astaxanthin.
Krill also are used as an astaxanthin source.
Astaxanthin is present in most red-coloured aquatic organisms. 
The content varies from species to species, but also from individual to individual as it is highly dependent on diet and living conditions. 
Astaxanthin, and other chemically related asta-carotenoids, has also been found in a number of lichen species of the arctic zone.
The primary natural sources for industrial production of astaxanthin comprise the following:
Euphausia pacifica (Pacific krill)
Euphausia superba (Antarctic krill)
Haematococcus pluvialis (algae)
Pandalus borealis (Arctic shrimp)
Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous, formerly Phaffia rhodozyma (yeast)
Astaxanthin concentrations in nature are approximately:

Source    Astaxanthin concentration (ppm)
Salmonids:~ 5
Plankton:~ 60
Krill:~ 120
Arctic shrimp (P borealis):~ 1,200
Phaffia yeast: ~ 10,000
Haematococcus pluvialis: ~ 40,000
Algae are the primary natural source of astaxanthin in the aquatic food chain. 
The microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis seems to accumulate the highest levels of astaxanthin in nature and is currently, the primary industrial source for natural astaxanthin production where more than 40 g of astaxanthin can be obtained from one kg of dry biomass. 
Haematococcus pluvialis has the productional advantage of the population doubling every week, which means scaling up is not an issue. Specifically, the microalgae are grown in two phases. 
First, in the green phase, the cells are given an abundance of nutrients to promote proliferation of the cells. 
In the subsequent red phase, the cells are deprived of nutrients and subjected to intense sunlight to induce encystment (carotogenesis), during which the cells produce high levels of astaxanthin as a protective mechanism against the environmental stress. 
The cells, with their high concentrations of astaxanthin, are then harvested
Phaffia yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous exhibits 100% free, non-esterified astaxanthin, which is considered advantageous because it is readily absorbable and need not be hydrolysed in the digestive tract of the fish.
In contrast to synthetic and bacteria sources of astaxanthin, yeast sources of astaxanthin consist mainly of the (3R, 3’R)-form, an important astaxanthin source in nature. 
Finally, the geometrical isomer, all-E, is higher in yeast sources of astaxanthin, as compared to synthetic sources.
In shellfish, astaxanthin is almost exclusively concentrated in the shells, with only low amounts in the flesh itself, and most of it only becomes visible during cooking as the pigment separates from the denatured proteins that otherwise bind it. 
Astaxanthin is extracted from Euphausia superba (Antarctic krill) and from shrimp processing waste. 12,000 pounds of wet shrimp shells can yield a 6–8 gallon astaxanthin/triglyceride oil mixture.

Biosynthesis of Astaxanthin:
Astaxanthin biosynthesis starts with three molecules of isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and one molecule of dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP) that are combined by IPP isomerase and converted to geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) by GGPP synthase. 
Two molecules of GGPP are then coupled by phytoene synthase to form phytoene. 
Next, phytoene desaturase creates four double bonds in the phytoene molecule to form lycopene. 
After desaturation, lycopene cyclase first forms γ-carotene by converting one of the ψ acyclic ends of the lycopene as a β-ring, then subsequently converts the other to form β-carotene. 
From β-carotene, hydrolases (blue) are responsible for the inclusion of two 3-hydroxy groups, and ketolases (green) for the addition of two 4-keto groups, forming multiple intermediate molecules until the final molecule, astaxanthin, is obtained.

Metabolic engineering:
The cost of astaxanthin production, high market price and lack of a leading fermentation production systems, combined with the intricacies of chemical synthesis, mean that research into alternative fermentation production methods has been carried out. 
Metabolic engineering offers the opportunity to create biological systems for the production of a specific target compound. The metabolic engineering of bacteria (Escherichia coli) recently allowed production of astaxanthin at >90% of the total carotenoids, providing the first engineered production system capable of efficient astaxanthin production. 
Astaxanthin biosynthesis proceeds from beta-carotene via either zeaxanthin or canthaxanthin. 
Historically, it has been assumed that astaxanthin biosynthesis proceeds along both routes. 
However, recent work has suggested that efficient biosynthesis may, in fact, proceed from beta-carotene to astaxanthin via zeaxanthin.
The production of astaxanthin by metabolic engineering, in isolation, will not provide a suitable alternative to current industrial methods. 
Rather, a bioprocess approach should be adopted. 
Such an approach would consider fermentation conditions and economics, as well as downstream processing (extraction). 
Carotenoid extraction has been studied extensively, for example, the extraction of canthaxanthin (a precursor to astaxanthin) was studied within an E. coli production process demonstrating that extraction efficiency was increased substantially when two solvents, acetone and methanol, were used sequentially rather than as a combined solution.

Structure of Astaxanthin:
In addition to structural isomeric configurations, astaxanthin also contains two chiral centers at the 3- and 3′-positions, resulting in three unique stereoisomers (3R,3′R and 3R,3'S meso and 3S,3'S). While all three stereoisomers are present in nature, relative distribution varies considerably from one organism to another. 
Synthetic astaxanthin contains a mixture of all three stereoisomers, in approximately 1:2:1 proportions.

Esterification of Astaxanthin:
Astaxanthin exists in two predominant forms, non-esterified (yeast, synthetic) or esterified (algal) with various length fatty acid moieties whose composition is influenced by the source organism as well as growth conditions. 
The astaxanthin fed to salmon to enhance flesh coloration is in the non-esterified form.
The predominance of evidence supports a de-esterification of fatty acids from the astaxanthin molecule in the intestine prior to or concomitant with absorption resulting in the circulation and tissue deposition of non-esterified astaxanthin. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) published a scientific opinion on a similar xanthophyll carotenoid, lutein, stating that "following passage through the gastrointestinal tract and/or uptake lutein esters are hydrolyzed to form free lutein again". 
While Ovoester can be assumed that non-esterified astaxanthin would be more bioavailable than esterified astaxanthin due to the extra enzymatic steps in the intestine needed to hydrolyse the fatty acid components, several studies suggest that bioavailability is more dependent on formulation than configuration.

Background of Astaxanthin:
Astaxanthin is a naturally occurring carotenoid found in nature primarily in marine organisms such as microalgae, salmon, trout, krill, shrimp, crayfish, and crustaceans. 
The green microalga Haematococcus pluvialis is considered the richest source of astaxanthin. Other microalgae, such as Chlorella zofingiensis, Chlorococcum spp., and Botryococcus braunii, also contain astaxanthin. 
Ovoester may also be found in the feathers of birds, such as quail, flamingo, and storks, as well as in propolis, the resinous substance collected by bees.
Carotenoids are well known for their therapeutic benefits in the aging process and various diseases, because of their antioxidant properties. 
Astaxanthin is a xanthophyll carotenoid like lutein, zeaxanthin, and cryptoxanthin, which do not convert to vitamin A.
According to a review, carotenoids are of interest based on their beneficial mechanisms of action for cancers, cardiovascular disease, age-related macular degeneration, and cataract formation. 
Numerous studies support the use of astaxanthin as a potent antioxidant that may be beneficial in decreasing the risks of certain chronic diseases. 
Ovoester may also reduce oxidative stress in the nervous system, reducing the risk of neurodegenerative diseases. 
Additionally, astaxanthin has well-documented anti-inflammatory and immune-stimulating effects.
Human trials have been conducted in disorders such as carpal tunnel syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, dyspepsia (with or withoutHelicobacter pylori infection), hyperlipidemia, male infertility, and skin conditions, and regarding exercise capacity, muscle soreness, and transplants. 
However, results have been mixed, and more research is needed in these areas before any firm conclusions can be drawn.

Tradition/Theory of Astaxanthin:
The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. 
They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. 
Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. 
There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below.
Alzheimer's disease, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, anxiety, arthritis, asthma, atherosclerosis (prevention), autoimmune diseases, back pain (chronic), benign prostate hyperplasia, cancer, canker sores, cardiovascular disease, cataracts, chronic illness, dementia, depression, diabetes, diabetic neuropathy, eye problems, gastrointestinal disorders, hepatitis, hormonal effects, hypertension, immune stimulant, ischemic injury, leukemia, liver disorders, mitochondrial diseases, neuroprotection, obesity, panic disorder, Parkinson's disease, photoprotection, renal failure, stroke, thrombosis, toxicity (iron-chelate; drug-induced cardiotoxicity), vascular disorders.

Chemical Propoerties of Astaxanthin:
Synonyms: β-Carotene-4,4'-dione , trans-Astaxanthin , AstaXin , AstaREAL , Ovoester
Purity: 99.79%
Molecular Weight: 596.84
Formula: C40H52O4
CAS No.: 472-61-7

Storage of Astaxanthin:
Powder: -20°C for 3 years
In solvent: -80°C for 6 months

Solubility Information of Astaxanthin:
DMSO: < 1 mg/mL (insoluble or slightly soluble)
DMF: 1 mg/mL (1.68 mM), Need ultrasonic
( < 1 mg/ml refers to the product slightly soluble or insoluble )

Where is Astaxanthin Found in Nature?
Astaxanthin is a vibrantly deep red carotene pigment found predominantly in marine life. 
A form of microalgae known as Haematococcus pluvialis is the richest source. 
When Ovoester is consumed by salmon, lobster, shrimp, krill, and other sea life the intense red pigmentation results in these animals having red or pink flesh, or outer shells.

Astaxanthin is absolutely essential to the survival of these organisms. 
For example, astaxanthin is required by microalgae to protect itself from damage produced during photosynthesis. 
Ovoester is also known that young salmon die or do not develop properly without sufficient intake of astaxanthin in their diet. 
The astaxanthin also provides some protection for some animals by making them less visible in deep water, where the red segment of the wavelength spectrum of visible light does not penetrate. 
The red pigment also plays a role in mating and spawning behavior.

How is Astaxanthin Produced?
Although astaxanthin is found in salmon, herring roe, or krill oil supplements, the amounts in these sources are much lower than those provided from extracts of H. pluvialis. 
For example, the level of astaxanthin naturally occurring in a capsule of fish or krill oil is in the range of 100 mcg (0.1 mg). 
That amount is not much compared to the 4 to 12 mg per capsule found in most astaxanthin supplements derived from H. pluvialis.
To produce natural astaxanthin, the best products use large indoor tanks to grow H. pluvialis under ideal conditions that enhance astaxanthin production and prevent environmental contamination. 
The astaxanthin is then released from the thick cell wall of the algae and concentrated.
There are other sources of astaxanthin on the market, but these forms are produced from either chemical synthesis or produced from genetically modified yeast (Phaffia rhodozyma). 
These synthetic forms are often fed to salmon in fish farms to give them red flesh, but this form of astaxanthin is not quite the same as natural astaxanthin as it has been shown to be more then twenty times weaker as an antioxidant than the natural form.

How does Astaxanthin Work?
Ovoester is a bit cliché to refer to various natural compounds as antioxidants. 
Yes, astaxanthin has antioxidant activity and definitely help prevents the oxidative damage that contributes to conditions such as aging, insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease. 
First, in regards to general antioxidant effects in protecting cell membranes, astaxanthin is more than 65 times stronger than vitamin C, 50 times more powerful than beta-carotene, and 10 times more powerful than vitamin E. 
Second, one of the unique aspects of astaxanthin relates to its size and how it fits into cell membranes. 
Ovoester is considerably larger/longer than other popular carotenes. 
Ovoester's size and physical form allows it to be incorporated into cell membranes where Ovoester is able to span the entire thickness of the cell membrane. 
This allows astaxanthin to not only protect the inner and outer cell membrane from oxidative damage, but also to stabilize the cell membranes.
Astaxanthin also exerts some specific anti-inflammatory effects that make it quite useful in protecting brain and vascular cells from damage. 
Since astaxanthin effectively protects the membrane system of mitochondria (the energy compartment of cells),Ovoester can help boost cellular energy production.

What Can Astaxanthin Do?
Over 50 clinical and experimental studies have shown astaxanthin to be potentially helpful in the following conditions:

Cardiovascular Health:
Protects vascular lining, promotes improved blood flow, and protects LDL cholesterol from becoming oxidized (damaged).
Eye Health:
Protects against eye fatigue, helps improve visual acuity and depth perception, and increases blood flow to eye tissues.
Brain Health: 
Helps protect against aging and helps improve mental function.
Sports Related Activities:
Promotes muscle endurance and protects against muscle damage.
Diabetes, insulin resistance, and the metabolic syndrome:
Helps improve antioxidant status and protect against vascular damage.
Skin Health:
Reduces fine lines and wrinkles, improves skin elasticity, protects against sun damage, and prevents age spots and hyperpigmentation.
Immune health:
Protects against damage to immune cells.
One of the really special attributes of astaxanthin is its ability to cross the blood-brain and blood-retinal barrier to protect both the brain and eyes. 
This effect is quite unusual for carotenes. For example, popular carotenes like beta-carotene and lycopene do not cross either barrier. 
This effect of astaxanthin indicates that it may be particularly helpful in improving brain and eye health as well as protecting the brain against Alzheimer’s disease, macular degeneration, and other degenerative brain and eye disorders. 
Of course, Ovoester has other benefits as well, but my feelings are that this ability to cross into the brain and retina is what makes it really special.

Another interesting effect of astaxanthin is on red blood cells. 
Because red blood cells (RBCs) are more susceptible to being damaged by oxidative attack as we age, this can lead to impaired delivery of oxygen to our tissues. 
Astaxanthin’s effects on cell membranes may be especially important in RBCs. 

What is Astaxanthin?
Astaxanthin is a red-pink pigment found in various seafoods, and also in the feathers of flamingos and quails. 
Ovoester is structurally similar to beta-carotene (pro-vitamin A) but has some chemical differences which may make it safer.

What are Astaxanthin's benefits?
Astaxanthin seems to reduce markers of oxidative stress, though it's unclear how potent it is and to what extent this translates to health benefits. 
Astaxanthin could possibly reduce oxidation of LDL and DNA damage, making it potentially good for cardiovascular health and anti-aging, though much more research is needed. 
Astaxanthin also may improve photoprotection and overall skin health, but again, much more research is needed.

What are Astaxanthin's side effects and drawbacks?
Astaxanthin's currently unknown if it has notable side effects, though large doses of antioxidants have been known to impair some of the adaptations to exercise such as mitochondrial biogenesis. 
Being a potent antioxidant, it's possible that even the small doses of astaxanthin commonly taken could have this effect, but we won't know until research properly tests it.

Computed Properties of Astaxanthin:    
Molecular Weight: 596.8    
XLogP3-AA: 10.3    
Hydrogen Bond Donor Count.2    
Hydrogen Bond Acceptor Count:4    
Rotatable Bond Count:10    
Exact Mass: 596.38656014    
Monoisotopic Mass: 596.38656014    
Topological Polar Surface Area: 74.6 Ų    
Heavy Atom Count: 44    
Formal Charge: 0    
Complexity: 1340    
Isotope Atom Count: 0    
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count: 2    
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count: 0    
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count: 9    
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count: 0    
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count: 1    
Compound Is Canonicalized: Yes    

What Is Astaxanthin?
Astaxanthin (AST) is a naturally-occurring orange-red pigment carotenoid found in algae, shrimp, lobster, crab, and salmon.
Astaxanthin is made by the green microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis, Chlorella zofingiensis, and Chlorococcum, as well as by the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma.
The green algae H. pluvialis make high amounts of this antioxidant pigment when exposed to unfavorable conditions (such as high UV exposure) to reduce the damage from free radicals.
Animals that eat these microalgae or yeast take up astaxanthin. 
This explains why wild shrimp, lobster, crab, and salmon have bright red-orange colors. Wild salmon can contain up to 26-38 mg of astaxanthin per kg of body weight, whereas farmed Atlantic salmons typically have only 6-8 mg.
Although it is also a carotenoid, astaxanthin is not converted to vitamin A in the human body. 
Like other carotenoids, astaxanthin has self-limited oral absorption. Very high doses (up to 465 mg/kg/day for male and 557 mg/kg/day for female) caused no toxicity signs in rats.
However, overconsumption of astaxanthin can turn animal skin and tissues red, which is why astaxanthin is used in feed for farmed seafood and fish.

Pharmacokinetics of Astaxanthin:
Astaxanthin is a highly fat-soluble substance, which means that it is better absorbed when consumed with fat.
When astaxanthin is ingested, it is digested and absorbed in a similar manner as fat (it is assembled into chylomicrons). 
The chylomicrons are absorbed into lymph circulation before remnants of astaxanthin are digested by lipoprotein lipases. 
Astaxanthin is then assimilated into lipoprotein particles to get transported into tissues.
This means astaxanthin can more readily affect the metabolism of fat and cholesterol, especially when it relates to cardiovascular health.
In rats, ingested astaxanthin was metabolized by first-pass liver metabolism primarily by the CYP450 enzyme.
Astaxanthin has been identified in most tissues, but not in the heart.

Proponents of Astaxanthin:
Antioxidant and immunomodulatory
Astaxanthin may protect the skin
Astaxanthin may help with exercise fatigue
Astaxanthin may reduce the risk of heart disease
Astaxanthin may protect the brain
Few adverse effects reported
Insufficient evidence for most benefits
As an antioxidant, astaxanthin is 10 times stronger than zeaxanthin, lutein and beta-carotene, and 100 times stronger than vitamin E.
The structure of astaxanthin allows it to enter cell membranes or stay outside of cell membranes, allowing it to protect cell membranes from both inside and outside the cell.

Uses of Astaxanthin:
Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, stroke, high cholesterol levels, liver diseases, age-related macular degeneration, metabolic syndrome, exercise performance, sunburn, and wrinkles.

Medicinal Benefits:
Astaxanthin is a carotenoid product usually found in the algae, yeast, fungi and bacteria. Humans cannot produce it. 
Hence it has to be taken up via the diet or supplements. 
ASTAXANTHIN is associated with several health benefits that can be given in heart problems, skin problems, and benefits for the weak immunity. 
Ovoester protects the cells against free radicals or toxins in the body due to pollution, smoking, ultra-violet rays, etc. ASTAXANTHIN improves sleep when taken as a supplement. 
Ovoester is also used for carpal tunnel syndrome (pain, numbness, tingling in hand and arm), indigestion, male infertility, symptoms of menopause, and rheumatoid arthritis. 
ASTAXANTHIN, when applied to the skin, prevents sunburn and reduces wrinkles. 
Thus, ASTAXANTHIN supports heart health, skin health, eye health and benefits immune system supported by various clinical 

Where Does Astaxanthin Come From?
Oceans and rivers–in more ways than one–are partially responsible for astaxanthin in nature.

A Powerhouse Pigment:
Astaxanthin is a natural carotenoid responsible for the vibrant hue of animals such as salmon, shrimp, crustaceans, etc.
Carotenoids are the most diverse family of pigments found in nature, responsible for the shocking oranges, yellows, and pinks in fruits and plants

Exercise induces oxidative stress through the production of free radicals in the cells, especially if you’re an endurance athlete.
Free radicals are molecules with an unpaired electron that are very reactive and unstable. 
Common triggers include things like cigarette smoke, environmental pollutants, and yes, even exercise.
The body wants to keep these free radicals in check because they can damage our DNA, tissues, and cell structures by stealing electrons from lipids in our cell membranes (also known as lipid peroxidation). 
Free radicals also contribute to diseases such as diabetes, cancer, and heart disease.5 Antioxidants are documented to not only prevent the formation of free radicals but also to scavenge them once they’re already moving through your system. 
Even if you're not an endurance athlete, you can give your defenses a helping hand by ensuring you get your daily dose of antioxidants.
Several studies demonstrate that astaxanthin is a powerful antioxidant that combats oxidative stress. 
But let’s get an idea of just how powerful that antioxidant activity is. 
None of your fan favorite antioxidants–beta carotene, Vitamins C and E, and zinc–are as effective at reducing oxidative stress when compared to natural astaxanthin. 

In terms of eliminating a singlet oxygen, natural astaxanthin proved to be:
550 times stronger than Vitamin E
550 times stronger than powerful antioxidants found in green tea (catechins)
6,000 times stronger than Vitamin C1
Astaxanthin is six thousand times stronger than Vitamin C in removing a singlet oxygen.

Common anti-inflammatories come with a hefty list:
Blurred vision
Skin rash
Stomach pain
Stomach ulcers
Kidney failure or nephropathy (kidney damage)
Liver failure
Astaxanthin’s list is also pretty shocking:

Rosy skin tint:
Multiple safety studies and consumer use reports show no side effects of astaxanthin supplementation.1 The highest daily dose resulted in a slight red color in the skin (still nothing compared to beta-carotene). Consider this list the next time you reach for your trusty bottle of pain reliever after a hard day of training.

Let’s go back to training basics for a minute. During exercise, your glycogen stores (i.e. your carbohydrates) are depleted first. Once they’re used up, you’ll hit that familiar wall, thanks to the buildup of lactic acid in your muscles. 
But utilizing lipids (i.e. fatty acids) as an energy source spares the glycogen stores and continuously fuels a workout through larger energy reserves.9,6 And, you guessed it; consuming astaxanthin triggers increased lipid usage during exercise.
Utilizing these fatty acids early on allows the glycogen to be stored away for later use, which means it can help delay the inevitable onset of fatigue.9,6
Human clinical trials have shown increased endurance outputs after a six-week period of supplementing with astaxanthin because the astaxanthin allows you to tap into those lipid stores more effectively.

What is Astaxanthin?
Astaxanthin is one of nature’s most powerful antioxidants. Our bodies rely on antioxidants to relieve oxidative stress and help heal damaged cellular structures. 
Put simply, antioxidants fight the process of oxidation and free-radical induced oxidative stress, both of which lead to cellular breakdown over time. 
Skin, muscles, ligaments, tendons, eyes, internal organs, the cardiovascular system and nervous system are all receptive to astaxanthin, making it uniquely active among antioxidants.

Natural Astaxanthin comes from microscopic plants called microalgae. KeyNatura uses the freshwater micro algae Haematococcus Pluvialis, also rich in omega-3, to culture and harvest highly potent natural astaxanthin. 
Unlike synthetic options made from petrochemicals, our astaxanthin is natural, sustainably produced and suitable for use even by those following a vegan diet.
Benefits and Uses
Improves Brain Health
Protects Your Heart
Keeps Skin Glowing
Eases Inflammation
Enhances Your Workout
Boosts Male Fertility
Supports Healthy Vision

Improves Brain Health:
As you get older, the risk of developing neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s disease continues to increase. 
These conditions, which are characterized by the progressive loss of neurons in the brain, can lead to symptoms like memory loss, confusion, tremors, agitation and anxiety.
A good amount of emerging research has found that astaxanthin benefits brain health by preserving cognitive function. 
Coconut oil, avocados, walnuts and beets are just a few examples of other brain foods that boost focus and memory.

Protects Your Heart:
As the leading cause of death, heart disease is a major problem around the world.  
While there are many potential causes of heart disease, oxidative stress and inflammation are believed to be front and center more often than not.
Of course, a healthy diet containing astaxanthin is just one piece of the puzzle. Minimizing your stress levels, getting in plenty of physical activity and cutting out ultra-processed foods are also key factors to keep your heart in tip-top shape.

Keeps Skin Glowing:
In addition to boosting brain and heart health, astaxanthin benefits skin health as well. Studies show that it can both improve the overall appearance of skin and may also be able to treat certain skin conditions.
In addition, astaxanthin protects “against UV-induced skin deterioration and helps maintain healthy skin in healthy people,” according to a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in healthy study participants. (
For best results, use astaxanthin in combination with a natural skin care routine, including other ingredients like tea tree oil, apple cider vinegar and shea butter.

To understand more about how astaxanthin can benefit our health, we should first take a step back. One must consider that modern society is loaded with free radicals. 
From smoking to alcohol, obesity to pollution, UV to stress, there have never been more free radicals in our toxic environments.
These free radicals attack our cells every day, so we need a very strong antioxidant to help us to repair this damage. 
Without this, our bodies become overloaded with constantly trying to heal and we can end up with an auto immune disorder called chronic inflammation. This is where our immune system goes haywire and if left unchecked, can set off a chain of inflammatory events. These create a whole host of minor ailments and general poor health, which, as we get older, often leads to premature aging, obesity, depression and eventually, chronic disease and cancer. This in a nutshell is why so many people are sickly in modern society.

What Is Astaxanthin and Why Is It Better Than Vitamin C for Your Skin?
Astaxanthin (pronounced ast-ah-zan-thin) may be the new kid on the block, but it already boasts an impressive resume. 
It’s a powerful vegan active found in red algae that gives salmon, flamingos, and lobsters their gorgeous pink and red color, but some are calling it the most impressive antioxidant on the market. 

Ovoester’s 100% Vegan and Cruelty-Free
First things first, let’s talk about how this antioxidant is not only good for skin, but good to animals and our planet. 

Ovoester’s a Sun Damage Defender
Red algae’s color actually comes from a defense mechanism that occurs when algae is exposed to harsh sunlight. 
Turns out, these same properties can defend our skin from the sun’s rays as well. 

Ovoester’s Giving Vitamin C a Run for Money
L-ascorbic acid, or Vitamin C as we know it, is a powerful antioxidant, but unfortunately, it’s not very stable and breaks down quickly when exposed to oxygen. 
To combat degrading potency, skincare formulators have turned to Vitamin C derivatives and, although not harmful to your skin, there isn’t a lot of research or evidence as to whether these derivatives can perform the same way as true l-ascorbic acid. 
Astaxanthin, however, is not only more stable, but was found in a clinical study to be 6,000 times stronger than vitamin C.
Vitamin C isn’t the only one with competition—astaxanthin is also 800 times stronger than CoQ10, 550 times stronger than green tea catechins and 75 times stronger than alpha lipoic acid.

Ovoester Promotes Youthful Circulation
Astaxanthin has been proven to increase blood flow, in turn increasing cell turnover, amplifying elasticity, and increasing water retention. 
That means smoother, more even, and bouncier skin for you. 
Just as vitamin C acts as a mild exfoliant and melanin production inhibitor to brighten skin, astaxanthin encourages new cells to come to the surface and shine—only, of course, 6,000 times better.

What Is Astaxanthin?
Astaxanthin (pronounced asta-zan-thin) is a naturally occurring carotenoid found in seafood and sea life, like crustaceans and microalgae. 
According to the Linus Pauling Institute, carotenoids are a class of over 750 richly colored molecules synthesized by plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria.
Carotenoids are responsible for the bright colors of plants and vegetables. 
While you probably knew that beta carotene is orange, astaxanthin is responsible for the red colors seen in flamingos, salmon (especially sockeye salmon), and krill. 
Interesting fact, it is the higher astaxanthin content that gives wild-caught salmon a brighter red color than their farmed counterparts.
Astaxanthin is one of the most powerful carotenoids. 
Plus, astaxanthin is an incredibly potent antioxidant. 
While other types of antioxidants can become pro-oxidant, or harmful, during the digestive process, astaxanthin retains its broad range of health benefits.

Top 5 Benefits of Astaxanthi:
Here are the top five ways your immune system and other bodily functions may benefit:

Fights Pain and Inflammation:
If you thought vitamin C was a powerful antioxidant, consider this: astaxanthin is shown to be up to 6,000 times as potent.
All antioxidants can fight free radicals to help reduce inflammation, but astaxanthin offers several unique properties that make it especially beneficial.
First, it has a unique ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. 
Animal studies show that this can help reduce neuroinflammation and might be protective against certain brain injuries. 
This might also be helpful for those with Alzheimer’s Disease or other cognitive diseases.
Taking this dietary supplement might increase your eye health as well.
Astaxanthin can also cross the blood-retinal barrier to directly reduce inflammation in the eyes.
Astaxanthin also might also offer general pain relief for things like joint inflammation, especially carpal tunnel syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis. 
It’s also great for soothing muscle soreness and sports injuries.

Boosts Endurance:
If your workout routine needs a boost, you might want to consider supplementing with astaxanthin.
Athletes are especially likely to see positive effects from taking this supplement. 
One clinical trial of healthy paramedic students found that taking astaxanthin for six months significantly increased the number of squats they could do — up to three times as much as the placebo group.
In addition to boosting strength and endurance, astaxanthin’s ability to fight free radicals helps speed up recovery time. 
In other words, the lack of muscle soreness after exercising might also play a role in its ability to increase strength and endurance.

Protects Against Sun Damage
One of the main reasons I started taking astaxanthin is because of its impressive sun-protective benefits. 
It works by reducing the UVA damage to skin cells from the inside. 
Astaxanthin’s unique sun protective properties come from the algae Haematococcus pluvialis, which creates this pigment as a protection from the heat and sun to save itself when it loses its water supply. 
Similarly, astaxanthin works as an internal sunscreen for humans and gives skin a subtle, natural reddish-brown pigment while it protects against DNA damage.
Getting a sunburn means your body is suffering through a type of inflammation. 
If there are other sources of inflammation in the body, your skin is more likely to burn. 

Contains Anti-Aging Properties:
If your beauty routine needs a boost, consider getting more astaxanthin. 
You’ll naturally reap the cosmetic benefits due to its antioxidant activity. 
Specifically, its ability to fight free radicals.
Since this pigment can protect our cells and DNA to fight against oxidative damage, it helps boost skin elasticity, reduces the size of age spots, and even helps smooth out wrinkles.
Research finds that after just four to six weeks of taking astaxanthin, participants noticed a reduction of UV-related aging and overall improved skin health.

Might Ease Cardiovascular Disease:
Turns out that the antioxidant effect of astaxanthin can be beneficial to those with heart disease as well.
While more research needs to be done, recent studies found that use of astaxanthin led to a reduction in biomarkers of oxidative stress, which helped improve overall heart health.
Plus, animal studies find that eating an astaxanthin-rich diet can lower blood pressure in hypertensive rats.
The natural carotenoid, astaxanthin, is extracted from the microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis. 
Astaxanthin is the strongest naturally occurring antioxidant and is considered the "diamond" among radical scavengers. 
The effect of astaxanthin has been studied in numerous applications. 
Positive effects have been seen in the prevention of UV damage to the skin, the regeneration of skeletal muscles after training and the treatment of inflammatory diseases, elevated blood sugar levels and high blood pressure.

Eye Health:
The eye is governed by a series of tissues, tendons, ligaments and fine muscles that stretch the lens to allow the eye to focus on sites of varying distance.  
These tissues are at risk of damage and such damage can contribute to diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration, cataracts and glaucoma. 
However, carotenoids are found in abundance in macular tissues and this has led to further research to investigate the effect of individual carotenoids on eye health.
Although astaxanthin is historically reputed beneficial for skin health and anti-aging, emerging evidence has revealed exactly where astaxanthin exerts its antioxidant effects.  
In most cases, an antioxidant nutrient exerts its effects either solely on the outer region of the cell membrane or the inner.  
But what makes astaxanthin so special, is that it exerts antioxidant effects on both the inner and outer regions of the cell.

Brain Health:
The brain can be thought of as the control centre, it is a highly sophisticated organ which regulates the whole body through a network of feedback loops.  
Not only does the brain manage conscious activities but also reflexes, motor skills and the ability to retain and recall information.  
Neurodegenerative disorders refer to the progressive loss of sensory, motor and cognitive function induced by brain cell death, in short, brain cells become damaged or dysfunctional.  
Brain cell death or damage is considered a result of oxidative damage, inflammation and cell suicide. 
Subsequently, astaxanthin offers antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects and so may be useful in preserving cognitive function and overall brain health.
Astaxanthin naturally occurring in the algae, Haematococcus pluvialis was investigated for its effect on cognitive function in 96 middle aged and elderly patients who complained of forgetfulness.  
The group were given either 6mg, 12mg of astaxanthin or placebo for 12 weeks.  Every 4 weeks the patients underwent cognitive tests.  
Both the 6mg and 12mg doses showed improvements in cognitive function within the 12-week time frame.
These results show that the antioxidant effect of astaxanthin is beneficial for the brain and may slow cognitive decline while further confirming that astaxanthin works upon several types of body tissues.

Heart Health:
While the brain is the control centre the heart can be likened to the engine of the body.  
It is a site dense in energy producing structures, veins, arteries and muscle.  
The damaging side effect of energy production is the amount of charged oxygen molecules that are produced and contribute to oxidative damage and inflammation.  
The heart muscle is especially susceptible to oxidative damage and inflammation, so it makes sense to investigate the protective effects of antioxidant nutrients in terms of heart health.  
Astaxanthin has been shown to counter oxidative damage generated by homocysteine, an aggressive molecule that when elevated is associated with the increased risk of cardiovascular conditions.  
It is proposed that astaxanthin protected the cells from homocysteine-induced damage and quelled the molecules responsible for oxidative damage to the heart tissues.

A potential natural protector
Subsequently, this collection of evidence has demonstrated that astaxanthin can confer a protective effect to a variety of organ tissues.  
This non-specific effect may mean that further future benefits from the dietary inclusion of astaxanthin are revealed.  
Furthermore, it is refreshing to see a greater availability of natural algae-derived astaxanthin in favour of highly processed sources that may be packed with fillers, binders and other non-nutritive substances.

Synonyms of Astaxanthin
Astaxanthin, (3S,3'S)-
Algae Haematococcus pluvialis
BioAstinCarophyll Pink
Lucantin Pink
BioAstin oleoresin

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