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BAC 50

Benzalkonium chloride (BZK, BKC, BAK, BAC), also known as alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (ADBAC) is a type of cationic surfactant. It is an organic salt classified as a quaternary ammonium compound. ADBACs have three main categories of use: as a biocide, a cationic surfactant, and a phase transfer agent. ADBACs are a mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium chlorides, in which the alkyl group has various even-numbered alkyl chain lengths.

Benzalkonium chloride (BZK, BKC, BAK, BAC), also known as alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (ADBAC) is a type of cationic surfactant. It is an organic salt classified as a quaternary ammonium compound. ADBACs have three main categories of use: as a biocide, a cationic surfactant, and a phase transfer agent. ADBACs are a mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium chlorides, in which the alkyl group has various even-numbered alkyl chain lengths.

Solubility and physical properties
Depending on purity, benzalkonium chloride ranges from colourless to a pale yellow (impure). Benzalkonium chloride is readily soluble in ethanol and acetone. Dissolution in water is slow. Aqueous solutions should be neutral to slightly alkaline. Solutions foam when shaken. Concentrated solutions have a bitter taste and a faint almond-like odour.

Standard concentrates are manufactured as 50% and 80% w/w solutions, and sold under trade names such as BAC 50, BKC 50, BC50, BC80, BAC50, BAC80, etc. The 50% solution is purely aqueous, while more concentrated solutions require incorporation of rheology modifiers (alcohols, polyethylene glycols, etc.) to prevent increases in viscosity or gel formation under low temperature conditions.

Cationic surfactant
Benzalkonium chloride also possesses surfactant properties, dissolving the lipid phase of the tear film and increasing drug penetration, making it a useful excipient, but at the risk of causing damage to the surface of the eye.

Laundry detergents and treatments
Softeners for textiles
Phase transfer agent
Main article: Phase transfer catalysis
Benzalkonium chloride is a mainstay of phase-transfer catalysis, an important technology in the synthesis of organic compounds, including drugs.

Bioactive agents
Especially for its antimicrobial activity, benzalkonium chloride is an active ingredient in many consumer products:

Pharmaceutical products such as eye, ear and nasal drops or sprays, as a preservative
Personal care products such as hand sanitizers, wet wipes, shampoos, soaps, deodorants and cosmetics
Skin antiseptics and wound wash sprays, such as Bactine.
Throat lozenges and mouthwashes, as a biocide
Spermicidal creams
Cleaners for floor and hard surfaces as a disinfectant, such as Lysol and Dettol antibacterial spray and wipes.
Algaecides for clearing of algae, moss, lichens from paths, roof tiles, swimming pools, masonry, etc.
Benzalkonium chloride is also used in many non-consumer processes and products, including as an active ingredient in surgical disinfection. A comprehensive list of uses includes industrial applications. An advantage of benzalkonium chloride, not shared by ethanol-based antiseptics or hydrogen peroxide antiseptic, is that it does not cause a burning sensation when applied to broken skin.[citation needed] However, prolonged or repeated skin contact may cause dermatitis.

During the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, from time to time there have been shortages of hand cleaner containing ethanol or isopropanol as active ingredients. The FDA has stated that benzalkonium chloride is eligible as an alternative for use in the formulation of healthcare personnel hand rubs. However, in reference to the FDA rule, the CDC states that it does not have a recommended alternative to ethanol or isopropanol as active ingredients, and adds that "available evidence indicates benzalkonium chloride has less reliable activity against certain bacteria and viruses than either of the alcohols.

Benzalkonium chloride is a frequently used preservative in eye drops; typical concentrations range from 0.004% to 0.01%. Stronger concentrations can be caustic and cause irreversible damage to the corneal endothelium.

Avoiding the use of benzalkonium chloride solutions while contact lenses are in place is discussed in the literature.

In Russia and China, benzalkonium chloride is used as a contraceptive. Tablets are inserted vaginally, or a gel is applied, resulting in local spermicidal contraception. It is not a failsafe method, and can cause irritation.

It is used in beekeeping for the treatment of rotten diseases of the brood.

Adverse effects
Although historically benzalkonium chloride has been ubiquitous as a preservative in ophthalmic preparations, its ocular toxicity and irritant properties,in conjunction with consumer demand, have led pharmaceutical companies to increase production of preservative-free preparations, or to replace benzalkonium chloride with preservatives which are less harmful.

Many mass-marketed inhaler and nasal spray formulations contain benzalkonium chloride as a preservative, despite substantial evidence that it can adversely affect ciliary motion, mucociliary clearance, nasal mucosal histology, human neutrophil function, and leukocyte response to local inflammation. Although some studies have found no correlation between use of benzalkonium chloride in concentrations at or below 0.1% in nasal sprays and drug-induced rhinitis,[20] s have recommended that benzalkonium chloride in nasal sprays be avoided.[21][22] In the United States, nasal steroid preparations that are free of benzalkonium chloride include budesonide, triamcinolone acetonide, dexamethasone, and Beconase and Vancenase aerosol inhalers.

Benzalkonium chloride is irritant to middle ear tissues at typically used concentrations. Inner ear toxicity has been demonstrated.

Occupational exposure to benzalkonium chloride has been linked to the development of asthma.In 2011, a large clinical trial designed to evaluate the efficacy of hand sanitizers based on different active ingredients in preventing virus transmission amongst schoolchildren was re-designed to exclude sanitizers based on benzalkonium chloride due to safety concerns.

Benzalkonium chloride has been in common use as a pharmaceutical preservative and antimicrobial since the 1940s. While early studies confirmed the corrosive and irritant properties of benzalkonium chloride, investigations into the adverse effects of, and disease states linked to, benzalkonium chloride have only surfaced during the past 30 years

Benzalkonium chloride is a human skin and severe eye irritant. It is a suspected respiratory toxicant, immunotoxicant, gastrointestinal toxicant, and neurotoxicant.

Benzalkonium chloride formulations for consumer use are dilute solutions. Concentrated solutions are toxic to humans, causing corrosion/irritation to the skin and mucosa, and death if taken internally in sufficient volumes. 0.1% is the maximum concentration of benzalkonium chloride that does not produce primary irritation on intact skin or act as a sensitizer.

Poisoning by benzalkonium chloride is recognised in the literature. A 2014 case study detailing the fatal ingestion of up to 8.1 oz (240ml) of 10% benzalkonium chloride in a 78-year-old male also includes a summary of the currently published case reports of benzalkonium chloride ingestion. While the majority of cases were caused by confusion about the contents of containers, one case cites incorrect pharmacy dilution of benzalkonium chloride as the cause of poisoning of two infants.[33] In 2018 a Japanese nurse was arrested and admitted to having poisoned approximately 20 patients at a hospital in Yokohama by injecting benzalkonium chloride into their intravenous drip bags.

Benzalkonium chloride poisoning of domestic pets has been recognised as a result of direct contact with surfaces cleaned with disinfectants using benzalkonium chloride as an active ingredient.

Biological activity
The greatest biocidal activity is associated with the C12 dodecyl and C14 myristyl alkyl derivatives. The mechanism of bactericidal/microbicidal action is thought to be due to disruption of intermolecular interactions. This can cause dissociation of cellular membrane lipid bilayers, which compromises cellular permeability controls and induces leakage of cellular contents.  biomolecular complexes within the bacterial cell can also undergo dissociation. Enzymes, which finely control a wide range of respiratory and metabolic cellular activities, are particularly susceptible to deactivation. Critical intermolecular interactions and tertiary structures in such highly specific biochemical systems can be readily disrupted by cationic surfactants.

Benzalkonium chloride solutions are fast-acting biocidal agents with a moderately long duration of action. They are active against bacteria and some viruses, fungi, and protozoa. Bacterial spores are considered to be resistant. Solutions are bacteriostatic or bactericidal according to their concentration. Gram-positive bacteria are generally more susceptible than gram-negative bacteria. Its activity depends on the surfactant concentration and also on the bacterial concentration (inoculum) at the moment of the treatment.Activity is not greatly affected by pH, but increases substantially at higher temperatures and prolonged exposure times.

In a 1998 study using the FDA protocol, a non-alcohol sanitizer with benzalkonium chloride as the active ingredient met the FDA performance standards, while Purell, a popular alcohol-based sanitizer, did not. The study, which was undertaken and reported by a leading US developer, manufacturer and marketer of topical antimicrobial pharmaceuticals based on quaternary ammonium compounds, found that their own benzalkonium chloride-based sanitizer performed better than alcohol-based hand sanitizer after repeated use.

Advancements in the quality and efficacy of benzalkonium chloride in current non-alcohol hand sanitizers has addressed the CDC concerns regarding gram negative bacteria, with the leading products being equal if not more effective against gram negative, particularly New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1 and  antibiotic resistant bacteria.

Newer formulations using benzalkonium blended with various quaternary ammonium derivatives can be used to extend the biocidal spectrum and enhance the efficacy of benzalkonium based disinfection products.[citation needed] Formulation techniques have been used to great effect in enhancing the virucidal activity of quaternary ammonium-based disinfectants such as Virucide 100 to typical healthcare infection hazards such as hepatitis and HIV. The use of appropriate excipients can also greatly enhance the spectrum, performance and detergency, and prevent deactivation under use conditions. Formulation can also help minimise deactivation of benzalkonium solutions in the presence of organic and inorganic contamination.


Biodegradation pathways of BAC with Fenton process (H2O2/Fe2+)
Benzalkonium chloride degradation follows consecutive debenzylation, dealkylation, and demethylation steps producing benzyl chloride, alkyl dimethyl amine, dimethyl amine, long chain alkane, and ammonia. The intermediates, major, and minor products can then be broken down into CO2, H2O, NH3, and Cl–. The first step to the biodegradation of BAC is the fission or splitting of the alkyl chain from the quaternary nitrogen as shown in the diagram. This is done by abstracting the hydrogen from the alkyl chain by using a hydroxyl radical leading to a carbon centered radical. This results in benzyl dimethyl amine as the first intermediate and dodecanal as the major product.

From here, benzyl dimethyl amine can be oxidized to benzoic acid using the Fenton process. The trimethyl amine group in dimethylbenzylamine can be cleaved to form a benzyl that can be further oxidized to benzoic acid. Benzoic acid uses hydroxylation (adding a hydroxyl group) to form p-hydroxybenzoic acid. Benzyldimethylamine can then be converted into ammonia by performing demethylation twice, which removes both methyl groups, followed by debenzylation, removing the benzyl group using hydrogenation. The diagram represents suggested pathways of the biodegradation of BAC for both the hydrophobic and the hydrophilic regions of the surfactant. Since stearalkonium chloride is a type of BAC, the biodegradation process should happen in the same manner.

Benzalkonium chloride is classed as a Category III antiseptic active ingredient by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Ingredients are categorized as Category III when "available data are insufficient to classify as safe and effective, and further testing is required”. Benzalkonium chloride was deferred from further rulemaking in the 2019 FDA Final Rule on safety and effectiveness of consumer hand sanitizers, "to allow for the ongoing study and submission of additional safety and effectiveness data necessary to make a determination" on whether it met these criteria for use in OTC hand sanitizers, but the agency indicated it did not intend to take action to remove benzalkonium chloride-based hand sanitizers from the market. There is acknowledgement that more data are required on its safety, efficacy, and effectiveness, especially with relation to:

Human pharmacokinetic studies, including information on its metabolites
Studies on animal absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion
Data to help define the effect of formulation on dermal absorption

Studies on developmental and reproductive toxicology
Potential hormonal effects
Assessment of the potential for development of bacterial resistance
Risks of using it as a contraceptive method
In September 2016, the FDA announced a ban on nineteen ingredients in consumer antibacterial soaps citing a lack of evidence for safety and effectiveness. A ban on three additional ingredients, including benzalkonium chloride, was deferred to allow ongoing studies to be completed.
Benzalkonium chloride
Cosmetic Products Regulation, Annex V - Allowed Preservatives
Quaternary ammonium compounds, alkylbenzyldimethyl, chlorides
Pre-Registration process, 
IUPAC names
Alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride
ammonium, alkylbenzyldimethyl-,chloride
Benzalkonium Chlorid
Benzalkonium Chloride (4% aqueous solution)
Benzalkonium chloride, alkyl distribution C8-C16
benzyl-dimethyl-tetradecylazanium chloride
benzyl-dodecyl-dimethylazanium chloride
N-alkyl(C8-C16)dimethylbenzylammonium chloride

Benzalkonium Chloride C16
Pre-Registration process

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Quaternary ammonium compounds, benzyl-C12-14-alkyldimethyl, chlorides

IUPAC names
Benzalkonium Chloride

Benzyl-C12-14-alkyldimethylammonium chlorides
C12-14 ADBAC

Quaternary ammonium compounds, benzyl-C12-14 (even-numbered)-alkyldimethyl, chlorides

Quaternary ammonium compounds, benzyl-C12-C14 (even-numbered)-alkyldimethyl, chlorides


Trade names





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(C12-C18) Alkyldimethylbenzyl ammonium chloride
This substance is identified by SDA Substance Name: C12-C18 alkyl benzyl dimethyl ammonium chloride and SDA Reporting Number: 16-052-00.

(C12-C18)Alkylbenzyldimethylammonium chloride
This substance is identified by SDA Substance Name: C12-C18 alkyl benzyl dimethyl ammonium chloride and SDA Reporting Number: 16-052-00.

Alkyl(C12-C18)benzyldimethylammonium chloride
This substance is identified by SDA Substance Name: C12-C18 alkyl benzyl dimethyl ammonium chloride and SDA Reporting Number: 16-052-00.

C12-18-Alkyldimethylbenzyl ammonium chlorides
This substance is identified by SDA Substance Name: C12-C18 alkyl benzyl dimethyl ammonium chloride and SDA Reporting Number: 16-052-00.

N-Alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (C12-C18)
This substance is identified by SDA Substance Name: C12-C18 alkyl benzyl dimethyl ammonium chloride and SDA Reporting Number: 16-052-00.
, Cosmetic Products Regulation, Annex III - Restricted Substances, Cosmetic Products Regulation, Annex V - Allowed Preservatives
Quaternary ammonium compounds, benzyl-C12-18-alkyldimethyl, chlorides
EC Inventory, Pre-Registration process, SDA 16-052-00
This substance is identified by SDA Substance Name: C12-C18 alkyl benzyl dimethyl ammonium chloride and SDA Reporting Number: 16-052-00.

Translated names
Alkil (C12-18) chlorku dimetylobenzyloamonu (ADBAC (C12-18)) (pl)
Alkil (C12-18) dimetilbenzil amonijev klorid (ADBAC (C12-18) (hr)
Alkil (C12-18) dimetilbenzil amonio chloridas (ADBAC (C12-18)) (lt)
Alkil (C12-18) dimetilbenzilamonija hlorīds (ADBAC (C12-18)) (lv)
Alkil (C12–16) dimetil-benzil-ammónium-klorid (ADBAC [C12–18]) (hu)
Alkil (C12–18) dimetilbenzil amonijev klorid (ADBAC (C12–18)) (sl)
Alkyl (C12-18) dimethylbenzyl ammonium chloride (ADBAC (C12-18)) (mt)
alkyl(C12-18)benzyldimetylamónium-chlorid [ADBAC (C12-18)] (sk)
alkyl(C12-18)dimethylbenzylammoniumchlorid (ADBAC (C12-18)) (cs)
Alkyl(C12-18)dimethylbenzylammoniumchloride (ADBAC (C12-18)) (nl)
Alkyl(C12-18)dimetylbensylammoniumklorid (ADBAC (C12-18)) (sv)
Alkyyli-(C12-18)-dimetyylibentsyyliammoniumkloridi (ADBAC(C12-18)) (fi)
C12–18-alküüldimetüülbensüülammooniumkloriid (ADBAC (C12–18)) (et)
Chlorure d'alkyl(C12-C18)diméthylbenzylammonium [ADBAC (C12-18)] (fr)
Cloreto de alquil(C12-18)dimetilbenzilamónio (ADBAC C12-18) (pt)
Cloruro de C12-18-alquildimetilbencilamonio (ADBAC (C12-18)) (es)
Clorură de alchil (C12-18) dimetilbenzil amoniu [ADBAC (C12-18)] (ro)
Composti di ammonio quaternario, benzil- C12-18 -alchildimetil, cloruri (ADBAC (C12-18) (it)
Χλωριούχο αλκυλο(C12-18)διμεθυλοβενζυλαμμώνιο (ADBAC (C12-18)) (el)
Алкил(C12-18)диметилбензиламониев хлорид (ADBAC (C12-18)) (bg)

IUPAC names

Alkyldimethylbenzyl ammonium chloride

Benzalkonium Chloride

benzyl-dimethyl-tetradecylazanium chloride

C12-C18 alkyl benzyl dimethyl ammonium chloride

N-benzyl-N,N-dimethyl-C12-18-(evennumbered)-alkyl-1-aminium chloride

N-benzyl-N,N-dimethyltetradecan-1-aminium chloride


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Alkylbenzyldimethylammonium chlorides with alkyl chain lengths of C8, C10, C12, C14, C16 and C18
Benzalkonium chlorideC8-18-Alkydimethylbenzyl ammonium chlorides
Cosmetic Products Regulation, Annex III - Restricted Substances, Cosmetic Products Regulation, Annex V - Allowed Preservatives
Quaternary ammonium compounds, benzyl-C8-18-alkyldimethyl, chlorides
EC Inventory, , Pre-Registration process, CAD - Chemical Agents Directive, Art. 2(b)(i) - Hazardous Agents, EU Ecolabels - Restrictions for Hazardous Substances/Mixtures, Workplace Signs - minimum requirements & signs on containers and pipes, Waste Framework Directive, Annex III - Waste - Hazardous Properties, Fertiliser Regulation- Annex I, E.3 (chelating and complexing agents)
Translated names
(C8-18)alkylbenzyldimetylammoniumklorid (no)

(C8-18)alkyylibentsyylidimetyyliammoniumkloridi (fi)

chlorki czwartorzedowych zwiazków amoniowych - chlorki benzylo(C8-18)alkilodimetyloamonium (pl)

composti di ammonio quaternario, benzil-C8-18-alchildimetil, cloruri (it)

compostos de amónio quaternário, benzil-C8-18-alquildimetil, cloretos (pt)

composés d'ammonium quaternaire, benzyl-C8-18-alkyldiméthyle, chlorures (fr)

compuestos de amonio cuaternario, bencil-C8-18-alquildimetil, cloruros (es)

compusi de amoniu cuaternari, benzil-C8-18-alildimetil, cloruri (ro)

ketvirtiniai amonio junginiai, benzil-C8-18-alkildimetil-, chloridai (lt)

kvarterne amonijeve spojine, benzil-C8-18-alkildimetil kloridi (sl)

kvarterni amonijevi spojevi,benzil-C8-18-alkildimetil, kloridi (hr)

kvarterní amoniové sloučeniny, alkyl(C8-C18)(benzyl) dimethylamonium-chlorid (cs)

kvartérne amóniové zlúčeniny, (C8-18-alkyl)(benzyl)di(metyl)amónium-chloridy (sk)

Kvaternaarsete bensüül-C 8-18-alküüldimetüülammooniumiühendite kloriidid (et)

kvaterner ammónium vegyületek, benzil-C8-18-alkildimetilammónium-klorid (hu)

kvaternääriset ammoniumyhdisteet, bentsyyli-C8-18-alkyylidimetyylikloridit (fi)

kvaternære ammoniumforbindelser, benzyl-C8-18-alkyldimethyl-, chlorider (da)

kvaternære ammoniumforbindelser, benzyl-C8-18-alkyldimetyl, klorider (no)

quaternaire ammoniumverbindingen, benzyl-C8-18-alkyldimethyl, chloriden (nl)

Quaternäre Ammoniumverbindungen, Benzyl-C8-18-alkyldimethyl-, Chloride (de)

četraizvietotie amonija savienojumi, benzil-C8-C18-alkildimetil-hlorīdi (lv)

χλωρίδια των βενζυλο-C8-18-αλκυλοδιμεθυλο τεταρτοταγών ενώσεων αμμωνίου (el)

кватернерни амониеви съединения, бензил-C8-18-aлкилдиметил, хлориди (bg)

CAS names
Alkylbenzyldimethylammonium chlorides, benzyl-C8-18-alkyldimethyl

IUPAC names
Alkyldimethylbenzyl ammonium chloride

Benzyl(dodecyl)dimethylammonium chloride, benzyl(tetradecyldimethylammonium chloride

benzyl-C8-18-alkyldimethyl chloride

benzyl-decyl-dimethylazanium chloride


benzyl-dimethyl-tridecyl-azanium chloride

N-benzyl-N,N-dimethyldecan-1-aminium chloride

Quaternary ammonium compounds, benzylcoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides


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Alkyl (C12-16) dimethylbenzyl ammonium chloride (ADBAC/BKC (C12-16))

Quaternary ammonium compounds, benzyl-C12-16-alkyldimethyl, chlorides

Translated names
Alkil (C12-16) dimetilbenzil amonijev klorid (ADBAC/BKC (C12-16)) (hr)

Alkil (C12-16) dimetilbenzil amonio chloridas (ADBAC (C12-16)) (lt)

Alkil (C12-16) dimetilbenzilamonija hlorīds (ADBAC/BKC (C12-16)) (lv)

Alkil (C12-16)-chlorku dimetylobenzyloamonu (ADBAC/BKC (C12-16)) (pl)

Alkil (C12–16) dimetil-benzil-ammónium-klorid (ADBAC/BKC [C12–16]) (hu)

Alkil (C12–16) dimetilbenzil amonijev klorid (ADBAC/BKC (C12–16)) (sl)

Alkyl (C12-16) dimethylbenzyl ammonium chloride (ADBAC/BKC (C12-C16)) (mt)

alkyl(C12-16)benzyldimetylamónium-chlorid [ADBAC/BKC (C12-C16)] (sk)

alkyl(C12-16)dimethylbenzylammoniumchlorid (ADBAC/BKC (C12-16)) (da)

alkyl(C12-16)dimethylbenzylammoniumchlorid (ADBAC/BKC (C12-C16)) (cs)

Alkyl(C12-16)dimethylbenzylammoniumchloride (ADBAC/BKC (C12-16)) (nl)

Alkyl(C12-16)dimetylbensylammoniumklorid (ADBAC/BKC (C12-C16)) (sv)

Alkyyli-(C12-16)-dimetyylibentsyyliammoniumkloridi (ADBAC/BKC (C12-16)) (fi)

C12–16-alküüldimetüülbensüülammooniumkloriid (ADBAC/BKC (C12–16)) (et)

Chlorure d'alkyl(C12-C16)diméthylbenzylammonium [ADBAC/BKC (C12-C16)] (fr)

Cloreto de alquil(C12-16)dimetilbenzilamónio (ADBAC/KBC C12-16) (pt)

Cloruro de C12-16-alquildimetilbencilamonio (ADBAC/BKC (C12-16)) (es)

Cloruro di alchil (C12-16) dimetilbenzilammonio (ADBAC/BKC (C12-C16)) (it)

Clorură de alchil (C12-16) dimetilbenzil amoniu [ADBAC/BKC (C12-C16)] (ro)

Χλωριούχο αλκυλο(C12-16)διμεθυλοβενζυλαμμώνιο (ADBAC/BKC (C12-C16)) (el)

Алкил(C12-16)диметилбензиламониев хлорид (ADBAC/BKC (C12-C16)) (bg)

IUPAC names
Alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride

benzyl-C12-16-alkyldimethyl, chlorides

Benzyl-dimethyl-tetradecyl azanium chloride

benzyl-dimethyl-tetradecylazanium chloride

dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride


N-Alkyl-N,N-dimethyl-N-benzylammonium Chloride

N-benzyl-N,N-dimethyl-C12-16-(evennumbered)-alkyl-1-aminium chloride

N-Benzyl-N,N-dimethyltetradecan-1-aminium chloride

Not applicable - this material is an on-site isolated intermediate and is not made available commercially.

Quaternary ammoniumcompounds, benzyl-C12-16-alkyldimethyl, chlorides


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Cocos alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride aq.

DODIGEN 226: Cocos alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride aq.; Alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride; Cas no :68391-01-5; Carbon chain: C12-C18
Application: Hard surface cleaning + Toilet & hygienic cleaning
Product Description: Cost‐effective, compatible with nonionic/cationic detergents and wetting agents
Chemical Description: Cocos alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride aq.
Appearance : Liquid    50%

Composition: Cocos alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride
Product properties *)
Active substance content: about 50%
Mean equivalent weight of active ingredient: 364 g/mol
Free amine and amine hydrochoride: max. 1,0%
Water content: about 50%
Appearance at 20°C: yellowish liquid
Density at 20°C (DIN 51757): about 0,98 g/cm³
pH of 1 % aqueous solution: 6 - 7
Solubility at 20 °C
soluble in water, alcohols and ketones

Dodigen 226 can be combined with the following builder substances:
- Sodium sulphate
- Sodium carbonate
- Sodium acetate
- Sodium metasilicate * 9 H2O
- Sodium orthophosphates
- Sodium pyrophosphates
- Sodium tetraborate (borax)
- Hydroxymethyl- and methyl cellulose
- Urea
Precipitation, sometimes caused by one of the
constituents of hard water in the presence of Dodigen
226, can often be prevented by the addition of small
amounts of Genapol UD-079. The product can be used
over almost the entire pH-range.
Dodigen 226 is compatible with nonionic and cationic
detergents and wetting agents such as nonylphenol
ethoxylates, triisobutylphenol ethoxylates and alkyl
As cationic compound Dodigen 226 is deactivated by
highly condensed polyphosphates, strongly dehydrated
metasilicates, alkali chromates and anionic detergents,
e.g. soap, alkylbenzene sulphonates and fatty alcohol
Dodigen 226 should not come into contact with strong
oxidizing agents such as hypochlorite, nitric acid or

Surface Activity
Aqueous solutions of Dodigen 226 reduce the surface
tension of water as follows:
0,02% Dodigen 226 37 mN/m
0,1% Dodigen 226 34 mN/m
According to DIN 53 901 5,8 g/l Dodigen 226 give a
wetting time of 100 seconds. The wetting effect can be
considerably improved by combining Dodigen 226 with
Genapol UD-079 in equal quantities.
The cleaning action of Dodigen 226 is only very weak in
the small amounts required for disinfecting. Nonionic
detergents and wetting agents should therefore be added
to disinfectant cleaner formulations.
Dodigen 226 foams strongly. Foaming can be inhibited
by adding small amount of Antimussol FN.
Microbiological Effectiveness
Quarternary ammonium salts of the Dodigen 226 type
have unusually high bactericidal activity against grampositive
bacteria; gram-negative microorganisms are
also destroyed by Dodigen 226 in considerably diluted
The bactericidal activity against gram-negative bacteria
(e.g. E. coli, Ps. aeruginosa) can be considerably
increased by adding coconut fatty amine salts to
Dodigen 226, approximately in the ratio 1 : 3.
The following table gives the minimum germicidal
concentration for a number of bacteria and fungi used
as test microbes in accordance with the guidelines for

chemical disinfectants issued by the DLG
(Deutsche Landwirtschaftsgemeinschaft / German
Agricultural Society) and the DGHM (Deutsche
Gesellschaft für Hygiene und Microbiologie / German
Society for Hygiene and Microbiology):
Bactericidal and fungicidal activity of Dodigen 226
at room temperature
Test strain 30 min. 60 min. 24 hrs. 48 hrs.
Staph. Aureus 15,6 mg/l 7,8 mg/l
E. coli 7,8 mg/l 7,8 mg/l
Ps. aeruginosa 15,6 mg/l 15,6 mg/l
Proteus vulgaris 7,8 mg/l 7,8 mg/l
Candida albicans 7,8 mg/l 7,8 mg/l
100 mg/l 25 mg/l 12,5 mg/l
50 mg/l 6,3 mg/l < 3,1 mg/l
50 mg/l 6,3 mg/l < 3,1 mg/l
12,5 mg/l 6,3 mg/l < 3,1 mg/l
12,5 mg/l 12,5 mg/l < 3,1 mg/l
Algicidal activity (after 14 days): < 3,9 mg/l
Growth can be inhibited by considerably lower
concentrations. For example, Dodigen 226 has a
bacteriostatic effect on Staph. aureus even at
concentrations of 10 mg/l.
A deodorant effect is achieved simply by inhibiting
microbial growth which in turn prevents the formation of
malodorous metabolic products. Dodigen 226 is also
capable of absorbing some odour - forming substances.
The microbiological effectiveness of Dodigen 226 is
influenced by several other factors. It is enhanced by
increasing the temperature and pH and longer periods of
exposure and may be reduced to some extent by very
hard water. However, the effect of hard water can be
counteracted by the addition of sequestring agents.
The effectiveness of any disinfectant is impaired if the
objects to be disinfected are severely soiled. Wherever
possible such objects should first be cleaned with
detergents or cleaners based on Genapol UD-079.
Protein stains on textiles are best removed by an
enzymatic detergent.
In the case of serious disinfection problems (in the
presence of small amounts of deactivators), a minimum
concentration of 0,1% Dodigen 226 is recommended.
The minimum bactericidal concentrations determined
with pure Dodigen 226 solutions cannot always be
applied to disinfectant cleaner formulated with several
Quarternary ammonium salts are labeled as non-irritant
on skin in the usual application concentrations of 0,2 – 1
g/l active substance. The acute lethal dose LD50,
determined with rats, is about 1000 mg/kg body weight.
It is advisable to rinse equipment used in the food
industry with water after disinfecting with Dodigen 226.
It is not permissible to add Dodigen 226 to foodstuffs.

Manufacture of Disinfectants
A powder or flake preparation with up to 30% active
ingredient but containing no other detergents or builders
can be obtained by mixing equal quantities of Dodigen
226 and urea in a mixer or on a roller mill. The water
content of Dodigen 226 partially evaporates during
grinding or must be removed, if necessary, by a drying
Disinfectant cleaners in powder form
Preparation which contain detergents and builders in
addition to Dodigen 226 can be prepared with sodium
tripolyphosphate / sodium pyrophosphate according to
the following guide formulation:
5–10% Dodigen 226
5% nonionic surfactant
10% water
30% sodium tripolyphosphate or sodium
The above products are pasted together and harden
within 10 to 20 hours. They can be mixed with further
builder substances or extenders.
Liquid products
The following guide formulation give a liquid disinfectant
cleaner: 1-20% Dodigen 226

1-20% nonionic surfactant
small amounts of alkalis,
perfume components,
complexing agents,
remainder water
Paste preparations
By using more than 30% nonionic detergents the
formulation gives a pasty product:
5-10 % Dodigen 226
30-40 % Genapol OA-080
small amounts of other additives
remainder water
Packaging of disinfectant cleaners
Dilute aqueous solutions of Dodigen 226 are no more
corrosive towards metals than is water with the same
pH. However the liquid products should be packed in
polyethylene containers to prevent contamination by

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