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Benzalkonium chloride purity 50% Cas-No : 8001-54-5 
Benzalkonium chloride CAS-no: 63449-41-2

-Benzalkonium chloride (BZK, BKC, BAK, BAC), known as alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (ADBAC) and by the trade name Zephiran,
 is a type of cationic surfactant. 
 -It is an organic salt classified as a quaternary ammonium compound.

-Benzalkonium chloride solutions are fast-acting biocidal agents with a moderately long duration of action.
They are active against bacteria and some viruses, fungi, and protozoa. 

Alkylbenzyldimethylammonium chlorides; alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride; Ammonium compounds, substituted, alkylbenzyldimethyl chlorides; Ammonium salts; alkylbenzyldimethyl; chlorides; Arquad CB 30; Benzalkon A; BENZALKONIUM CHLORIDE; BENZALKONIUMCHLORID; BTC; BTC 471; Culversan LC 80; Dimanin A; Genamin KDS; Kemamine BAC; Leda benzalkonium chloride; Magna M 407; Mefarol; Morpan BC 50; Mycosan; Mycosan S; N-ALKYL DIMETHYL BENZYL AMMONIUM CHLORIDES; N-ALKYL-DIMETHYL BENZYL AMMONIUM CHLORIDE; Neo germ-i-tol; Osvan; P 3-Triquart AP; Phagomucor; Preventol R 80; Quaternary ammonium compounds; alkylbenzyldimethyl; chlorides; Quaternium 1; Quatramine 50; Rhodaquat RP 50; Romergal CB; Zephiran; ZEPHIRAN CHLORIDE
Benzenemethanaminium, N,N,N-trimethyl-, chloride; Benzyl trimethylammonium chloride; BENZYLTRIMETHYL AMMONIUM CHLORIDE; Benzyltrimethyl ammoniumchloride; benzyltrimethylammonium; benzyl-trimethylammonium chloride; benzyl-trimethyl-ammonium chloride; Benzyltrimethylammonium chloride (x% in water); benzyltrimethylammoniumchloride; benzyltrimethylazanium chloride; benzyl-trimethylazanium chloride; benzyl-trimethyl-azanium chloride; Benzenemethanaminium, N,N-dimethyl-N-octadecyl-, chloride; Benzyl dimethyl stearyl ammonium chloride; Benzyldimethyl(octadecyl)ammonium chloride; benzyl-dimethyl-octadecylammonium chloride; benzyl-dimethyl-octadecyl-ammonium chloride; BENZYLDIMETHYLOCTADECYLAMMONIUM CHLORIDE; benzyl-dimethyl-octadecylazanium; benzyl-dimethyl-octadecylazanium and chloride; benzyl-dimethyl-octadecylazanium chloride; BENZYLDIMETHYLOCTADECYLAZANIUM CHLORIDE; benzyl-dimethyl-stearyl-ammonium chloride; Benzyldimethylstearylammonium Chloride Hydrate; 
BENZYLDIMETHYLSTEARYLAMMONIUMCHLORIDE; benzyldimethylsteaylammoniumchloridehydrate; 

Molecular Weight 339.99

Pyhsical Properties of benalkonium chloride:
-Benzalkonium chloride (BZK, BKC, BAK, BAC), known as alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (ADBAC) and by the trade name Zephiran,
 is a type of cationic surfactant. 
 -It is an organic salt classified as a quaternary ammonium compound. 
 -ADBACs have three main categories of use as a biocide, a cationic surfactant, and a phase transfer agent.
 -ADBACs are a mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium chlorides, in which the alkyl group has various even-numbered alkyl chain lengths.
-Depending on purity, benzalkonium chloride ranges from colourless to a pale yellow (impure). 
-Benzalkonium chloride is readily soluble in ethanol and acetone. 
-Dissolution in water is slow. 
-Aqueous solutions should be neutral to slightly alkaline.
-Solutions will foam when shaken. 
-Concentrated solutions have a bitter taste and a faint almond-like odour.
-Standard concentrates are manufactured as 50% and 80% w/w solutions, 
and sold under trade names such as  BC50, BC80, BAC50, BAC80, etc. 
-The 50% solution is purely aqueous, while more concentrated solutions require incorporation 
of rheology modifiers (alcohols, polyethylene glycols, etc.) to prevent increases in viscosity or gel formation under low temperature conditions.

-Benzalkonium chloride as a Cationic surfactant:
Also possesses surfactant properties, dissolving the lipid phase of the tear film and increasing drug penetration, 
making it a useful excipient, but at the risk of causing damage to the surface of the eye.
Laundry detergents and treatments
Softeners for textiles

-Phase transfer agent of benzalkonium chloride:
Benzalkonium chloride is a mainstay of phase-transfer catalysis, an important technology in the synthesis of organic compounds, including drugs.

-Benzalkonium chloride as bioactive agents:
Especially for its antimicrobial activity, benzalkonium chloride is an active ingredient in many consumer products:
Pharmaceutical products such as eye, ear and nasal drops or sprays, as a preservative
Personal care products such as hand sanitizers, wet wipes, shampoos, soaps, deodorants and cosmetics
Skin antiseptics and wound wash sprays, such as Bactine.
Throat lozenges and mouthwashes, as a biocide cleaners for floor and hard surfaces as a disinfectant, such as Lysol and Dettol antibacterial spray and wipes.
Algaecides for clearing of algae, moss, lichens from paths, roof tiles, swimming pools, masonry, etc.

-Use of benzalkonium in medicine:
Benzalkonium chloride is a frequently used preservative in eye drops; typical concentrations range from 0.004% to 0.01%. 
Stronger concentrations can be caustic and cause irreversible damage to the corneal endothelium.
Avoiding the use of benzalkonium chloride solutions while contact lenses are in place is discussed in the literature.
In Russia and China, benzalkonium chloride is used as a contraceptive. 
Tablets are inserted vaginally, or a gel is applied, resulting in local spermicidal contraception.
It is not a failsafe method, and can cause irritation.

Benzalkonium chloride is used in beekeeping for the treatment of rotten diseases of the brood.

-Adverse effects of benzalkonium chloride:
Although historically benzalkonium chloride has been ubiquitous as a preservative in ophthalmic preparations, 
its ocular toxicity and irritant properties, in conjunction with consumer demand, have led pharmaceutical companies to increase production of preservative-free preparations, 
or to replace benzalkonium chloride with preservatives which are less harmful.

Although some studies have found no correlation between use of benzalkonium chloride 
in concentrations at or below 0.1% in nasal sprays and drug-induced rhinitis, others have recommended that benzalkonium chloride in nasal sprays be avoided.
Benzalkonium chloride is irritant to middle ear tissues at typically used concentrations. Inner ear toxicity has been demonstrated.
Occupational exposure to benzalkonium chloride has been linked to the development of asthma.
In 2011, a large clinical trial designed to evaluate the efficacy of hand sanitizers based on different active ingredients in preventing virus transmission 
amongst schoolchildren was re-designed to exclude sanitizers based on benzalkonium chloride due to safety concerns.
Benzalkonium chloride has been in common use as a pharmaceutical preservative and antimicrobial since the 1940s. 
While early studies confirmed the corrosive and irritant properties of benzalkonium chloride, investigations into the adverse effects of, 
and disease states linked to, benzalkonium chloride have only surfaced during the past 30 years.
Benzalkonium chloride is a human skin and severe eye irritant. It is a suspected respiratory toxicant, immunotoxicant, gastrointestinal toxicant, and neurotoxicant.
Benzalkonium chloride formulations for consumer use are dilute solutions. Concentrated solutions are toxic to humans, 
causing corrosion/irritation to the skin and mucosa, and death if taken internally in sufficient volumes. 
0.1% is the maximum concentration of benzalkonium chloride that does not produce primary irritation on intact skin or act as a sensitizer.

Biological activity:
Benzalkonium chloride solutions are fast-acting biocidal agents with a moderately long duration of action.
They are active against bacteria and some viruses, fungi, and protozoa. 
Bacterial spores are considered to be resistant. Solutions are bacteriostatic or bactericidal according to their concentration. 
Gram-positive bacteria are generally more susceptible than gram-negative bacteria. 
Its activity depends on the surfactant concentration and also on the bacterial concentration (inoculum) at the moment of the treatment.
Activity is not greatly affected by pH, but increases substantially at higher temperatures and prolonged exposure times.

Benzalkonium chloride degradation follows consecutive debenzylation, dealkylation, and demethylation steps producing benzyl chloride, alkyl dimethyl amine, 
dimethyl amine, long chain alkane, and ammonia.The intermediates, major, and minor products can then be broken down into CO2, H2O, NH3, and Cl–. 
The first step to the biodegradation of BAC is the fission or splitting of the alkyl chain from the quaternary nitrogen as shown in the diagram. 
This is done by abstracting the hydrogen from the alkyl chain by using a hydroxyl radical leading to a carbon centered radical. 
This results in benzyl dimethyl amine as the first intermediate and dodecanal as the major product.
From here, benzyl dimethyl amine can be oxidized to benzoic acid using the Fenton process. 
The trimethyl amine group in dimethylbenzylamine can be cleaved to form a benzyl that can be further oxidized to benzoic acid. 
Benzoic acid uses hydroxylation (adding a hydroxyl group) to form p-hydroxybenzoic acid. 
Benzyldimethylamine can then be converted into ammonia by performing demethylation twice, which removes both methyl groups, 
followed by debenzylation, removing the benzyl group using hydrogenation.
 The diagram represents suggested pathways of the biodegradation of BAC for both the hydrophobic and the hydrophilic regions of the surfactant.
 Since stearalkonium chloride is a type of BAC, the biodegradation process should happen in the same manner.

Procedur for handling Benzalkonium chloride:
Avoid all personal contact, including inhalation.
Wear protective clothing when risk of exposure occurs.
Use in a well-ventilated area.
WARNING To avoid violent reaction, ALWAYS add material to water and NEVER water to material.
Avoid smoking, naked lights or ignition sources.
Avoid contact with incompatible materials.
When handling, DO NOT eat, drink or smoke.
Keep containers securely sealed when not in use.
Avoid physical damage to containers.
Always wash hands with soap and water after handling.
Work clothes should be laundered separately. Launder contaminated clothing before re-use.
Use good occupational work practice.
Observe manufacturer's storing and handling recommendations.

Storage requirements :
Plastic bag
NOTE Bags should be stacked, blocked, interlocked, and limited in height so that they are stable and secure against sliding or
Store in original containers.
Keep containers securely sealed.
Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area.
Store away from incompatible materials and foodstuff containers.
Protect containers against physical damage and check regularly for leaks.
Observe manufacturer's storing and handling recommendations.

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