Molecular Formula: C5H8NO4-
Molecular Weight: 146.12
IUPAC Name: 2-azaniumylpentanedioate
Glutamate is an amino acid that is produced in the body and also occurs naturally in many foods.
Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is the sodium salt of glutamic acid and is a common food additive.
MSG is made from fermented starch or sugar and is used to enhance the flavor of savory sauces, salad dressings, and soups.
Both natural glutamate and monosodium glutamate are metabolized in the body using the same processes.
Glutamate is a neurotransmitter that sends signals in the brain and throughout the nerves in the body.
Glutamate plays an important role during brain development.
Normal levels of glutamate also help with learning and memory.
Glutamate is a naturally occurring amino acid found in many different types of food.
Amino acids are the building blocks of protein.
Glutamate is perhaps best known as the food additive monosodium glutamate (MSG).
MSG is used as a flavor enhancer commonly found in American-style Chinese food, canned soups and vegetables, and processed meats.
MSG can also be found naturally in many foods, including tomatoes, cheeses, mushrooms, seaweed, and soy.
Glutamate is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and is necessary for proper brain functioning.
Excitatory neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that excite, or stimulate, a nerve cell, making it able to receive critical information.
Glutamate is made in the body's central nervous system (CNS) through the synthesis of glutamine, a glutamate precursor, meaning it comes before and indicates the approach of glutamate.
This process is known as the glutamate–glutamine cycle.
Glutamate is necessary for making gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), which is a calming neurotransmitter in the brain.
Glutamate(1-) is an alpha-amino-acid anion that is the conjugate base of glutamic acid, having anionic carboxy groups and a cationic amino group.
Glutamate has a role as a fundamental metabolite.
Glutamate is a conjugate base of a glutamic acid. It is a conjugate acid of a glutamate(2-).
As a neurotransmitter, glutamate plays a vital role in sending signals between nerve cells.
These messages are regulated by structures that release glutamate in a highly controlled manner when necessary and then reabsorb the messenger.
Almost all brain cells need glutamate to communicate with one another.
Functions of glutamate include:
Chemical messenger: Glutamate conveys messages from one nerve cell to another.
Energy source for brain cells: Glutamate can be used when reserves of glucose, the main source of energy for cells, are low.
Regulation of learning and memory: Glutamate helps with the strengthening or weakening of signals between neurons over time to shape learning and memory.
Pain transmitter: Higher levels of glutamate are linked to increased sensations of pain.
Glutamate is the most abundant neurotransmitter in our brain and central nervous system (CNS).
Glutamate is involved in virtually every major excitatory brain function.
While excitatory has a very specific meaning in neuroscience, in general terms, an excitatory neurotransmitter increases the likelihood that the neuron Glutamate acts upon will have an action potential (also called a nerve impulse).
When an action potential occurs, the nerve is said to fire, with fire, in this case, being somewhat akin to the completion of an electric circuit that occurs when a light switch is turned on. The result of neurons firing is that a message can be spread throughout the neural circuit.
It is estimated that well over half of all synapses in the brain release glutamate, making it the dominant neurotransmitter used for neural circuit communication.
Glutamate is also a metabolic precursor for another neurotransmitter called GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid).
GABA is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
Inhibitory neurotransmitters are essentially the flip-side of the coin—they decrease the likelihood that the neuron they act upon will fire.
In the brain, groups of neurons (nerve cells) form neural circuits to carry out specific small-scale functions (e.g., formation and retrieval of memory).
These neural circuits interconnect with each other to form large-scale brain networks, which carry out more complex functions (e.g., hearing, vision, movement).
In order to get the individual nerve cells to work together across these networks some type of communication between them is needed and one way it is accomplished is by chemical messenger molecules called neurotransmitters.
Glutamate plays a prominent role in neural circuits involved with synaptic plasticity—the ability for strengthening or weakening of signaling between neurons over time to shape learning and memory.
Glutamate’s a major player in the subset of plasticity called long-term potentiation (LTP).
Because of these and other roles, the glutamatergic system is paramount for fast signaling and information processing in neuronal networks.
Glutamate signaling is critical in brain regions, including the cortex and hippocampus, which are fundamental for cognitive function.
Glutamate receptors are widely expressed throughout the CNS, not only in neurons, but also in glial cells.
[Note: Glial cells (or neuroglia or simply glia) are non-neuronal brain cells that provide support and protection for neurons.]
Because it is the main molecule promoting neuronal excitation, glutamate is the principal mediator of cognition, emotions, sensory information, and motor coordination, and is linked to the activity of most other neurotransmitter systems (e.g., dopamine, acetylcholine, serotonin, etc).
But glutamate is not a “more is better” molecule.
Glutamatergic communication requires the right concentrations of glutamate to be released in the right places for only small amounts of time.
Neurotransmitters have several characteristics in common.
The first is that they are synthesized (i.e., made or created) in neurons.
After that, they are moved into areas near the end of neurons (synaptic vesicles near the terminal end of nerve cells) where they are stored until needed.
This occurs in preparation for signaling, which involves the release of the neurotransmitter from the message-sending neuron into the space between neurons (synaptic cleft), so it can activate (i.e., bind to) receptors on message-receiving neurons.
After this signal is sent, the space between neurons is cleaned up, so it can be made ready for the next time a message needs to be sent.
This is achieved by absorbing the neurotransmitter into a cell so it can be reused (recycling), and/or by degrading (breaking down and inactivating) the neurotransmitter in the space outside cells.
Glutamate does not cross the blood-brain barrier and must be synthesized in neurons from building block molecules (i.e., precursors) that can get into the brain.
In the brain, glutamine is the fundamental building block for glutamate.
The most prevalent biosynthetic pathway synthesizes glutamate from glutamine using an enzyme called glutaminase.
[Note: Enzymes are catalysts used to produce specific biochemical reactions: They usually have names that end in “ase.” Coenzymes are parts of certain enzymes. Many coenzymes are derived from vitamins.]
Glutamine is the most abundant of the twenty amino acids the body uses to build proteins.
It can be produced in the body (so is categorized as non-essential).
Most glutamine is made and stored in muscle.
Under certain circumstances, such as severe stress, the body can require more than it can make.
This has led many scientists to consider glutamine as being a conditionally essential amino acid.
Glutamate is one of the few amino acids that can directly cross the blood-brain barrier, so the glutamine pool in muscle can be used to support the brain.
Glutamate can also be produced from glucose through a metabolic pathway that begins with the conversion of glucose to pyruvate (a process called glycolysis).
Pyruvate then ethers the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle (also called the Krebs cycle or citric acid cycle).
The TCA cycle forms multiple important intermediates. One of these intermediates is α-ketoglutarate (α-KG).
α-KG can be used to produce glutamate.
An enzyme called glutamate dehydrogenase, which uses vitamin B3 (NAD+) as a coenzyme, is responsible for this reaction.
This same enzyme can reconvert glutamate back into α-KG.
Because of this enzyme, glutamate and α-KG can be continuously converted into each other.
This dynamic equilibrium is a key intersection between anabolic and catabolic pathways and allows the body to shift resources in whichever direction is required.
Neurotransmitters, including glutamate, convey information from one neuron (message sender) to other "target" neurons (message recipients) within neural circuits.
After synthesis, glutamate is transported into synaptic vesicles by vesicular glutamate transporters.
This transport (and storage) occurs in the message-sending neuron in anticipation of needing to send glutamate messages in the future.
Glutamate is stored in these vesicles until a nerve impulse triggers the release of glutamate into the synaptic cleft (i.e., the space between neurons) and starts a receptor-mediated signaling process.
Neurons with glutamate receptor proteins (i.e., glutamate message-receivers) respond to glutamate in the synaptic cleft.
There are two general types of glutamate receptors.
One type is called ionotropic receptors: Glutamate binding to these receptors allows the entry of ions (i.e., electrically charged minerals such as sodium or calcium) into the cell.
There are three classes of ionotropic glutamate receptors: (1) N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), (2) α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA), and (3) kainate receptors.
Some glutamate can be taken up into neurons.
This is done by excitatory amino acid transporters (i.e., glutamate transporters), but much of the released glutamate is taken up by a type of glial cell called astroglia or astrocytes.
Astroglia surround synapses and play important roles in areas including nervous system repair, metabolic support of neurons, and neurotransmitter cleanup.
The combination of neurons and supporting astroglia are responsible for emptying the synaptic cleft of glutamate to turn off the signal and reset the system for generation and propagation of the next glutamate signal.
In this cleanup role, astroglia act to protect neurons from glutamate excitotoxicity.
Once glutamate has been taken up by astrocytes, it reacts with ammonia to form glutamine through the activity of glutamine synthetase.
Glutamine is then exported to the extracellular fluid where it’s taken up by neurons, starting the glutamate synthesis process again.
This sequence of events is referred to as the glutamate-glutamine cycle: It is how the nervous system ensures it maintains an adequate supply of glutamate.
Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is the sodium salt of the common amino acid glutamic acid.
Glutamic acid is naturally present in our bodies, and in many foods and food additives.
MSG occurs naturally in many foods, such as tomatoes and cheeses.
People around the world have eaten glutamate-rich foods throughout history.
For example, a historical dish in the Asian community is a glutamate-rich seaweed broth.
In 1908, a Japanese professor named Kikunae Ikeda was able to extract glutamate from this broth and determined that glutamate provided the savory taste to the soup.
Professor Ikeda then filed a patent to produce MSG and commercial production started the following year.
Today, instead of extracting and crystallizing MSG from seaweed broth, MSG is produced by the fermentation of starch, sugar beets, sugar cane or molasses.
This fermentation process is similar to that used to make yogurt, vinegar and wine.
The glutamate in MSG is chemically indistinguishable from glutamate present in food proteins.
Our bodies ultimately metabolize both sources of glutamate in the same way.
An average adult consumes approximately 13 grams of glutamate each day from the protein in food, while intake of added MSG is estimates at around 0.55 grams per day.
Glutamate is an amino acid, found in all protein-containing foods.
Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.
This amino acid is one of the most abundant and important components of proteins.
Glutamate occurs naturally in protein-containing foods such as cheese, milk, mushrooms, meat, fish, and many vegetables.
Glutamate is also produced by the human body and is vital for metabolism and brain function.
Monosodium glutamate, or MSG, is the sodium salt of glutamate.
When MSG is added to foods, it provides a similar flavoring function as the glutamate that occurs naturally in food.
MSG is comprised of nothing more than water, sodium and glutamate.
Glutamate is a salt or ester of the amino acid glutamic acid that serves as the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain.
Glutamate plays a critical role in cognitive, motor, and sensory functions.
Glutamate exerts its effects by binding to glutamate receptors on neurons.
Glutamate (Glu) or L-glutamate or L-Glutamic acid is an amino acid and the most common excitory neurotransmitter in the nervous system.
Glutamate has a wide range of different functions, and as a result of this glutamate dysfunction can cause very serious effects on disease and injury.
Glutamate is regarded as a non-essential amino acid, meaning it can be generated by the body from other amino acids, also it can also be taken as a nutritional supplement.
Glutamate is the anion of glutamic acid(an amino acid).
It is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the nervous system of the zebrafish and other vertebrates.
Post-synaptic transmission of glutamate is mediated by four types of glutamate receptors:
NMDA receptors: ionotropic transmembrane receptor that requires in addition to the binding of glutamate, glycine to also bind as a co-agonist to open the ion channel.
The ion channel associated with the NMDAR is cation NMDAR current flow is directly related to membrane depolarization, the opening probability of the channel increases with depolarization allowing voltage dependent flow of sodium and calcium ions into the post-synaptic neuron and potassium ions out of the cell.
AMPA receptors: ionotropic transmembrane receptor permeable to cations including calcium, sodium and potassium ions.
AMPA receptors open and close very quickly and are responsible for most of the fast excitatory transmission in the nervous system.
They also play a role in synaptic plasticity and are required for long-term potentiation LTP.
metabotropic glutamate receptors: These receptors are indirectly linked with ion channels and mediate their responses through second messengers such as G-proteins, they can initiate a variety of cellular effects, such as ion channel opening or other cellular effects through triggering signal transduction cascades.
Ion channel opening via metabotropic receptors can last for seconds to minutes, as opposed to milliseconds in the case of ionotropic receptors.
This means the effects of metabotropic glutamtergic signalling can last much longer and can have more widespread effects throughout the cell.
kainate receptors: the rarest type of glutamate receptor in the nervous system, kainate receptors can be both pre and post synaptic.
Kainate receptors are ionotropic receptors whose ion channels are permeable to sodium and potassium ions when activated by glutamate leading to depolarisation of the post-synaptic neuron.
Glutamate is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.
Glutamate is stored in vesicles and its release is triggered by nerve impulses.
Glutamate, which is found in MSG, is ubiquitous in nature and is present in all living organisms, commonly found in all animal and plant sources of protein.
Glutamate naturally occurs throughout the body where it performs many vital functions.
Glutamate is an amino acid, and amino acids are the building blocks of protein.
In the human body, glutamate is the most prevalent amino acid, with some estimates that our bodies contain up to four pounds of it.
As an amino acid, glutamate is considered non-essential, meaning that our bodies can manufacture it from other proteins.
But for a “non-essential” amino acid, it is responsible for a lot of essential functions in the body and brain.
Glutamate plays a critical role in certain metabolic pathways essential to life, serving as a specific precursor or substrate for biosynthesis of various amino acids — glutathione, arginine and proline — and of nucleic acids, nucleotides and metabolites.
Glutamate is critical to certain metabolic pathways essential to life.
Glutamate is the most abundant neurotransmitter in the nervous system of vertebrates, accounting for over 50% of synaptic connections in the human brain.
For Glutamates function as a neurotransmitter, glutamate must be synthesized in neuron synaptic terminals.
In the central nervous system, glutamate functions as the major transmitter that sends signals in the brain and throughout the nerves in the body, passing chemical messages from one nerve cell to another.
The glutamate, released by the synapses, increases the likelihood that the neuron will “fire” an action potential to relay its signal.
Because of these important roles glutamate is the principal mediator of cognition, emotions, sensory information, and motor coordination, and is linked to the activity of most other neurotransmitter systems.
Almost all dietary glutamate is used as fuel for the gut mucosal cells, facilitating glucose absorption for later use as brain fuel.
We can easily get all the glutamate we need from food sources.
In food, there are two forms of glutamate. Glutamate can be “free” and not bound to proteins; or bound to other amino acids as part of proteins.
It is the free glutamate that provides the unique taste of umami, which has been described as “savory” or “meaty.”
Foods known for their umami taste, such as aged Parmesan cheese, mushrooms and ripe tomatoes all contain high levels of free glutamate.
Food sources far surpass added sources of glutamate. According to the FDA, an average adult consumes approximately 13 grams of glutamate each day from the protein in food, while intake of added MSG is estimated at around 0.55 grams of glutamate per day.
MSG combines sodium and glutamate, producing a sodium salt.
The glutamate in MSG is made by fermenting starches similar to the processes to make yogurt, wine and vinegar, and the glutamate in MSG is chemically indistinguishable from glutamate in food proteins.
The body metabolizes both sources of glutamate in the same way.
Glutamate is a non-essential amino acid and can either be bound in protein as found in whole commercially unprocessed foods (glutamic acid) or unbound as a free amino acid as found in food additives or resulting from processing or manufacturing processes, commonly known as free glutamate.
Monosodium Glutamate is a manufactured ingredient that contains free glutamate.
Amino acids are the molecular building blocks of proteins and as these proteins are degraded, the result is the free amino acids, including the neurotoxin/excitotoxin free glutamate.
Glutamate is also the most abundant neurotransmitter, responsible for regulating over 50% of the nervous system, including the sensory system.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form.
Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
glutamic acid monoanion
Glutamine Analogue, 4
Aluminum L Glutamate
Glutamic Acid, (D)-Isomer
L Glutamic Acid
Aluminum L Glutamate
Glutamic Acid, (D)-Isomer
L Glutamic Acid
L-Glutamic acid, ion(1-)
Glutammato di calcio [Italian]
Caged Glutamate hydrate
Glutamate, Caged hydrate
Glutammato di calcio[italian]