ACUMER 1100 (SODIUM POLYACRYLATE) (SODYUM POLİAKRİLAT)
CAS No. : 9003-04-7
EC No. : 231-209-7
SODIUM ACRYLATE; ACUMER 1100; 7446-81-3; 2-Propenoic acid, sodium salt; sodium prop-2-enoate; ACUMER 1100; Sodium polyacrylate; Polyco; Acrysol lmw-45N;
ACUMER 1100 (Sodium polyacrylate) (LE POLYACRYLATE DE SODIUM) IUPAC Name sodium;prop-2-enoate
ACUMER 1100 (Sodium polyacrylate) (LE POLYACRYLATE DE SODIUM) InChI InChI=1S/C3H4O2.Na/c1-2-3(4)5;/h2H,1H2,(H,4,5);/q;+1/p-1
ACUMER 1100 (Sodium polyacrylate) (LE POLYACRYLATE DE SODIUM) InChI Key NNMHYFLPFNGQFZ-UHFFFAOYSA-M
ACUMER 1100 (Sodium polyacrylate) (LE POLYACRYLATE DE SODIUM) Canonical SMILES C=CC(=O)[O-].[Na+]
ACUMER 1100 (Sodium polyacrylate) (LE POLYACRYLATE DE SODIUM) Molecular Formula (C3H3O2)n·Na
ACUMER 1100 (Sodium polyacrylate) (LE POLYACRYLATE DE SODIUM) CAS 7446-81-3
ACUMER 1100 (Sodium polyacrylate) (LE POLYACRYLATE DE SODIUM) Related CAS 79-10-7 (Parent)
ACUMER 1100 (Sodium polyacrylate) (LE POLYACRYLATE DE SODIUM) Deprecated CAS 124740-94-9, 126123-84-0, 138961-78-1, 199453-47-9, 44196-70-5, 65852-59-7, 291530-46-6, 1239896-27-5, 1674405-53-8, 1865799-57-0
ACUMER 1100 (Sodium polyacrylate) (LE POLYACRYLATE DE SODIUM) European Community (EC) Number 231-209-7
ACUMER 1100 (Sodium polyacrylate) (LE POLYACRYLATE DE SODIUM) ICSC Number 1429
ACUMER 1100 (Sodium polyacrylate) (LE POLYACRYLATE DE SODIUM) UNII 7C98FKB43H
ACUMER 1100 (Sodium polyacrylate) (LE POLYACRYLATE DE SODIUM) DSSTox Substance ID DTXSID4027652
ACUMER 1100 (Sodium polyacrylate) (LE POLYACRYLATE DE SODIUM) Physical Description Liquid
ACUMER 1100 (Sodium polyacrylate) (LE POLYACRYLATE DE SODIUM) Melting Point >300 °C
ACUMER 1100 (Sodium polyacrylate) (LE POLYACRYLATE DE SODIUM) Solubility Solubility in water: good
ACUMER 1100 (Sodium polyacrylate) (LE POLYACRYLATE DE SODIUM) Density 1.1 - 1.4 g/cm³
ACUMER 1100 (Sodium polyacrylate) (LE POLYACRYLATE DE SODIUM) Property Name Property Value Reference
ACUMER 1100 (Sodium polyacrylate) (LE POLYACRYLATE DE SODIUM) Molecular Weight 94.04 g/mol
ACUMER 1100 (Sodium polyacrylate) (LE POLYACRYLATE DE SODIUM) Hydrogen Bond Donor Count 0
ACUMER 1100 (Sodium polyacrylate) (LE POLYACRYLATE DE SODIUM) Hydrogen Bond Acceptor Count 2
ACUMER 1100 (Sodium polyacrylate) (LE POLYACRYLATE DE SODIUM) Rotatable Bond Count 1
ACUMER 1100 (Sodium polyacrylate) (LE POLYACRYLATE DE SODIUM) Exact Mass 94.003074 g/mol
ACUMER 1100 (Sodium polyacrylate) (LE POLYACRYLATE DE SODIUM) Monoisotopic Mass 94.003074 g/mol
ACUMER 1100 (Sodium polyacrylate) (LE POLYACRYLATE DE SODIUM) Topological Polar Surface Area 40.1 Å²
ACUMER 1100 (Sodium polyacrylate) (LE POLYACRYLATE DE SODIUM) Heavy Atom Count 6
ACUMER 1100 (Sodium polyacrylate) (LE POLYACRYLATE DE SODIUM) Formal Charge 0
ACUMER 1100 (Sodium polyacrylate) (LE POLYACRYLATE DE SODIUM) Complexity 59.8
ACUMER 1100 (Sodium polyacrylate) (LE POLYACRYLATE DE SODIUM) Isotope Atom Count 0
ACUMER 1100 (Sodium polyacrylate) (LE POLYACRYLATE DE SODIUM) Defined Atom Stereocenter Count 0
ACUMER 1100 (Sodium polyacrylate) (LE POLYACRYLATE DE SODIUM) Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count 0
ACUMER 1100 (Sodium polyacrylate) (LE POLYACRYLATE DE SODIUM) Defined Bond Stereocenter Count 0
ACUMER 1100 (Sodium polyacrylate) (LE POLYACRYLATE DE SODIUM) Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count 0
ACUMER 1100 (Sodium polyacrylate) (LE POLYACRYLATE DE SODIUM) Covalently-Bonded Unit Count 2
ACUMER 1100 (Sodium polyacrylate) (LE POLYACRYLATE DE SODIUM) Compound Is Canonicalized Yes
An acrylic based water soluble scale inhibitor, and good dispersant for carbonates, sulfates and sparingly soluble salts. Particularly suitable for incorporation in acidic formulations. BGVV, EU food contact and FDA clearances apply. NSF-60 for potable water.Industrial water treatment Excellent scale inhibition for a variety of applications including cooling circuits, boilers and RO units.A Low molecular weight polyacrylate homopolymer (4500 Mw) for general purpose scale inhibition Description ACUMER™ 1100 is low molecular weight polyacrylate for general purpose scale inhibition within water systems, providing exceptional efficiency at a low dosage over a wide range of pH, water hardness and temperature conditions.Used in:Industrial water treatment Scale inhibition in open recirculating cooling circuits (CaCO3 scale in particular) Dispersant for all types of cooling circuits Dispersant for boiler sludge control Advantages Good anti-scaling efficiency at low dosage over a wide range of pH, water hardness and temperature conditions Strong dispersant activity contrarily to phosphonates Exceptional stability in the presence of hypochlorite Contains no phosphorus – meets discharge water legislation requirements Chemistry and Mode of Action ACUMER 1100 is a low molecular weight polyacrylate with a selected molecular weight around 4500 to optimize the anti-scale performance through at least three mechanisms:Solubility enhancement by threshold effect, which reduces precipitation of low solubility inorganic salts (calcium carbonate in particular).Crystal modification, which deforms the growing inorganic salt crystal to give small, irregular, readily fractured crystals that do not adhere well to surfaces and can be easily removed during cleaning operations.Dispersing activity, which prevents precipitated crystals or other inorganic particles from agglomerating and depositing on surfaces.Anti-Precipitation Performance ACUMER 1100 polymer is a general purpose scale inhibitor as it is effective to prevent scale building in inhibiting precipitation and deposition of calcium carbonate, calcium oxalate, calcium sulfate, barium sulfate, and other low solubility salts.Applications Industrial Water Treatment Scale inhibition in open recirculating cooling circuits (CaCO3 scale in particular).Dispersant for all types of cooling circuits.Dispersant for boiler sludge control.Benefits of ACUMER 1100 Contains no phosphorus, making its use acceptable where legislation requires that discharge waters Exhibits exceptional stability in the presence of hypochlorite.Shows good anti-scaling efficiency at low dosage over a wide range of pH, water hardness and temperature conditions.Offers a strong dispersant activity contrarily to phosphonates.Manufacturer Acumer 1100 IR-1100 acrylic homopolymer general-purpose scale inhibitor is the homopolymer of low molecular polyacrylic acid and its salts. Free of phosphate, it can be used in situations of low or none content of phosphate. IR-1100 can be used as a highly effective scale inhibitor for sugar processing. IR-1100 acrylic homopolymer obtains the scale inhibition effect by dispersing calcium carbonate or calcium sulfate in the water system.IR-1100 acrylic homopolymer (similar to ACUMER 1100) is an ordinarily used dispersant, it can be used as scale inhibitor and dispersant in circulating cool water system, papermaking, woven and dyeing, ceramic, and pigments. (similar to Rohmhaas co. ACUMER 1100)ACUMER 1100 is a low molecular weight polyacrylate with a selected molecular weight around 4500 to optimize the anti-scale performance through at least three mechanisms: z Solubility enhancement by threshold effect, which reduces precipitation of low solubility inorganic salts (calcium carbonate in particular). z Crystal modification, which deforms the growing inorganic salt crystal to give small, irregular, readily fractured crystals that do not adhere well to surfaces and can be easily removed during cleaning operations. z Dispersing activity, which prevents precipitated crystals or other inorganic particles from agglomerating and depositing on surfaces.ACUMER™ 1100 Scale inhibitor for carbonates, sulfates and highly insoluble salts. Also a dispersantParticularly suitable for incorporation in acidic formulations.We are able to supply ACUMER 1100 formula.We are able to supply ACUMER 1100 Equivalent product in name of our brand or your brand.We are also able to supply all raw materials for ACUMER 1100.A copy of MSDS for ACUMER 1100 is available once required.Sodium polyacrylate, also known as waterlock, is a sodium salt of polyacrylic acid with the chemical formula [−CH2−CH(CO2Na)−]n and has broad applications in consumer products. This super-absorbent polymer (SAP) has the ability to absorb 100 to 1000 times its mass in water. Sodium polyacrylate is an anionic polyelectrolyte with negatively charged carboxylic groups in the main chain. Sodium polyacrylate is a chemical polymer made up of chains of acrylate compounds. It contains sodium, which gives it the ability to absorb large amounts of water. Sodium polyacrylate is also classified as an anionic polyelectrolyte. When dissolved in water, it forms a thick and transparent solution due to the ionic interactions of the molecules. Sodium polyacrylate has many favorable mechanical properties. Some of these advantages include good mechanical stability, high heat resistance, and strong hydration. It has been used as an additive for food products including bread, juice, and ice cream.While sodium neutralized polyacrylic acids are the most common form used in industry, there are also other salts available including potassium, lithium and ammonium. The origins of super-absorbent polymer chemistry trace back to the early 1960s when the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) developed the first super-absorbent polymer materials.Super-absorbent polymers similar to sodium polyacrylate were developed in the 1960s by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Before the development of these substances, the best water absorbing materials were cellulosic or fiber-based like tissue paper, sponge, cotton, or fluff pulp. These materials can only retain 20 times their weight in water, whereas sodium polyacrylate can retain hundreds of times its own weight in water. The USDA was interested in developing this technology because they wanted to find materials that could improve water conservation in soil. Through extensive research, they found that the gels they created did not expel water as fiber-based materials would. Early adopters of this technology were Dow Chemical, Hercules, General Mills Chemical, and DuPont. Ultra-thin baby diapers were some of the first hygiene products to be developed which uses only a fraction of the material compared to fluff pulp diapers. Super-absorbent technology is in high demand in the disposable hygiene industry for products like diapers and sanitary napkins. SAPs used in hygiene products are typically sodium neutralized whereas SAPs used in agricultural applications are potassium neutralized.Methods to fabricate sodium polyacrylate, like solution polymerization in water, inverse emulsion polymerization, inverse suspension polymerization, plasma polymerization, and pressure-induced polymerization have been employed to synthesize various polyacrylates. However, the process to obtain a solid-state product using these methods requires a lot of equipment and is very expensive. The products obtained from these methods also have defects like poor solubility and broad molecular weight distribution. Despite having drawbacks, the polymerization methods aforementioned are often used to form sodium polyacrylate and other SAPs.During solution polymerization, monomers are dissolved in a solvent that contains a catalyst to induce polymerization. Solution polymerization in water utilizes water as the solvent which means that the end product formed from the reaction is soluble in water. Inverse emulsion polymerization requires water, monomers, and a surfactant. Also, inverse emulsion polymerization is used to polymerize hydrophilic monomers. Hydrophobic monomers are emulsified through an aqueous phase. Free radicals are created in order to produce the polymer with either water or oil soluble initiators. Inverse suspension polymerization is carried out by using an aqueous solution of the monomer, cross-linking agent, and initiator which is then added to an organic phase which is stabilized by a surfactant. Plasma polymerization utilizes a range of technologies such as electron beams, ultraviolet radiation, or glow discharge in order to form polymers from a vapor made out of monomers. Gas discharge provided through this process initiates the polymerization of a group of monomers. Finally, pressure-induced polymerization applies pressure or compressive forces to solutions of monomers in order to create units which undergo polymerization and produce polymers.Another method tested in a study to produce sodium polyacrylate as an alternative to current methods began with Butyl acrylate-acrylic acid copolymer and poly (butyl acrylate). They were synthesized via suspension polymerization by using butyl acrylate as the main monomer and acrylic acid as a secondary monomer. Suspension polymerization uses physical and mechanical movement and agitation in order to mix monomers to form polymers. This process requires dispersing medium, monomers, stabilizing agents, and initiators. Next, the polymers were swollen in ethanol and hydrolyzed in an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide. Finally, water-soluble sodium polyacrylates were obtained by washing and drying the hydrolyzed resultant. This is a different method compared to the manufacturing processes that have been previously utilized, but could be a potential method to specifically manufacture sodium polyacrylate. Overall, the various production methods of sodium polyacrylate will influence its swelling capability, absorbency, and other mechanical properties. It is also important to consider cost and feasibility when manufacturing polymers like sodium polyacrylate.Experiments and studies have shown that the incorporation of 0.3 wt% sodium polyacrylate in collagen (Co) fibers can improve the mechanical properties and thermal stability of the composite films. Sodium polyacrylate can form films and composites with different cationic polymers, proteins, and other substances which can benefit the properties of the film. Furthermore, sodium polyacrylate has the potential to combine with metal ions because of its characteristic polyanionic property which would allow for more reinforcing of the material. When collagen and sodium polyacrylate (Co-PAAS) blend films were combined with Ca2+, Fe3+, and Ag+ ranging from 0.001 to 0.004 mol/g, the surface of the composites became coarser and the internal structure became more stratified as more metal ions were added. When the ions were added, tensile strength increased. The optimal amounts for each ion are as follows: Ca2+ (0.003 mol/g), Fe3+ (0.002 mol/g), and Ag+ (0.001 mol/g). The composite films also had better thermal stability.Overall, the study showed that metal ions added to Co-PAAS blend composite films can be used as an alternative to reinforce collagenous composite materials. These three ions were combined with the Co-PAAS film because of their relevant biological applications. Ca2+ is one of the major elements in animal tissues including bone and teeth and has a strong interaction with collagen. Next, Fe3+ is an important trace element in the human body and participates in protein chelation. Finally, Ag+ has antibacterial properties and can improve the stability and transparency of the Co-PAAS film.Sodium polyacrylate is a commonly used electronegative polyelectrolyte which could be used to construct self-healing hydrogels and super-absorbents. Novel chitosan/sodium polyacrylate polyelectrolyte complex hydrogels (CPG) have been fabricated successfully in a study by cross-linking chitosan and sodium polyacrylate with epichlorohydrin (ECH) through the inhibiting protonation effect of chitosan in an alkali/urea aqueous solution. The CPG had a high swelling ratio because of sodium polyacrylate and acted differently in various pH solutions, physiological solutions, and salt solutions with different concentrations. As a result, CPG had smart responsive properties to different situations and exhibited high compressive strength, good biocompatibility and in-vitro biodegradability. This fabrication process has shown success and has potential applications in the fields of agriculture, foods, tissue engineering, and drug delivery.In addition, sodium polyacrylate is used in paper diapers and Maximum Absorbency Garments as the absorbent material. It is also used in ice packs to convert the water used as the cooling agent into a gel, in order to reduce spillage in case the ice pack leaks. Sodium polyacrylate has also been studied for utilization in many applications such as nanofiltration of water to absorb water and concentrate the liquid with microbes. Also, it is used for eco-engineering as a water-retaining agent in rocky slopes for increasing moisture availability in the soil. This can improve the water retention availability of the soil and infiltration capacity in sandy soil. Below is a table containing categories and lists of some products and applications that utilize sodium polyacrylateSodium polyacrylate is commonly used in detergents as a chelating agent. A chelating agent is used in detergents because it has the ability to neutralize heavy metals that can be found in dirt, water, and other substances that could be in clothes. The addition of sodium polyacrylate makes detergent more effective when cleaning clothes.Since sodium polyacrylate can absorb and retain water molecules, it is used often in diapers, hair gels, and soaps. Sodium polyacrylate is considered a thickening agent because it increases the viscosity of water-based compounds. In diapers, sodium polyacrylate absorbs water found in urine in order to increase the capacity to store liquid and to reduce rashes.Sodium polyacrylate can also be utilized as a coating for electrical wires in order to reduce the amount of moisture around wires. Water and moisture near wires can cause issues with transmitting electrical signals. This could cause potential fire hazards. Due to the effective absorption and swelling capacity of sodium polyacrylate, it can absorb water and prevent it from surrounding or infiltrating wires.Although sodium polyacrylate has beneficial environmental applications, in one study, sodium polyacrylate was found to have inhibitory effects on the bioH2 fermentation of cellulosic wastes. Sodium polyacrylate is commonly used in diapers to absorb liquids from urine and feces, but it has been found that waste disposable diapers (WDD) accumulate in landfills since sodium polyacrylate prevents and negatively affects H2 production from the dark fermentation of WDD. To be specific, WDD represents 7% of urban solid refuse and the current option is landfilling, which is only degradable during biological conditions. Such conditions include anaerobic degradation and composting. Considering the high amounts of cellulosic waste in WDD, in order to be more sustainable it has been recommended that sodium polyacrylate be replaced with special starches that can absorb significant amounts of water yet are still degradable by dark fermentation (DF). Overall, despite having many beneficial environmental applications, the usage of sodium polyacrylate in diapers can prevent waste from degrading properly over time.Studies have shown that sodium polyacrylate and other super-absorbent polymers or SAPs can be used to absorb and recover metal ions. Heavy metals are very harmful pollutants and can have detrimental effects on aquatic environments and human beings because of high toxicity, bioaccumulation, and non-degradability. Activities like mining and petroleum refining can produce these heavy metals which necessitates a simple and environmentally sustainable process to absorb these harmful metals to prevent disastrous results. Sodium polyacrylate can absorb solutions quickly by swelling porous structure networks to reduce mass-transfer resistance. Also, sodium polyacrylate is a low-cost, non-toxic, and biocompatible option for water purification to recover metal ions.A study demonstrated that a sodium polyacrylate composite had high adsorption and desorption efficiency, implying that sodium polyacrylate can be recycled and reused as an effective absorbent for Cu(II) recovery. Sodium polyacrylate is able to do this because of its function group (-COO-) in its matrix which contributes to its effective adsorption capacity. Sodium polyacrylate has a very high adsorption capacity and one of the highest adsorption capacities for sodium polyacrylate was found with Cu(II) ions. Using a mild concentration of 0.01 M nitric acid, almost all of the copper could be recovered from the sodium polyacrylate matrix. The results of the study indicate the effectiveness of using sodium polyacrylate to rid the environment of toxic metals like copper. It is also a sustainable solution since sodium polyacrylate can be recycled and reused, therefore, reducing waste.Sodium polyacrylate can be used for microencapsulation to deliver substances like probiotics. The delivery of probiotics to the digestive system can be difficult because the viability of probiotics decreases sharply throughout the gastrointestinal tract due to strong acid conditions. Although Alginate (Alg) is the most extensively used native microcapsule matrix, combining Alg with sodium polyacrylate yields better results based on research comparing different encapsulation methods. Sodium polyacrylate is an oral safe food additive approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and has repeated carboxylate groups along its molecular chain. As a result, the acid buffering effect of sodium polyacrylate could be better than small molecular acid. Also, the binding capacity of sodium polyacrylate with calcium ions could be higher than Alg because of the high concentration of carboxylate groups and the increased flexible nature of the polymer chain.Sodium polyacrylate has been found useful in drug delivery applications. When combined with alginate (Alg), sodium polyacrylate was able to successfully encapsulate Lactobacillus plantarum MA2 and allowed better probiotic delivery compared to an Alg microcapsule. This result is true for both the small and large intestine. This research has shown that Alg-PAAS(1:2) could be a potentially effective microcapsule matrix in probiotic drug delivery. This capsule enhanced the survival of the probiotic when traveling both in-vitro and in-vivo.Sodium polyacrylate itself does not irritate the skin. It is made up of large polymers that do not have the ability to infiltrate the skin. However, sometimes sodium polyacrylate is mixed with acrylic acid which is leftover from the manufacturing process. As a leftover of producing sodium polyacrylate, acrylic acid can cause a rash in contact with skin. It should be less than 300 PPM as the absorbent material in paper diapers. Also, if sodium polyacrylate is being used in a powder form it should not be inhaled. If spilled in an area with water, sodium polyacrylate could cause the ground to be very slippery. Finally, sodium polyacrylate can cause severe clogging if it enters sewers or drainage systems in large quantities. Otherwise, sodium polyacrylate is non-toxic and safe from any major risks.Sodium polyacrylate is a chemical polymer that is widely used in a variety of consumer products for its ability to absorb several hundred times its mass in water. Sodium polyacrylate is made up of multiple chains of acrylate compounds that possess a positive anionic charge, which attracts water-based molecules to combine with it, making sodium polyacrylate a suber-absorbent compound. This polymer is highly toxic when inhaled or ingested, causing damage to your eyes, skin and lungs. If you have accidentally inhaled or ingested sodium polyacrylate, seek medical attention immediately.Sodium polyacrylate is commonly used as a sequestering agent, or chelating agent, in many detergents. It has the ability to bind hard-water elements, such as magnesium, calcium, iron and zinc, to make the detergents work more effectively. Chelating agents neutralize the presence of heavy metals that may be found in water, dirt and other substances that can be found in your laundry, making the detergent more effective in cleaning and neutralizing odors in your clothes.Sodium polyacrylate is primarily used as a thickening agent because of its unique ability to absorb and hold onto water molecules, making it ideal for use in diapers and hair gels. It is also used in industrial processes to dissolve soaps by absorbing water molecules. Thickening agents, like sodium polyacrylate, increase the viscosity of water-based compounds, which increases their stability. In diapers, sodium polyacrylate will absorb the water molecules found in urine, increasing the amount of liquid the diaper can hold while at the same time reducing the risk of diaper rash by promoting a dry environment.Sodium polyacrylate has been included in the coatings of sensitive electrical wiring to keep moisture away from the wires. Water and moisture conduct electricity, and can interfere with the transmission of electrical signals along wires that transmit elecrical signals, causing damage to the wire and creating a potential fire hazard. When sodium polyacrylate is infused in the protective rubber coating around a wire, it protects the wire from exposure to moisture, ensuring the safe transmission of electrical signals.Sodium polyacrylate is used extensively in the agricultural industry and is infused in the soil of many potted plants to help them retain moisture, behaving as a type of water reservoir. Florists commonly use sodium polyacrylate to help keep flowers fresh, and this substance has been approved for domestic fruit and vegetable growing by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Sodium polyacrylate has also been combined with other absorbent polymers and infused into the innermost layers of spacesuits that will be worn by a NASA astronaut to help keep his skin from developing rashes during space flight.Sodium polyacrylate (also called acrylic sodium salt polymer) is a superabsorbent polymer that is used extensively in commercial applications as a water absorbent. It is a white, granular, odorless solid that is not considered hazardous. Sodium polyacrylate is made when a mixture of acrylic acid and sodium acrylate is polymerized.Sodium polyacrylate is used as a thickening agent in industrial processes and to dissolve soaps. A thickener increases the viscosity of hydro-based systems, increases its stability, and provides body without modifying its other properties. Sodium polyacrylate behaves as a wetting and dispersing agent, promoting miscibility and facilitating even dispersion. Sodium polyacrylate acts as a sequestering (or chelating) agent in many detergents. It acts by combining with dissolved substances in water and binding them together, allowing detergent surfactants (wetting agents) to act effectively.Sodium polyacrylate is added to potted plants and soils to allow them to retain moisture. It behaves as a water reservoir, soaking up excess water and discharging it when required. Florists use sodium polyacrylate to preserve water and help retain the freshness of flowers.Diapers are made absorbent by the addition of a thin membrane of sodium polyacrylate. The outermost layer of a diaper is made of microporous polyethylene, and the innermost layer is polypropylene. Polyethylene keeps the urine from leaking, and polypropylene absorbs moisture from the skin and allows the diaper to keep dry and soft. Between these two layers is a layer of sodium polyacrylate in combination with cellulose. According to “Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity, Volume 2,” sodium polyacrylate can easily absorb up to 800 times its weight in water. Sodium polyacrylate is also used in tampons and similar female hygiene products.Sodium polyacrylate protects electrical and optical cables from moisture. It is applied to the conductor or shielding of communication and power cables. Sodium polyacrylate blocks water from penetrating and damaging a cable.Sodium Polyacrylate (ASAP) is an acrylic sodium salt based hydrophilic polymer with carbonyl and sodium as major groups present in the structure. Both groups facilitate the polymeric chain with absorption potential. It can be used as a superabsorbent material as, in the presence of a liquid, the ASAP chain swells and forms a gel substance.According to various material safety data sheets (documents created by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration that list potential hazards of chemicals in great detail), sodium polyacrylate is totally safe.Sodium polyacrylate itself is not irritating to the skin. As a polymer, it sticks together in long chains that are way too large to be absorbed through the skin.But some kind of sodium polyacrylate is mixed up with small amounts of acrylic acid, a leftover from the manufacturing process.In theory, acrylic acid in large doses could be harmful to a baby’s skin. But according to a 2009 report in the Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, there isn’t nearly enough acrylic acid in disposable diapers to raise concern. Another side, sodium polyacrylate supplier should test the acrylic acid value and make sure it is less than 300 PPM (part per million).Sodium polyacrylate, also known as WaterLock, is a sodium salt of polyacrylic acid with the chemical formula [CH 2 -CH (CO 2 Na) -] n and has a wide application as consumer products. This superabsorbent polymer can absorb 1000-100 masses in water many times. Sodium polyacrylate is an anionic polyelectrolyte group in the negatively charged carboxylic main chain. While sodium neutralizes polyacrylic acids, there are also other salts available, including potassium, lithium, and ammonium. The origins of the super absorbent trace back to polymer chemistry in the early 1960s when the Ministry of Agriculture developed the first super absorbent polymer material. If you forgot to take a dose of medication, it does not matter. If your next dose is too close to your time, stick to the dose you missed and your dose schedule. Do not take extra doses to treat the missed dose. If you forget your doses, set an alarm or ask a family member to remind you. Please consult your doctor to write on your dosing schedule or to make up for missed doses if you have recently forgotten too many doses Sodium Polyacrylate overdose Do not use more than prescribed dose. Consuming too much does not improve their program; Wrong, it can cause poisoning as well as serious side effects. If you suspect that you or a relative has used an overdose of Sodium Polyacrylate, please visit your nearest hospital`s emergency department. To help doctors, bring along medication information such as a box, bottle, or label.Do not give your medication to someone else, even if you have the same condition or seem to have similar groups. This can lead to an overdose. Consult your exhaust or check the package insert for more information. Storage of Sodium Polyacrylate Store medicines in room, away from heat and light. Do not freeze medicines unless it is written on the package insert. Keep medicines out of reach of pets.Do not pour medicines into the toilet or sink, unless instructed to do so on the prospectus. Drugs disposed in this way can pollute the nature. Please consult your doctor about how to remove Sodium Polyacrylate medication. Filled Sodium Polyacrylate Using a single dose of expired Sodium Polyacrylate will likely cause a case. Consult your pharmacist for appropriate advice or if you feel unwell. Expiry date medications, your prescription situations will not be efficient. To stay safe, it is very important not to use expiration medications. If you have chronic illnesses who are constantly looking for medications such as heart disease, seizures and life-threatening allergies, it is much more important to stay in contact with your family doctor so that you can replace expired medications immediately. My best ever absorbent is: Sodium Polyacrylate (Other: Acrylic Sodium Salt Polymer / ASAP / Super Absorbent Polymer-SAP / Super Absorbent Material-SAM / Super Slurper / Waterlock-Water Lock). Sodium Polyacrylate is an odorless and fireproof solid polymer with the chemical formula [-CH2-CH (COONa) -] n, white in color, powder like table salt. The feature that makes it interesting is that it absorbs 300-400 times its own mass of water. Because of this type of feature, it is used in many areas: In diapers, hygienic products, artificial snow used in film use, detergents, clothes of NASA astronauts (to absorb urine and feces), illusion tricks (tricks where water disappears), thickeners (to increase viscosity) It finds its place in coatings, agricultural applications and animal husbandry (in animal transportation, the gel-like polymer material is fed to animals to quench their thirst, it is a practical method since there is no spillage like water). If a little more water is poured into this substance, which instantly absorbs the water that is poured on it and increases its volume / swells, the gel form is left in the tea. This gel can be dried at any time. If sodium chloride (common table salt - NaCl) is added to the water, sodium polyacrylate is separated from the water. This polymer substance, which is harmless as far as it is known, shows us one of the impressive aspects of Chemistry with its excellent absorption ability.
ACUMER™ polymers are a series of Low Molecular Weight (LMW) Polyacrylic Acids
and their corresponding sodium salts. These products have weight average molecular
weights of approximately 2000 and 4500. ACUMER polymers contain no phosphorus,
making their use acceptable where legislation requires that discharge waters contain low or
ACUMER polymers are highly effective scale inhibitors that can be used industrial water
treatment and oil production applications to inhibit the deposition of calcium carbonate,
calcium sulfate, barium sulfate, and other low solubility salts on surfaces. These polymers
show good activity over a wide range of pH, water hardness, and temperature conditions.
The choice among the members of the series depends on the application, formulation, use
conditions, and required performance characteristics. These materials show excellent
Applications ACUMER™ polymers can be used to inhibit scale buildup on surfaces through at least three
• Solubility enhancement or threshold effect, which reduces precipitation of low solubility
• Crystal modification, which deforms the growing inorganic salt crystal to give small,
irregular, readily fractured crystals that do not adhere well to surfaces.
• Dispersing activity, which prevents precipitated crystals or other inorganic particulates
from agglomerating and depositing on surfaces.
Low molecular weight polyacrylic acids are widely used to inhibit scaling in industrial water
treatment and in oil production applications. The activity of the ACUMER polymers in
cooling tower, boiler, and oil field applications is illustrated by the following data.
ACUMER™ 1000, 1020, 1100, and 1110 Scale Inhibitors 07/2012, Rev. 0
Scale Inhibition at
In evaluating scale inhibition at heat transfer surfaces, the ACUMER™ polymers were used
alone under stressed conditions. Note that their relative effectiveness may change in
formulated water treatment systems or under less stressed conditions.
1. Laboratory Test on Immersion Heater (Table 4, Figures 4 and 5)
Test water was recirculated past an immersion heater and over baffles exposed to
upward air flow; Table 4 lists the test parameters. During the 3-hour run, the calcium
ions remaining in solution as evaporation proceeded and the rate of heat transfer (time
the heater was on) were monitored. The amount of scale deposited on the heater at the
end of the test was also measured. ACUMER 1000/ACUMER 1020 (M� R
w 2000) were the
most effective under these conditions by all three measurements of scaling tendency.
The highest molecular weight analogs ACUMER 1100/ACUMER 1110 (M� R
w 4500) and a
competitive sodium polyacrylate (M� R
w 2800) were less effective
The relative performance of the ACUMER™ polymers was evaluated in simulated
cooling tower devices under stressed conditions. Water containing 625 mg/l hardness
(as CaCO3) and 150 mg/l alkalinity was circulated past a copper heat transfer coupon at
0.4 to 2 ft./sec. in an apparatus designed to give a range of flow rates over a single heat
transfer surface; Table 5 lists the test parameters. Heat transfer coefficients were
monitored daily for 5 days; the polymer levels were 2.5, 7.5, and 15 ppm. Table 6 lists
the average retained heat transfer coefficient at each polymer concentration. Like the
immersion heater study, ACUMER 1000/ACUMER 1020 were the most effective
polymers in maintaining a constant, high heat transfer coefficient and
ACUMER 1100/ACUMER 1110 were almost as good.
Most oil-field waters are brines, containing large amounts of divalent cations which
commonly form mineral scales. Scale can be encountered on the formation face, in the
production tubing, on surface vessels, injection pumps, lines, etc.
The scales of greatest concern in oil production are calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, and
barium sulfate. Laboratory screening tests are useful for comparing the effectiveness of
inhibitor candidates. Details of the test procedures are given in the Appendix.
1. Inhibitor of CaSO4 Precipitation (Figure 7)
ACUMER™ polymers are all highly effective inhibitors of CaSO4 precipitation. Virtually
complete inhibition is achieved with 0.5 ppm polymer under the NACE test conditions.
No significant difference in activity among the polymers in the ACUMER series is noted
during this test.
2. Inhibition of CaCO3 Precipitation (Figure 8)
ACUMER 1100/ACUMER 1110 (M� R
w 4500) and ACUMER 1000/ACUMER 1020
polymers (M� R
w 2000) are equally effective inhibitors of CaCO3 precipitation.
Inhibition by Blends of ACUMER™ Polymers and Phosphonates (Figure 9)
In some instances, blends of phosphonates or phosphate esters with ACUMER
polymers are better anti-precipitants than either alone. Figure 9 demonstrates the
synergistic behavior of ACUMER 1100/ACUMER 1110 and phosphonate for calcium
carbonate inhibition; the dotted lines plot the additive effects and the solid lines the
actual effects of the blends.
4. Inhibition of BaSO4 Precipitation (Figure 10)
BaSO4 scale is particularly difficult to remove and consequently prevention is critically
important, especially in off-shore oil wells and papermaking applications.
ACUMER 1000/ACUMER 1020 polymers (M� R
w 2000) are particularly effective in a typical
16-hour duration test and show more efficient inhibition than ACUMER 1100/
ACUMER 1110 (M� R
w 4500) polymers. ACUMER 1000/ACUMER 1020 polymers also
show better inhibiting activity than a competitive sodium polyacrylate, a phosphonate, or
a phosphate ester.
If longer times (64 hours) are allowed for precipitation, ACUMER 1100/ACUMER 1110
w 4500) are more effective than ACUMER 1000/ACUMER 1020 (M� R
5. Overall Anti-Precipitation Performance
The actual choice between the two molecular weight polymers depends on the test
conditions, although generally ACUMER 1000/ACUMER 1020 (M� R
w 2000) are the most
effective polymers. At high Ca+2 concentration and high temperature,
ACUMER 1000/ACUMER 1020 would be expected to perform better than
ACUMER 1100/ ACUMER 1110 considering the comparative solubilities versus Ca+2
concentration and temperature in Figure 3.
ACUMER™ 1000, 1020, 1100, and 1110 Scale Inhibitors 07/2012, Rev. 0
MODIFICATION OF CaSO4 AND CaCO3 CRYSTALS (Figures 11 and 12)
The photomicrographs in Figures 11 and 12 show the dramatic crystal distortion effects of
ACUMER 1000/ ACUMER 1020 and ACUMER 1100/ACUMER 1110 on CaSO4 and
CaCO3. The normally long and regular CaSO4 crystals are fractured and distorted when
formed in the presence of ACUMER 1000/ACUMER 1020 polymers. CaCO3 crystals are
normally large and well formed, but are smaller and more irregular when formed in the
presence of ACUMER 1100/ACUMER 1110.
ACUMER™ polymers 1000, 1020, 1100 and 1110 are very stable at high pressures and
temperatures typical of boilers up to at least 1200 psig/298°C. The chart below contains
data on the hydrothermal stability of ACUMER 1000.