Alcohol ethoxylates are a class of compounds that are commonly used throughout many industrial practices and commercial markets. These compounds are synthesized via the reaction of a fatty alcohol and ethylene oxide, resulting in a molecule that consists of two main components, (1) the oleophilic, carbon-rich, fatty alcohol and (2) the hydrophilic, polyoxyethylene chain.
Due the basic structure of these compounds that pair a hydrophobic portion (water-hating) with a hydrophilic component (water-loving), ethoxylated alcohols are a versatile class of compounds, commonly referred to as surfactants. Alcohol ethoxylate surfactants enhance the mixing and solubilization of oil and water by having these contrasting sections within the same compound. With this unique structure, a single molecule can inhabit the interface of two immiscible phases (i.e. oil and water), effectively bringing them closer together and lowering the interfacial energy associated between them. By lowering this energy, many novel solution applications can be accessed by increasing the homogeneity of these two previously immiscible phases.
what is alcohol ethoxyate?
Ethoxylated alcohols can vary widely in their properties and applications because the materials used to make these products can vary in their structures and amounts. For instance, fatty alcohols, which are commonly sourced from natural materials, can provide different structures depending on the plant from which they were extracted. Common natural sources of fatty alcohols include the palm oil tree (including both palm oil and palm kernel oil), oils from the coconut tree, and the oil from rapeseed. Each of these natural sources differs in its distribution of carbon chains, making an alcohol ethoxylate from coconut oil alcohol different from an ethoxylated alcohol made from the alcohol of a palm kernel oil.
ATAMAN offers a wide array of ethoxylated alcohols that have been sourced from natural materials (Alcohol Ethoxylates), each of which provide a unique set of application properties. Additionally, fatty alcohols can also be synthesized from petroleum products, providing unique structures in the hydrophobic moiety that are not commonly observed in nature. Branched alcohols and alcohols of specific carbon distributions can be attained using synthetic starting materials, all of which strongly affect the alcohol ethoxylate’s final properties. If you’re seeking surfactant companies, please visit the ATAMAN website to see our large portfolio of ethoxylated alcohols from synthetic sources.
Alternatively, the length of the polyoxyethylene component (i.e. the hydrophilic portion) of the alcohol ethoxylate provides this class of compounds with a wide assortment of water solubilities and detergency properties. Increasing the amount of ethylene oxide on the ethoxylated alcohol typically increases its water solubility, as well as increases the hydrophilic/lipophilic balance (HLB) of the compound. Ranging in arbitrary units of 1-20, the HLB of a nonionic surfactant can be calculated and used to determine the propensity of a compound to work effectively in a given solution of oil and water. Lower HLB values (< 10) are commonly used for oil-rich solutions while surfactants with higher HLB values (> 10) are typically most efficient in oil-in-water emulsions. Each of ATAMAN’s line of ethoxylated alcohol products can vary widely in their HLB values, offering numerous options for the formulation chemist and scientist.
Alcohol Ethoxylate Uses
Alcohol ethoxylates are used in a wide variety of industrial and commercial settings. Because these compounds are surfactants, they can be used whenever oily substances come into contact with water or a surface. Ethoxylated alcohols can be used as detergents, wetting agents, emulsifiers, degreasers and emollients in many lines of commercially available products and industrial practices.
ATAMAN’s line of alcohol ethoxylates serve many markets, including, Paints & Coatings, Agrochemical, Home & Personal Care, Oil & Gas and Industrial & Institutional Cleaning. Due to the aforementioned variety in properties that are governed by a compound’s structure, ATAMAN’s line of alcohol ethoxylates can provide the formulator with many different properties, including excellent detergent properties, high and low-foaming products, as well as, ethoxylates that are rapid surface-wetting agents. Feel free to contact ATAMAN for any technical, questions at our contact page.
The market’s demand for alcohol ethoxylates that are more efficient and specific is growing, placing an emphasis on ATAMAN to make environmentally conscience decisions regarding the production of these materials. Currently, ATAMAN offers a line ethoxylated alcohols that are currently listed on the CleanGredients® definitive database, which is an ingredients list whose formulations have been pre-approved by the US Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) to meet the criteria of their Safer-Choice® standard.1 This CleanGredients® database represents a collaborative effort between industry, government agencies and non-profit affiliates who have a vested interest in advancing the use of ‘green’ products in household and industrial formulations.
Formulators who seek to meet the EPA’s Safer-Choice® Standard should use compounds from the CleanGredients® list, which is organized by Greenblue® (an environmental nonprofit dedicated to the sustainable use of materials in society). More information regarding Greenblue® and CleanGredients® can be obtained through their respective websites (greenblue.org and cleangredients.org, respectively). In order to help protect our environment, many of ATAMAN’s alcohol ethoxylates not only meet the criteria for CleanGredients, but are also RSPO mass balance certified (when appropriate).2 Please contact ATAMAN with questions regarding our CleanGredeints® listing, RSPO mass balance certifications as well as our Kosher and Halal versions of alcohol ethoxylates by visiting our contact page.
ATAMAN is one of the industrial leaders that specializes in making alcohol ethoxylates throughout the Americas. ATAMAN’s R&D facilities located throughout North and South America have the capabilities to take a concept, prepare samples and transfer the technology into the industrial scale at one of ATAMAN’s many industrial manufacturing sites. The ability to manufacture these products to conform to the necessary regulations to ensure a safe product that has minimal impact on the environment requires a company that has the manufacturing capabilities and correct mindset to safely engineer these compounds that affect our everyday lives.
ATAMAN recognizes that having the global infrastructure is not enough to ensure the sustainability and well-being of our planet, which is why the people of ATAMAN are committed to making safer, more environmentally friendly products for all markets served. Industrial collaboration is a key component to the production of effective and environmentally safe surfactants. Please feel free to contact ATAMAN’s staff scientists and marketing researchers to help develop ideas and foster environmentally-conscience collaborations.
For more information, please visit ATAMAN’s product listings on the CleanGredients® database (www.cleangredients.org)
Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil
Ethoxylation is a chemical reaction in which ethylene oxide adds to a substrate. It is the most widely practiced alkoxylation, which involves the addition of epoxides to substrates.
In the usual application, alcohols and phenols are converted into R(OC2H4)nOH where n ranges from 1 to 10. Such compounds are called alcohol ethoxylates. Alcohol ethoxylates are often converted to related species called ethoxysulfates. Alcohol ethoxylates and ethoxysulfates are surfactants, used widely in cosmetic and other commercial products. The process is of great industrial significance with more than 2,000,000 metric tons of various ethoxylates produced worldwide in 1994
The process was developed at the Ludwigshafen laboratories of IG Farben by Conrad Schöller and Max Wittwer during the 1930s.
Industrial ethoxylation is primarily performed upon fatty alcohols in order to generate fatty alcohol ethoxylates (FAE's), which are a common form of nonionic surfactant (e.g. octaethylene glycol monododecyl ether). Such alcohols may be obtained by the hydrogenation of fatty acids from seed oils, or by hydroformylation in the Shell higher olefin process. The reaction proceeds by blowing ethylene oxide through the alcohol at 180 °C and under 1-2 bar of pressure, with potassium hydroxide (KOH) serving as a catalyst. The process is highly exothermic (ΔH -92 kJ/mol of ethylene oxide reacted) and requires careful control to avoid a potentially disastrous thermal runaway.
ROH + n C2H4O → R(OC2H4)nOH
The starting materials are usually primary alcohols as they react ~10-30x faster than do secondary alcohols.Typically 5-10 units of ethylene oxide are added to each alcohol, however ethoxylated alcohols can be more prone to ethoxylation than the starting alcohol, making the reaction difficult to control and leading to the formation of a product with varying repeat unit length (the value of n in the equation above). Better control can be afforded by the use of more sophisticated catalysts, which can be used to generate narrow-range ethoxylates. Ethoxylated alcohols are considered to be a high production volume (HPV) chemical by the US EPA.
Ethoxylation is sometimes combined with propoxylation, the analogous reaction using propylene oxide as the monomer. Both reactions are normally performed in the same reactor and may be run simultaneously to give a random polymer, or in alternation to obtain block copolymers such as poloxamers. Propylene oxide is more hydrophobic than ethylene oxide and its inclusion at low levels can significantly affect the properties of the surfactant. In particular ethoxylated fatty alcohols which have been 'capped' with ~1 propylene oxide unit are extensively marketed as defoamers.
Ethoxylated fatty alcohols are often converted to the corresponding organosulfates, which can be easily deprotonated to give anionic surfactants such as sodium laureth sulfate. Being salts, ethoxysulfates exhibit good water solubility (high HLB value). The conversion is achieved by treating ethoxylated alcohols with sulfur trioxide. Laboratory scale synthesis may be performed using chlorosulfuric acid:
R(OC2H4)nOH + SO3 → R(OC2H4)nOSO3H
R(OC2H4)nOH + HSO3Cl → R(OC2H4)nOSO3H + HCl
The resulting sulfate esters are neutralized to give the salt:
R(OC2H4)nOSO3H + NaOH → R(OC2H4)nOSO3Na + H2O
Small volumes are neutralized with alkanolamines such as triethanolamine (TEA). In 2006, 382,500 metric tons of alcohol ethoxysulfates (AES) were consumed in North America.
Although alcohols are by far the major substrate for ethoxylation, many nucleophiles are reactive toward ethylene oxide. Primary amines will react to give di-chain materials such as polyethoxylated tallow amine. The reaction of ammonia produces important bulk chemicals such as ethanolamine, diethanolamine, and triethanolamine.
Applications of ethoxylated products
Alcohol ethoxylates (AE) and alcohol ethoxysulfates (AES) are surfactants found in products such as laundry detergents, surface cleaners, cosmetics, agricultural products, textiles, and paint.
As alcohol ethoxylate based surfactants are non-ionic they typically require longer ethoxylate chains than their sulfonated analogues in order to be water-soluble. Examples synthesized on an industrial scale include octyl phenol ethoxylate, polysorbate 80 and poloxamers. Ethoxylation is commonly practiced, albeit on a much smaller scale, in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries to increase water solubility and, in the case of pharmaceuticals, circulatory half-life of non-polar organic compounds. In this application, ethoxylation is known as "PEGylation" (polyethylene oxide is synonymous with polyethylene glycol, abbreviated as PEG). Carbon chain length is 8-18 while the ethoxylated chain is usually 3 to 12 ethylene oxides long in home products. They feature both lipophilic tails, indicated by the alkyl group abbreviation, R, and relatively polar headgroups, represented by the formula (OC2H4)nOH.
AES found in consumer products generally are linear alcohols, which could be mixtures of entirely linear alkyl chains or of both linear and mono-branched alkyl chains. A high-volume example of these is sodium laureth sulfate a foaming agent in shampoos and liquid soaps, as well as industrial detergents.
Alcohol Ethoxylates Overview
Ethoxylates in general are primary non-ionic surfactants. They are the second-largest downstream sector of ethylene oxide (EO) after ethylene glycols.
Alcohol ethoxylates (AE), a key type of ethoxylates, is the second-largest commodity surfactant by market volume after linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) and the largest non-ionic surfactant. It is also the largest downstream sector of fatty alcohols.
AE can be broadly classified into natural (oleochemical-based) and synthetic (petrochemical-based) grades. The synthetic AE market is limited in Asia, however, because of a lack of capacity in the region, unlike in Europe and the US. Natural-grade AE, also known as fatty AE (FAE), dominates in Asia because of the ample availability of feedstock fatty alcohols.
Ethoxylates are consumed in the home and personal-care, agrochemicals, textile, lubricant and paper industries. AE can be used directly as surfactants or as a feedstock for SLES production, the main workhorse of natural surfactants.
WHAT IS ETHOXYLATION OF ALCOHOL?
Alcohol ethoxylates belong to the class of compounds which are synthesized via the reaction of a fatty alcohol and ethylene oxide, resulting in a molecule that consists of two parts one a carbon-rich, fatty alcohol and the second part a hydrophilic, polyoxyethylene chain.
This dual structural aspect of ethoxylated alcohol containing a hydrophobic portion (water-hating) with a hydrophilic component (water-loving), enables them to mix and solubilize oil and water by lowering the interfacial energy associated between them. These properties of ethoxylated alcohol gives them the general connotation of surfactants or surface active agents.
The surfactant action of these ethoxylated alcohol is seen whenever oily substances are exposed to water or any surface. These alcohol ethoxylate have different properties, like excellent detergency, high and low-foaming, as well as, ethoxylates that are rapid surface-wetting agents. These Ethoxylated alcohols find use in many industrial practices as detergents, wetting agents, emulsifiers, degreasers and emollients in many lines of commercially available products. These ethoxylated alcohol also serve many commercial markets, like Home & Personal Care products, Agrochemicals, Paints & Coatings, Oil & Gas and Industrial & Institutional Cleaning.
Natural fatty alcohols, differs in its distribution of carbon chains and hence can provide different ethoxylated alcohol structures and properties depending on the plant from which they were extracted. Fatty alcohol ethoxylate are surfactant, which are commonly used as components of cleaning detergents and formulation in the industrial, commercial, and domestic markets. FAEs find large-scale applications in detergents (wetting agents, emulsifiers, personal hygiene products (shampoos, emollients, foam boosters, Viscosity builders), leather (degreasing, wetting), textile paints and agriculture (emulsifiers, dispersion) process.
Example of natural fatty alcohols are lauryl alcohol ethoxylates.
ATAMAN supplies a wide variety of non-ionic lauryl alcohol ethoxylate tailor-made to suit customer requirements for specific moles & products.
Traditionally, Lauryl Alcohol Ethoxylate (LAE) function as a foaming agent in personal care products such as shampoos and bath gels. The effective wetting property of LAE finds use in household cleaning products including detergents, laundry pre-spotters and hard surface cleaners. While in industrial settings like textile and leather processing the wetting property effectively helps, reduce surface tension. The natural source and biodegradable nature of lauryl alcohol ethoxylate prompts their use in shampoo and liquid detergent formulations for personal care segments. Several lauryl alcohol ethoxylate find use in personal care and cosmetics as emulsifiers in creams, cleansing agents in shampoos and liquid detergents, solubilizers for fragrances. ATAMAN supplies carboxylates, sulfosuccinates, sulfonates, and phosphates using LAE, which function as anionic surfactants.
Lauryl alcohol alkoxylates (EO-PO) are low-foaming surfactants and ATAMAN supplies and markets them for suitable applications/customers. Similary lauryl alcohol ethoxylates NR (narrow range) are alternate examples of low foam ethoxylates. These NREs are readily biodegradable and have better low-foaming, foam collapse, and wetting properties compared with their broad range counterparts and are supplied by ATAMAN. Cetyl (C16), Stearyl (C18) and oleyl [C18(1)] natural alcohols are also converted to their respective alcohol ethoxylates. Ethoxylated Alcohol from commercially available natural cetostearyl alcohol, oleylcetyl alcohol and behenyl alcohol are also supplied by ATAMAN CHEMICALS
Synthetic alcohol ethoxylate:
1) tridecyl alcohol (TDA) ethoxylates are biodegradable nonionic surfactants derived from a branched C13 alcohol and ethoxylated with different moles of ethylene oxide. They provide efficient wetting, good detergency, APEO-free alternatives, relatively low foaming, and exist in liquid form at room temperature (TD alcohol ethoxylate containing upto 10 moles EO). They are widely used in a variety of applications as a biodegradable emulsifier, dispersant, wetting agent, in oilfield, emulsion polymerization, personal care, and inks and coatings applications.
2) Oxo alcohols like 2-ethyl hexanol, 2-propylheptanol and isodecyl alcohol are also supplied by ATAMAN by their corresponding alcohol ethoxylate.
3) ATAMAN also supplies C9-C11 alcohol ethoxylate, C12-15 alcohol ethoxylate, C12-C13 alcohols ethoxylate, C14-C15 alcohol ethoxylate.
Alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEs) are a group of nonionic surfactants that have been popular
for more than 40 years due to their effectiveness, economy and ease of handling and formulating. Nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEs) represent the main product type in this group. They
are used mainly in industrial and institutional cleaning, textile and leather processing, metalworking fluids, agrochemicals, emulsion polymerisation, paints, and in a host of smaller applications such as oil field chemicals and paper production.
Within the framework of the Existing Substances Regulation 93/793/EEC, the European
Commission has undertaken a comprehensive risk assessment on nonylphenol (NP). NP
has been on this list due to the large quantities produced and used annually, its toxicity to
aquatic organisms, and concerns that it is not readily biodegradable. NPEs have also been
assessed as they are the main pathway of NP to the environment via their biodegradation
in the aquatic environment.
The risk assessment, which has been reviewed by the scientific committee of the EU (CSTEE),
has been performed for human health and the environment, taking into account all life
cycle stages and all environmental media on a local as well as a regional scale. The objective
of the EU risk assessment procedure is to assess actual risks as far as possible as well as
for scenarios that can be foreseen under “reasonable worst case scenarios”. From the very
outset Sasol has been fully involved in this risk assessment, representing the interests of the
industry as the biggest European producer of NP and NPEs.
In the risk assessment the major point of concern is the high aquatic toxicity of NP and the
possible risks for the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. While no human exposure risks
were found, the environmental exposure assessment did show clear risks due to aquatic
organisms from the acute and chronic toxicities of nonylphenol. The estrogenic effect on
humans and the environment was found to be non-risk relevant on the basis of extensive
The environmental risk assessment for alkylphenols and their ethoxylates indicated a need
to reduce the risks associated with their production, their formulation into other products
and the end use of these products in a wide range of industries. In line with the conclusions
drawn in the risk assessment the European Commission has demanded the development of
a risk reduction strategy proposal addressing the areas of concern.
The course of action taken by the European commission is the proposal for an amendment –
the 26th Amendment – to Directive 76/769/EC, the so-called Marketing and Use Directive relating to restrictions on the marketing and use of nonylphenol and nonylphenol ethoxylates
for those uses, which have an impact on the aquatic environment.
This 26th Amendment has been published in the Official Journal of the EU on 17 July 2003 and
regulates in Annex 1 that nonylphenol and nonylphenol ethoxylates may not be placed on
the market or used as a substance or constituent of preparations in concentrations equal or
higher than 0.1% by mass for the following purposes:
• Industrial and institutional cleaning except controlled closed dry cleaning systems where
the washing liquid is recycled or incinerated or cleaning systems with special treatment
where the washing liquid is recycled or incinerated
• Domestic cleaning
• Textiles and leather processing except processing with no release into waste water and
systems with special treatment where the washing liquid is recycled or incinerated
• Emulsifier in agricultural teat dips
• Metal working except uses in controlled closed systems where the washing liquid is recycled
• Manufacturing of pulp and paper
• Cosmetic products
• Other personal care products except spermicides
• Co-formulants in pesticides and biocides.
After this official publication there is an 18 month transposition period for amending National
legislation. Hence from January 2005 on by law nonylphenol and nonylphenol ethoxylates
must notbe used any longer in the applications shown above.
for Nonylphenol Ethoxylates
Alcohol ethoxylates (FAEs) are the products of choice for the replacement of nonylphenol
ethoxylates (NPEs). The performance properties of these nonionic surfactants can be
adjusted by the alcohol selection and by the length of the hydrophilic polyethylene glycol
chain. In comparison to NPEs, alcohol ethoxylates are usually more biodegradable and their
degradation products are unobjectionable in terms of their aquatic toxicity.
In order to find the right alternative product for nonylphenol ethoxylates the functions of
these products in the various applications need to be considered. Among the more important
features of NPEs are their excellent emulsifying and dispersing properties, which enable the
user to very effectively formulate stable emulsions or dispersion concentrates. In the application they act as wetting agents, solubilisers or detergents.
The majority of mid-chain alcohol ethoxylates are even better wetting agents or detergents
in most applications. The difficult task for the replacement of NPEs with FAEs is to balance
the good wetting and detergency properties with the emulsifying, dispersion and the other
properties, which are additionally needed in most applications. Due to the diverse formulation and application requirements, in most cases only the formulator is able to select from
among the diverse physical and performance properties of the FAEs to find the right alternative product.
In the following chapter the general properties of industrial alcohol ethoxylates are described
to give our customers a guideline for selecting the appropriate FAE.
product name chemical nature functions
Emulsogen® EPN 118 Oxoalcohol ethoxylate with 11 EO
Emulsogen® EPN 217 Oxoalcohol ethoxylate with 12 EO
Emulsogen® EPN 287 Oxoalcohol ethoxylate with 13 EO
Emulsogen® EPN 403 Oxoalcohol ethoxylate with 14 EO
Emulsogen® EPN 407 Oxoalcohol ethoxylate with 15 EO
Branched oxoalcohol et Oxoalcohol ethoxylate with 16 EO
Emulsogen® LCN 070 Branched oxoalcohol ethoxylate with 7 EO
Emulsogen® LCN 088 Branched oxoalcohol ethoxylate with 8 EO
Emulsogen® LCN 118 Branched oxoalcohol ethoxylate with 11 EO
Emulsogen® LCN 158 Branched oxoalcohol ethoxylate with 15 EO
Emulsogen® LCN 217 Branched oxoalcohol ethoxylate with 21 EO
Emulsogen® LCN 287 Branched oxoalcohol ethoxylate with 28 EO
Emulsogen® L 4050 Branched oxoalcohol ethoxylate with 40 EO
Emulsogen® LCN 407 Branched oxoalcohol ethoxylate with 40 EO
Genapol® X 050 Tridecyl alcohol ethoxylate with 5 EO About 100 % Liquid 59 – 62 (2)
Genapol® X 060 Tridecyl alcohol ethoxylate with 6 EO About 100 % Liquid 64 – 66 (2)
Genapol® X 080 Tridecyl alcohol ethoxylate with 8 EO About 100 % Liquid > 45 (1)
Genapol® X 089 Tridecyl alcohol ethoxylate with 8 EO About 90 % Liquid > 45 (1)
Genapol® X 150 Tridecyl alcohol ethoxylate with 15 EO About 100 % Waxy –
Genapol® X 407 Tridecyl alcohol ethoxylate with 40 EO About 70 % Liquid –
Genapol® X 1003 Tridecyl alcohol ethoxylate with 100 EO
Genapol® X 1005 Tridecyl alcohol ethoxylate with 101 EO
Emulsogen X 4050 Tridecyl alcohol ethoxylate with 40 moles EO
Genapol® 1879 Tridecyl alcohol ethoxylate
Genapol® 3214 Tridecyl alcohol ethoxylate
Genapol® GS 080 Blend of C12 – C20 alkyl ethoxylates with 8 EO
Genapol® OX 080 C /C oxoalcohol ethoxylate with 8 EO
Genapol® OX 100 C12 /C15 oxoalcohol ethoxylate with 10 EO
Genapol® UD 050 C11 oxoalcohol ethoxylate with 5 EO
Genapol® UD 070 C11 oxoalcohol ethoxylate with 7 EO
Genapol® UD 079 C11 oxoalcohol ethoxylate with 7 EO
Genapol® UD 110 C11 oxoalcohol ethoxylate with 11 EO
Genapol® C 100 C /C Saturated fatty alcohol About 100 % Pasty 89 – 92 (2)
Genapol® C 200 C12 /C18 Saturated fatty alcohol ethoxylate with 20
Emulsogen LA 3065 C12 /C14 fatty alcohol ethoxylate with 30 EO
Genapol® LA 070 C12 /C14 fatty alcohol ethoxylate with 7 EO
Genapol® LA 080 C12 /C14 fatty alcohol ethoxylate with 8 EO
Genapol® LA 160 C12 /C14 fatty alcohol ethoxylate with 16 EO
Emulsogen® 3896 Cetyl/oleyl alcohol ethoxylate with 20 EO
Genapol® O 020 Cetyl/oleyl alcohol ethoxylate with 2 EO
Genapol® O 080 Cetyl/oleyl alcohol ethoxylate with 8 EO
Genapol® O 100 Cetyl/oleyl alcohol ethoxylate with 10 EO
Genapol® O 200 Cetyl/oleyl alcohol ethoxylate with 20 EO
Genapol® T 200 C16 /C18 Fatty alcohol ethoxylate with 20 EO
Genapol® T 250 C16 /C18 Fatty alcohol ethoxylate with 25 EO
Genapol® T 250 p C16 /C18 Fatty alcohol ethoxylate with 25 EO
Genapol® T 500 C16 /C18 Fatty alcohol ethoxylate with 50 EO
Genapol® T 500 p C16 /C18 Fatty alcohol ethoxylate with 50 EO
Genapol® T 800 C16 /C18 Fatty alcohol ethoxylate with 80 EO
Genapol® T 800 p C16 /C18 Fatty alcohol ethoxylate with 80 EO
Sapogenat® T 040 Tributylphenol ethoxylate with 4 EO About 100 % Liquid 26 – 29 (2)
Sapogenat® T 060 Tributylphenol ethoxylate with 6 EO About 100 % Liquid 53 – 56 (2)
Sapogenat® T 080 Tributylphenol ethoxylate with 8 EO About 100 % Liquid 60 – 68 (2)
Sapogenat® T 110 Tributylphenol ethoxylate with 11 EO About 100 % Liquid 42 – 44 (1)
Sapogenat® T 130 Tributylphenol ethoxylate with 13 EO About 100 % Liquid 62 – 64 (1)
Sapogenat® T 180 Tributylphenol ethoxylate with 18 EO About 100 % Waxy 61 – 64 (3)
Sapogenat® T 300 Tributylphenol ethoxylate with 30 EO About 100 % Waxy –
Sapogenat® T 500 Tributylphenol ethoxylate with 50 EO
Arkopal® N 040 Nonylphenol ethoxylate with 4 EO About 100 % Liquid 36 – 38 (2)
Arkopal® N 060 Nonylphenol ethoxylate with 6 EO About 100 % Liquid 61 – 63 (2)
Arkopal® N 080 Nonylphenol ethoxylate with 8 EO About 100 % Liquid 32 – 34 (1)
Arkopal® N 090 Nonylphenol ethoxylate with 9 EO About 100 % Liquid 52 – 54 (1)
Arkopal® N 100 Nonylphenol ethoxylate with 10 EO About 100 % Liquid 62 – 65 (1)
Arkopal® N 130 Nonylphenol ethoxylate with 13 EO About 100 % Liquid paste 83 – 86 (1)
Arkopal® N 150 Nonylphenol ethoxylate with 15 EO About 100 % Pasty 92 – 95 (1)
Arkopal® N 208 Nonylphenol ethoxylate with 20 EO About 80 % Liquid 70 – 73 (3)
Arkopal® N 238 Nonylphenol ethoxylate with 23 EO About 80 % Liquid 73 – 75 (3)
Arkopal® N 300 Nonylphenol ethoxylate with 30 EO About 100 % Waxy 76 – 78 (3)
Arkopal® N 307 Nonylphenol ethoxylate with 30 EO About 70 % Liquid 76 – 78 (3)
Arkopal® N 308 Nonylphenol ethoxylate with 30 EO About 80 % Waxy 76 – 78 (3)
Arkopal® N 407 Nonylphenol ethoxylate with 40 EO –
Genapol X 050 Nonylphenol + 4 EO
Genapol X 060 Nonylphenol + 6 EO
Genapol X 080 Nonylphenol + 8 EO
Emulsogen LCN 118 Nonylphenol + 9 EO
Emulsogen LCN 118 Nonylphenol + 10 EO
Emulsogen LCN 118 Nonylphenol + 11 EO
Emulsogen LCN 115 Nonylphenol + 13 EO
Emulsogen LCN 217 Nonylphenol + 15 EO
Emulsogen LCN 217 Nonylphenol + 20 EO
Emulsogen LCN 217 Nonylphenol + 23 EO
Emulsogen LCN 287 Nonylphenol + 30 EO
Emulsogen LCN 407 Nonylphenol + 40 EO
Emulsogen® 4084 EO-PO block polymer with 60 % EO About 100 % Waxy 26 – 29 (2)
Genapol® PF 10 EO-PO block polymer with 10 % EO About 100 % Liquid 53 – 56 (2)
Genapol® PF 20 EO-PO block polymer with 20 % EO About 100 % Liquid 42 – 44 (1)
Genapol® PF 40 EO-PO block polymer with 40 % EO About 100 % Liquid 62 – 64 (1)
Genapol® PF 80 EO-PO block polymer with 80 % EO About 100 % Waxy 61 – 64 (3)
Genapol® PF 80 FP EO-PO block polymer with 80 % EO
Genapol® EP 0244 C10 /C12 fatty alcohol EO-PO About 100 % Liquid 35 – 38
Genapol® EP 2424 C12 /C13 fatty alcohol EO-PO addition product
Genapol® EP 2464 C12 /C14 fatty alcohol EO-PO addition product
Genapol® EP 2544 C12 /C12 oxoalcohol EO-PO addition product
Genapol® EP 2552 C12 /C13 oxoalcohol EO-PO addition product
Genapol® EP 2564 C12 /C14 oxoalcohol EO-PO addition product
Genapol® EP 2584 C12 /C15 oxoalcohol EO-PO addition product
Genapol® BE 2410 C12 /C14 fatty alcohol ethoxylate 10EO
Genapol® BE 2805 C12 /C18 fatty alcohol ethoxylate 5EO
Genapol® BE 2810 C12 /C18 fatty alcohol ethoxylate 10EO
Emulsogen® TS 100 Tristyrylphenol ethoxylate with 10 EO About 100 % Waxy 65 – 69 (2)
Emulsogen® TS 160 Tristyrylphenol ethoxylate with 16 EO About 100 % Liquid 58 – 62 (1)
Emulsogen® TS 200 Tristyrylphenol ethoxylate with 20 EO 55 – 60 (3)
Emulsogen® TS 290 Tristyrylphenol ethoxylate with 29 EO 67 – 69 (3)
Emulsogen® TS 540 Tristyrylphenol ethoxylate with 54 EO 72 – 74 (3)
Emulsogen® TS 600 Tristyrylphenol ethoxylate with 60 EO –
Genapol® BA 040 Benzyl alcohol ethoxylate with 4 EO
Genagen® C 100 C12 /C18 Coconut fatty acid ethoxylate with 10 EO
®Genamin® C 020 C8/C18 Coconut fatty amine ethoxylate with 2 EO
Genamin® C 050 C8/C18 Coconut fatty amine ethoxylate with 5 EO
Genamin® C 100 C8/C18 Coconut fatty amine ethoxylate with 10 EO
Genamin® C 150 C8/C18 Coconut fatty amine ethoxylate with 15 EO
Genamin® C 200 C8/C18 Coconut fatty amine ethoxylate with 20 EO
Genamin® O 020 special Oleyl amine ethoxylate with 2 EO
Genamin® O 050 Cetyl/oleyl amine ethoxylate with 5 EO
Genamin® O 080 Cetyl/oleyl amine ethoxylate with 8 EO
Genamin® O 200 Cetyl/oleyl amine ethoxylate with 20 EO
Genamin® S 020 Cetyl/stearyl amine ethoxylate with 2 EO
Genamin® S 080 Cetyl/stearyl amine ethoxylate with 8 EO
Genamin® S 100 Cetyl/stearyl amine ethoxylate with 10 EO
Genamin® S 150 Cetyl/stearyl amine ethoxylate with 15 EO
Genamin® S 200 Cetyl/stearyl amine ethoxylate with 20 EO
Genamin® S 250 Cetyl/stearyl amine ethoxylate with 25 EO
Genamin® T 020 Tallow fatty alkyl amine ethoxylate with 2 EO
Genamin® T 100 Tallow fatty alkyl amine ethoxylate with 10 EO
Genamin® T 150 Tallow fatty alkyl amine ethoxylate with 15 EO
Genamin® 3920 Capryl amine ethoxylate with 2 EO
Genamin® CH 020 Cyclo hexyl amine ethoxylate with 10 EO
Emulsogen® EL 200 Castor oil ethoxylate with 20 EO
Emulsogen® EL 360 Castor oil ethoxylate with 36 EO
Emulsogen® EL 400 Castor oil ethoxylate with 40 EO
Emulsogen® EL 540 Castor oil ethoxylate with 54 EO About 100 % Liquid 49 – 53 mg KOH/g
Hostacerin® DGI Diglycerol diisostearate About 100 % Liquid 160 – 180 mg KOH/g
Hostacerin® DGMS Diglycerol monostearate About 100 % Pellets 160 – 180 mg KOH/g
Hostacerin® DGSB Diglycerol distearate ethoxylated with 4 EO
Emulsogen® 4156 Ethoxylates sorbitane monolaurate with 20 EO
Hostapur® OS Liquid C14 /C16 alpha-olefin sulphonates, sodium salt
Hostapur® OSB C14 /C16 alpha-olefin sulfonate, sodium salt
Hostapur® SAS 30 C14 /C17 Secondary alkane sulfonate, sodium salt
Hostapur® SAS 60 C14 /C17 Secondary alkane sulfonate, sodium salt
Hostapur® SAS 93 C14 /C17 Secondary alkane sulfonate, sodium salt
Emulsogen APS 100 Allyl polyoxyalkylene sulfate with
Emulsogen® EPA 073 4 PO and 10 EO, ammonium salt
Emulsogen® EPA 078 Alkyl polyethylene glycol ethersulfate with 7 EO, sodium salt
Emulsogen® EPA 1954 Alkyl polyethylene glycol ethersulfate with 7 EO, sodium salt
Emulsogen® LA 033 C12/C14 alkyl sulfate, sodium salt
Emulsogen® LA 083 C12/C14 alkyl polyethylene glycol ether- sulfate with 3 EO, ammonium salt
Emulsogen LCA 213 C12/C14 alkyl polyethylene glycol ethersulfate with 8 EO, ammonium salt
Emulsogen® PF 20 S Alcohol polyethylene glycol ether sulfate, ammonium salt with 21 moles EO
Genapol® LRO Liquid Polyalkylene glycol ethersulfate, ammonium salt
Genapol® LRO Paste C12/C14 alkyl polyethylene glycol ether ethersulfate with 2 EO, sodium salt
Hostapal® BV Conc. C12/C14 alkyl polyethylene glycol ethersulfate with 2 EO, sodium salt
Hostapal® BV Liquid Tributyl phenol polyethylene glycol ethersulfate with 7 EO, sodium salt
Zeliquid® LP 2 Tributyl phenol polyethylene glycol ethersulfate with 7 EO, sodium salt
Emulsogen® SF 8 Diisooctyl sulfosuccinate, sodium salt
Hostaphat® CC 100 Cetyl phosphoric acid ester, acid form, mono/diester
Hostaphat® CK 100 Cetyl phosphoric acid ester, potassium salt, mono/diester
Hostaphat® MDAH Mono-/di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid ester, acid form
Hostaphat® 145 Oleyl polyoxethyl (5 EO) phosphoric acid mono/diester, acid form
Hostaphat® 1306 Isotridecyl polyoxethyl (6 EO) phos- phoric acid mono/diester, acid form
Hostaphat® KL 340 D Lauryl polyethoxy (4 EO) phosphoric acid ester, sodium salt, mono/di/triester
Hostaphat® KW 340 D Stearyl polyethoxy (4 EO) phosphoric acid ester, sodium salt, mono/di/triester
Hostaphat MIT 080 Tridecyl polyethylen glycol ether phos- phoric acid ester (8 EO), acid form, about 80% mono ester
Hostaphat® OPS 30 Octane phosphonic acid dissolved in water
Hostaphat® OPS 75 E n-Octane phosphonic acid + ethanol/water
Hostaphat® OPS 100 n-Octane phosphonic acid
Emulsogen® CIO 050 Isooctyl polyoxethyl (5EO) acetic acid
Emulsogen® CNO 080 n-Octyl polyoxethyl (8EO) acetic acid
Emulsogen® COA 070 Oxo Alkyl polyoxethyl (7EO) acetic acid
Emulsogen® COL 020 Oleyl polyoxethyl (2EO) acetic acid
Emulsogen® COL 050 Oleyl polyoxethyl (2EO) acetic acid
Emulsogen® COL 080 Oleyl polyoxethyl (2EO) acetic acid
Emulsogen® COL 100 Oleyl polyoxethyl (2EO) acetic acid
Emulsogen® DTC 070 Isotridecyl polyoxethyl (7EO) acetic acid
Arkomon® SO Oleoyl sarkosin
Medialan® LD Lauroyl sarcoside, Na salt
Arkopon® T 8015 Oleic acid methyl tauride, sodium salt
Hostapon® CT Paste Coconut fatty acid methyl tauride, Na salt
Hostapon® SCI-65 G Coconut fatty acid isethionate, Na salt, blend with 20% stearic acid
Hostapon® SCI-85 G Coconut fatty acid isethionate, Na salt
Hostapon® TPHC Oleic acid methyl tauride, Na salt
Genagen LAA Sodium amphoacetate
Hostapon CGN N-Cocoyl glutamate, sodium salt
Hostapon SG Sodium cocoyl glycinate
FLOTIGAM® 5806 Collectors based on mixtures of fatty acids Direct Hematite Flotation
FLOTINOR® FS-2 Collectors based on mixtures of fatty acids Direct Hematite Flotation
MONTANOL® 88 Frothers formulated from alcohols, ethers and esters Support flotation of non quartz silicates
MONTANOL® 800 Frothers formulated from alcohols, ethers and esters Support flotation of non quartz silicates
FLOTANOL® D-25 Frothers formulated from alcohols, ethers and esters Support flotation of non quartz silicates
FLOTINOR® 1682 Collector of phosphoric acid ester Direct Hematite Flotation
FLOTIGAM® EDA Collector of alkyl ether mono-amine and/or blends Collector for the flotation of quartz and acid silicate minerals,
especially for the reverse iron ore flotation
FLOTIGAM® EDA-C Collector of alkyl ether mono-amine and/or blends Collector for the flotation of quartz and acid silicate minerals,
especially for the reverse iron ore flotation
FLOTIGAM® EDA-3 Collector of alkyl ether mono-amine and/or blends Collector for the flotation of quartz and acid silicate minerals,
especially for the reverse iron ore flotation
FLOTIGAM® EDA-3C Collector of alkyl ether mono-amine and/or blends Collector for the flotation of quartz and acid silicate minerals,
especially for the reverse iron ore flotation
FLOTIGAM® 2835 Collector of alkyl ether di-amine and/or blends Collector for the flotation of quartz in the reverse
iron ore flotation, feldspar and calamine
FLOTIGAM® 2835-2 Collector of alkyl ether di-amine and/or blends Collector for the flotation of quartz in the reverse
iron ore flotation, feldspar and calamine
FLOTIGAM® 2835-2L Collector of alkyl ether di-amine and/or blends Collector for the flotation of quartz in the reverse
iron ore flotation, feldspar and calamine
FLOTIGAM® 3135 Collector of alkyl ether di-amine and/or blends Collector for the flotation of quartz in the reverse
iron ore flotation, feldspar and calamine
FLOTIGAM® 7051 Collector of alkyl ether di-amine and/or blends Collector for the flotation of quartz in the reverse
iron ore flotation, feldspar and calamine
FLOTICOR® DF-7005 Defoamer Special additives
FLOTICOR® DF-7006 Defoamer Special additives
FLOTICOR® DF-7063 Defoamer Special additives
FLOTICOR® SI-7020 Scale inhibitor Special additives
FLOTICOR® DI-7021 Dispersant Special additives