Name: Alexandrian Laurel
Scientific Name: Calophyllum inophyllum
Tamanu oil is pressed from nuts of either the Calophyllum inophyllum (usually) or the Calophyllum tacamahaca (ati), tropical trees belonging to Calophyllaceae family. The nuts yield 70–75% of the greenish-yellow inedible oil. The oil originates in Polynesia, where it continues to play an important cultural role. Commercial uses of tamanu oil are predominantly for skin care. The oil has both medicinal value and use as a fuel.
Calophyllum inophyllum oil (CIO) is rich in antioxidants and contains UV-absorption properties, that can be used to treat skin within the dermatology field. Tamanu oil has been found to have cytotoxic, wound healing, and antibacterial properties.
Synonyms; JT3LVK84A1; 241148-25-4; Tamanu oil; UNII-JT3LVK84A1; Alexandrian-laurel seed oil; Ballnut oil; Balsamaria inophyllum seed oil;Borneo-mahogany seed oil; Calophyllum inophyllum seed oil; Indian-laurel seed oil; Kamani oil; Kamani seed oil; Laurelwood seed oil;
Oils; Calophyllum inophyllum; Alexandrian laurel oil; poon oil; nyamplung oil; domba oil; honne oil (Honge is used as biodiesel]); undi oil; pinnai oil; fetau oil; punnai oil; calophyllum inophyllum; Alexandrian laurel balltree; beach touriga; Borneo-mahogany; Indian doomba oiltree; Indian-laurel; laurelwood; leaf oil; calophyllum inophyllum seed oil; calophyllum inophyllum oil; kamani oil; calophyllum oil; calophyllum inophyllum essential oil; dilo oil; foraha oil; Alexandrian laurel oil; poon oil; nyamplung oil; domba oil; honne oil (Honge is used as biodiesel]); undi oil; pinnai oil; fetau oil; punnai oil; daok oil; pinnay oil; kamanu oil; bitaog oil; tamanu nut oil; punna oil; takamaka oil (ambiguous); laurelwood oil (ambiguous); tacamahac oil (ambiguous);punnaga oil; fetaʻu oil; palo maria oil; ballnut tree oil; ballnut oil; btaches oil; beach calophyllum oil; Ball Nut; Ball Nut Tree; Beach Callophyllum; Beauty Lea; Borneo Mahogany;
Indian Laurel; India-Oil Nut; Laurelwood; Mastwood; Oi Nut Tree; Portia Tree; Poon, Poonay Oil Plant; Satin Touraga; Sweet-Scented Calophyllum; Indian doomba oiltree; Ball tree;Beach touriga; Satin touriga; Tacamahac-tree; kamani tree; Palomaria; Takamaka; Indian doomba oiltree; mastwood beauty-leaf; dingkaran;
The seeds yield a thick, dark green tamanu oil for medicinal use or hair grease. The first neoflavone isolated in 1951 from natural sources was calophyllolide from C. inophyllum seeds. The fatty acid methyl esters derived from C. inophyllum seed oil meets the major biodiesel requirements in the United States (ASTM D 6751), and European Union (EN 14214). The average oil yield is 11.7 kg-oil/tree or 4680 kg-oil/hectare. In the northwest coastal areas of Luzon island in Philippines, the oil was used for night lamps.
This widespread use started to decline when kerosene became available, and later on electricity. It was also used as fuel to generate electricity to provide power for radios during World War II.In Southern India, the oil of the seeds of the plant is used specifically for treating skin diseases. It is also applied topically in cases of rheumatism. The oil may have been useful in waterproofing cloth and is used as a varnish. An extract from the fruit was once used to make a brown dye to colour cloth.
The oil can also be used to make soap. In the most of the South Sea islands, tamanu or sultan champa oil is used as an analgesic medicine (natives use it for sciatica and rheumatism) and to cure ulcers and bad wounds. A farmer in Nagappattinam district of Tamil Nadu has successfully used the oil as biodiesel to run his 5-hp pumpset. Oil extracted from the seeds is traditionally used topically to treat a wide range of skin injuries from burn, scar and infected wounds to skin diseases such as dermatosis, urticaria and eczema.
CIO has been confirmed to be a safe topical solution. Studies showed that through scratch essay, CIO with high concentrations accelerates keratinocyte wound healing. CIO exhibits high antibacterial activity against bacterial strains involved in acne. Recently, studies have shown that CIO appears as a promising source to develop new antibiotics notably to fight multi-drug resistant bacteria implicated in skin infections.
Alexandrian laurel, (Calophyllum inophyllum), also called beauty leaf, beach calophyllum, or dilo oil tree, evergreen plant (family Calophyllaceae) cultivated as an ornamental throughout tropical areas. Alexandrian laurel ranges from East Africa to Australia and is often cultivated near the ocean; it is resistant to salt spray and has a leaning habit. Dilo, a strongly scented medicinal oil, is extracted from the seeds, and the wood is used in building canoes.
Alexandrian Laurel Quick Facts
Origin: Old world tropics from East Africa, southern coastal India to Malesia, northern Australia and the Pacific islands
Colors: At first pinkish-green later turning bright green and when ripe, it turns dark grey-brown and wrinkled
Health benefits: Beneficial for treatment of venereal disease, blood pressure, rheumatism, inflammation, eye diseases, varicose veins, hemorrhoids, chronic ulcers, skin infections and wounds
Alexandrian Laurel scientifically known as Calophyllum inophyllum is a low-branching evergreen tree belongings to Clusiaceae ⁄ Guttiferae (Mangosteen family) with a broad, spreading crown of irregular, gnarled branches. The plant is native to Old world tropics from East Africa, southern coastal India to Malesia, northern Australia and the Pacific islands. It is primarily a tree of the seashore and adjacent lowland forests, though it occasionally grows at higher elevations and has been effectively planted in inland areas.
The Alexandrian Laurel has derived its generic name from the Greek terms ‘kalos’ denoting beautiful and ‘phullon’ meaning leaf. In other words, the generic name of this species means the beautiful-leafed tree in Greek. Similarly, the precise nickname (epithet) of this tree also has its origin in two Greek words – ‘is’ meaning fiber and ‘phullon’ denoting leaf that refers to the prominent veins on the underside of the leaves of the Alexandrian Laurel.
The tree is cultivated for providing shade as well as reforestation and afforestation – an initiative to reclaim soil. In many places, tree is also planted along the shores because it has proved to be effective in preventing soil erosion by the sea. While the growth of the tree is very sluggish, it is very popular as a roadside plantation in India. Additionally, it is also an attractive ornamental plant, as it has young foliage that is crimson in color. Even the flowers are very aromatic.
Alexandrian Laurel is a slow growing, medium to large, lowly branched evergreen, tree with a broad, spreading to irregular crown, gray bark and fissured trunk. The plant grows up to 25 m tall, occasionally reaching up to 35 m and with diameter up to 150 cm. The plant is found growing naturally on rocky and sandy sea shores, just above the high tide mark, in plains along the banks of rivers and mangrove forests, also planted in the parks and roadsides. The plant occurs on a wide range of soils including clays, loams, calcareous, rocky and gravelly soils but performs best on well-drained, sandy soils. It is also tolerant of saline soils. It grows in areas with annual rainfall ranging from about 1000 to 5000 mm.
Leaves are opposite, deep glossy green, glabrous, simple, coriaceous with broadly elliptic or obovate-elliptic lamina 10–20 cm long by 6–9 cm wide, rounded or emarginate apex, rounded or cuneate base, entire margin and distinct parallel lateral veins, perpendicular to the mid rib.
Flowers are white, fragrant, bisexual, 2.5 cm across and 8–14 mm long on sturdy pedicels and borne in racemose or paniculate, axillary inflorescences of 4–15 flowers. Flower has 8 white, sub orbicular to obovate tepals, numerous free stamens, superior, sub globose ovary with joined carpels, one locule and one solitary, peltate style.
Fertile flowers are followed by globose to sub globose drupe, 2.5–4 cm in diameter, found in clusters. Fruits are at first pinkish-green later turning bright green and when ripe, it turns dark grey-brown and wrinkled. Seeds are large, brown 2–4 cm across and surrounded by a corky shell and thin pulp.
Alexandrian Laurel is a native of the old world tropics from East Africa, southern coastal India to Malesia, northern Australia and the Pacific islands. The species is extensive along the coasts of eastern Africa (from Kenya to northern Mozambique), Madagascar and other Indian Ocean islands, tropical Asia, northern Australia and the islands of the Pacific Ocean. Although it is considered wild in most of this area, it is often unclear where it is truly wild or a relict of former cultivation. In Reunion and Mauritius it has possibly been introduced. In Africa, it is locally planted outside the natural distribution area, e.g. in Guinea, Sierra Leone, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon and Gabon, where outwardly wild trees and seedlings can be found near beaches. The species is also planted in southern China.
Traditional uses and benefits of Alexandrian Laurel
Various parts of the tree have been used in traditional herbal folk remedies in Asia and the Pacific islands. Various parts has been reported to be used as a diuretic, for treatment of venereal disease, blood pressure, rheumatism, inflammation, eye diseases, varicose veins, hemorrhoids, chronic ulcers, skin infections and wounds. Kernels are crushed and applied to abdomen for gas pains, indigestion and colic. Infusion or decoction of leaves used for disorders of the eye.
Balsam (oleoresin) from the bark used as cicatrizant. Oleoresin sometimes taken internally for lung ailments. Gum resin from the bark is applied to wounds and old sores. Gum is emetic and purgative. Oil is used as external application for indigestion and colic. Oil is used as topical application for healing burns and skin diseases. Poultice of leaves or water from pressed leaves is used as astringent for hemorrhoids. In Indo-China, pounded bark is applied to orchitis. Infusions of leaves are taken for heatstroke. Oil used externally as an anti-inflammatory, for rheumatism and gout.
Crushed kernels are applied on affected joints in rheumatism. In Hawaii, bark resin is used for ulcers. In the Netherlands Indies, decoction of bark is taken internally after childbirth. In Java, it used for its diuretic properties. In Fiji, leaves are used as lotion for sore eyes. In Indo-China, pounded bark is used for orchitis; bark also used for dysentery and intestinal colds. Astringent juice from the bark is used as purgative; decoction used for internal hemorrhages.In Samoa, leaves are used for skin inflammation, leg ulcers and wounds.
In India, the gum from wounded branches, mixed with strips of bark and leaves, is steeped in water, and the oil that separates and surfaces is used for application to sore eyes. Also, oil is used as external applications for rheumatism and gout.
Its oil is used externally for acne, psoriasis, eczema, dermatitis.Infusion of leaves in water yields a bluish color; applied to inflamed eyes.In the Netherland Indies, compound decoction of the bark with other barks, are used internally after childbirth, for vaginal discharges, passing of blood and gonorrhea. In India, leaves are used for migraines, vertigo, ophthalmia; the seed oil, for gout, leprosy, scabies and dysuria. In India, oil from seed applied to scabies and eczema. In Fiji, oil is used for relieving sciatica pain, shingles, neuralgia, rheumatism and leprous neuritis.In Cambodia, leaves are used as inhalation for migraine and vertigo.Root decoction is traditionally used to treat ulcers, boils and ophthalmia.
Latex is rubbed on the skin in the treatment of rheumatism and psoriasis. Latex and pounded bark are applied externally on wounds, ulcers and to treat phthisis, orchitis and lung affections, and are also used internally as a purgative, after childbirth and to treat gonorrhea. Resin is used to treat wounds and insect bites.Leaf infusion is used to treat sore eyes, hemorrhoid and dysentery. Heated leaves are applied as a poultice to cuts, sores, ulcers, boils and skin rash. Leaves are used in inhalations to treat migraine and vertigo.
Segment: Personal care
Calophyllum inophyllum is a large evergreen plant, commonly called tamanu, mastwood, beach calophyllum, beautyleaf. It is native to tropical Asia and Wallacea. Due to its importance as a source of timber for the traditional shipbuilding of large outrigger ships, it has been spread in prehistoric times by the migrations of the Austronesian peoples to the islands of Oceania and Madagascar, along with other members of the genus Calophyllum. It has since been naturalized in regions in the East African coast.It is also a source of the culturally important tamanu oil. Calophyllum inophyllum is a low-branching and slow-growing tree with a broad and irregular crown.
Due to these characters, mastwood are of particular importance to traditional shipbuilding of the larger Austronesian outrigger ships and were carried with them as they migrated to Oceania and Madagascar.
Other species of the genus Calophyllum were also used similarly, like Calophyllum soulattri, Calophyllum peekelii, and Calophyllum goniocarpum. They were comparable in importance to how oaks were in European shipbuilding and timber industries. Various parts of the mastwood were integral to the manufacture of outrigger canoes among various Austronesian peoples. The large curving limbs were commonly carved into the dugout canoe that formed the keel of the Austronesian outriggers ships.
The strakes, which are attached to the keel by the uniquely Austronesian technique of "sewing" them with a combination of dowels and lashed lugs instead of nails, can also be made from mastwood, but it is more commonly made from other "softer" timber species like Artocarpus. Other pieces became masts, outrigger floats, and outrigger spars. Smaller curving limbs can also be carved into the ribs of the boat.
The oils, as well as poultices made from leaves and flowers, are also commonly used for traditional medicine. The seeds yield a thick, dark green tamanu oil for medicinal use or hair grease. The nuts are dried before cracking, after which the oil-laden kernel is removed and further dried. The first neoflavone isolated from natural sources (1951) was calophyllolide from C. inophyllum seeds. The oil originates in Polynesia, where it continues to play an important cultural role.Commercial uses of tamanu oil are predominantly for skin care.
The oil has both medicinal value and use as a fuel. Calophyllum inophyllum oil (CIO) is rich in antioxidants and contains UV-absorption properties, that can be used to treat skin within the dermatology field. The oil may have been useful in waterproofing cloth and is used as a varnish. An extract from the fruit was once used to make a brown dye to colour cloth. The oil can also be used to make soap. A farmer in Nagappattinam district of Tamil Nadu has successfully used the oil as biodiesel to run his 5-hp pumpset.
Oil extracted from the seeds is traditionally used topically to treat a wide range of skin injuries from burn, scar and infected wounds to skin diseases such as dermatosis, urticaria and eczema. CIO has been confirmed to be a safe topical solution. Studies showed that through scratch essay, CIO with high concentrations accelerates keratinocyte wound healing.
CIO exhibits high antibacterial activity against bacterial strains involved in acne.Fruiting takes place twice in a year in May and November. The fruit (the ball nut) is a round, green drupe reaching 2 to 4 cm in diameter and having a single large seed. When ripe, the fruit is wrinkled and its color varies from yellow to brownish-red. The weight of the small fruit is 9 to 16.0 g when they are fresh.
After drying, the weight is reduced to about 4 g. Ripe and fallen fruits are collected from the bottom of the tree, by beating the limbs with a long hand stick, or hand-picked by climbing the tree.
Transesterification reaction was performed with NaOH as an alkaline catalyst and methanol as an analytical solvent. The effects of methanol to oil molar ratio (MR), catalyst concentration (CC), reaction temperature (TP), reaction time (TM), and stirrer speed (SS) on biodiesel conversion were studied to optimize the transesterification conditions using DOE- approach. Laurelwood is a plant. The nut and other plant parts are used to make medicine. Don't confuse laurelwood (Calophyllum inophyllum) with blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides).
Laurelwood is used for leprosy, hemorrhoids, scabies, gonorrhea, vaginal infections, and chicken pox.Tamanu oil from the nut of laurelwood is used for skin conditions including sunburn, rashes, burns, psoriasis, dermatitis, scratches, skin blemishes, acne, skin allergies, bedsores, rosacea, and hemorrhoids; and for infant skin care. A slow-growing tree, it is low-branching when not pruned, and has a broad irregular crown. The trunk has light grey, shallowly ridged bark.