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Algeldrate is found in nature as the mineral gibbsite (also known as hydrargyllite) and Algeldrate three much rarer polymorphs: bayerite, doyleite, and nordstrandite.
Algeldrate is amphoteric, i.e., Algeldrate has both basic and acidic properties.
Algeldrate is a halogen-free, environmentally friendly flame retardant and smoke suppressant filler for plastics and rubber.

CAS Number: 21645-51-2
EC Number: 244-492-7
Chemical Formula: Al(OH)3
Molar Mass: 78.003 g·mol−1

Synonyms: Aluminium trihydrate, Aluminum, trihydrate, DTXSID20421935, MXRIRQGCELJRSN-UHFFFAOYSA-N, aluminum;trihydroxide, Dried aluminum hydroxide gel, Aluminium hydroxide gel, dried, aluminium trihydroxide, aluminum hyroxide, Hydroxyde d' aluminium, Dried aluminium hydroxide, Aluminium hydroxide, dried, Aluminum hydroxide gel, dried, CHEMBL1200706, DTXSID2036405, NIOSH/BD0708000, Di-mu-hydroxytetrahydroxydialuminum, AF-260, AKOS015904617, Aluminum, di-mu-hydroxytetrahydroxydi-, DB06723, BD07080000, Aluminium trihydrate [ACD/IUPAC Name], Aluminium, trihydrate [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name], Aluminiumtrihydrat [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name], 106152-09-4 [RN], 12252-70-9 [RN], 128083-27-2 [RN], 1302-29-0 [RN], 13783-16-9 [RN], 14762-49-3 [RN], 151393-94-1 [RN], 159704-77-5 [RN], 21645-51-2 [RN], 51330-22-4 [RN], 8012-63-3 [RN], 8064-00-4 [RN], AC 714KC, AKP-DA, Al(OH)3, Alcoa A 325, Alcoa AS 301, Alcoa C 30BF, Alcoa C 31, Alcoa C 33, Alcoa C 330, Alcoa C 331, Alcoa C 333, Alcoa C 385, Alcoa H 65, Alhydrogel [Wiki], Alolt 8, ALterna GEL [Trade name], ALternaGEL, Alu-Cap, Alugel, Alugelibye, Alumigel, Alumina trihydrate, Aluminic acid (H3AlO3), Aluminium hydroxide [Wiki], aluminium(3+) hydroxide, aluminium(III) hydroxide, Aluminiumhydroxid, ALUMINUM HYDROXIDE [USP], Aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3), Aluminum Hydroxide Gel, Aluminum hydroxide, dried [JAN], Aluminum oxide trihydrate, Aluminum trihydroxide, Aluminum(III) hydroxide, Alusal, Amberol ST 140F, Amorphous alumina, Amphogel, Amphojel, Antipollon HT, Apyral, Apyral 120, Apyral 120VAW, Apyral 15, Apyral 2, Apyral 24, Apyral 25, Apyral 4, Apyral 40, Apyral 60, Apyral 8, Apyral 90, Apyral B, Arthritis Pain Formula Maximum Strength, Ascriptin, BACO AF 260, Boehmite, British aluminum AF 260, C 31C, C 31F, C 4D, C-31-F, Calcitrel, Calmogastrin, Camalox, Dialume [Trade name], Di-Gel Liquid, Gelusil, Gibbsite (Al(OH)3), Higilite, Higilite H 31S, Higilite H 32, Higilite H 42, Hychol 705, Hydrafil, Hydral 705, Hydral 710, Hydrated Alumina, Hydrated aluminum oxide, Kudrox, Liquigel, Maalox [Wiki], Maalox HRF, Maalox Plus, Martinal, Martinal A, Martinal A/S, Martinal F-A, Mylanta [Wiki], P 30BF, Reheis F 1000, Simeco Suspension, Tricreamalate, Trihydrated alumina, trihydroxidoaluminium, Trihydroxyaluminum, Trisogel, WinGel, 

Algeldrate is initially derived from bauxite ore, before being refined into a fine white powder.  
Algeldrate (also known as ATH and aluminium trihydroxide, chemical formula Al (OH)3) is initially derived from bauxite ore, before being refined into a fine white powder.

Annual production of Algeldrate is around 100 million tons which is nearly all produced through the Bayer process.
The Bayer process dissolves bauxite (Aluminium Ore) in sodium hydroxide at elevated temperatures.

Algeldrate is then separated from the solids that remain after the heating process.
The solids remaining after the Algeldrate is removed is highly toxic and presents environmental issues.

Algeldrate are available in different uncoated and coated grades, with average particle size varying from 2 microns to 80 microns as per application.
Algeldrate is a common primary ingredient present in most solid surface material and accounts for as much as 70% of the total product.

Algeldrate is used as a filler for epoxy, urethane, or polyester resins, where fire retardant properties or increased thermal conductivity are required.
Algeldrate is white in color.

Algeldrate is a flame retardant and smoke suppressant.
Algeldrate thermodynamic properties, endothermic dehydration cools the plastic 6 rubber parts and dilutes the combustible gases with water vapours that is generated in case of fire.

Algeldrate is registered under the REACH Regulation and is manufactured in and / or imported to the European Economic Area, at ≥ 1 000 000 to < 10 000 000 tonnes per annum.
Algeldrate is used by consumers, in articles, by professional workers (widespread uses), in formulation or re-packing, at industrial sites and in manufacturing.

Algeldrate is a halogen-free, environmentally friendly flame retardant and smoke suppressant filler for plastics and rubber.
Algeldrate is suitable for a broad range of applications including solid surface, composites and electrical insulation.

Algeldrate is a white, translucent powder that is also called aluminum hydroxide.
Algeldrate is obtained from Bauxite.

When Algeldrate is strongly heated, Algeldrate will convert to Aluminum oxide with the release of water.
Algeldrate is used as a base in the preparation of transparent lake pigments.

Algeldrate is also used as an inert filler in paints and tends to increase the transparency of colors when dispersed in oils.
Algeldrate is used commercially as a paper coating, flame retardant, water repellant, and as a filler in glass, ceramics, inks, detergents, cosmetics, and plastics.

Algeldrate is found in nature as the mineral gibbsite (also known as Aluminium trihydrate) and Algeldrate three much rarer polymorphs: bayerite, doyleite, and nordstrandite.
Algeldrate is amphoteric, i.e., Algeldrate has both basic and acidic properties.

Closely related are aluminium oxide hydroxide, AlO(OH), and aluminium oxide or alumina (Al2O3), the latter of which is also amphoteric.
These compounds together are the major components of the aluminium ore bauxite.
Algeldrate also forms a gelatinous precipitate in water.

Algeldrate is a non-halogen fire retardant and smoke suppressant.
Algeldrate is a major mineral fire retardant being the largest selling fire retardant additive in the world.

Algeldrate is used commercially as a paper coating, flame retardant, water repellant, and as a filler in glass, ceramics, inks, detergents, cosmetics, and plastics.
When strongly heated, Algeldrate decomposes into aluminium oxide with release of water following an endothermic reaction.

Algeldrate (ATH or hydrated alumina) is a non-toxic, non-corrosive, flame retardant and smoke suppressant utilized in elastomeric applications.
Algeldrate is the most frequently used flame retardant in the world.

Algeldrate is a very effective flame retardant due to Algeldrate thermodynamic properties which absorb heat and release water vapor.
Algeldrate releases its 35% water of crystallization as water vapor when heated above 205°C.

The resulting endothermic reaction cools Algeldrate below flash point, reducing the risk of fire and acts as a vapor barrier to prevent oxygen from reaching the flame.
Typical loadings vary from 20 phr to 150 phr.
Because many polymers like polyethylene and polypropylene process above 200°C, these polyolefins should use magnesium hydroxide as a flame retardant filler since Algeldrate water of hydration releases at approximately 325°C.

Algeldrates are obtained by digestion of bauxite throughout the Bayer process.

Algeldrate starts to remove constitution water above 180°C
Water removal cools the surface and eliminates entry of oxygen, which confers flame retardant properties and smoke suppressant.
Accordingly Algeldrate is a necessary raw material for products like rubber, polyurethane, polyester, silicone, thermoplastic, cables, etc. with fire retardant properties.

Algeldrate has a number of common names used throughout the chemical industry which include: Hydrate Alumina, Alumina Hydrate, Aluminium Tri Hydroxide, ATH, Aluminium Hydrate and Aluminium Hydroxide.

Algeldrate is a white, odorless, powdery, solid substance.
Algeldrate demonstrates a very low solubility in water but is considered to be amphoteric, meaning Algeldrate will dissolve in both acids or a strong alkali.

The most common use of Algeldrate is for the production of aluminum metal.
Algeldrate is also used as a flame retardant and smoke suppressant filler in polymers such as rubber products and carpet backing.

Algeldrate is a white filling material that provides flame retardant and self-extinguishing properties for polyester resins and gelcoats.
Algeldrate exposes water molecules within the body at high temperatures to reduce flame spread and smoke formation.
Algeldrate is used in GRP pipe applications, in acrylic applications and in other multicomponent applications.

Aluminum trihydrate (also known as aluminum hydrate, alumina hydrate, aluminum hydroxide, or ATH) is a filler, extender pigment, and bodying agent in oil- and water-borne paint that does not greatly affect the color of the paint.
This is an 8-micron median particle size extender that is a white to tan colored powder and can be added to paint to impart transparency to the paint film.

Algeldrate is the most widely used flame retardant in commercial coatings due to Algeldrate versatility and low cost.
Algeldrate can be used in a wide range of paint binders at processing temperatures below 220°C.

Algeldrate is non-toxic, halogen-free, chemically inert, and has low abrasiveness.
Additional benefits are acid resistance and smoke suppression.

At about 220°C, Algeldrate begins to decompose endothermically releasing approximately 35% of Algeldrate weight as water vapor.

AI2O3•3H2O + HEAT —–> AI2O3 + 3 H2O

Algeldrate acts as a heat sink thereby retarding pyrolysis and reducing the burning rate.
The water vapor released has an added effect of diluting combustion gases and toxic fumes.

Algeldrate is the hydrated oxide of aluminium.
Aluminium hydrate is separated from bauxite ore using the Bayer process, with average particle size ranging from 80-100 micron.

The block crystals of alumina hydrate impart good chemical reactivity.
Alumina hydrate can react with a base as well as an acid, and finds use in many applications as raw material.

After drying, alumina hydrate is ground using mechanical mills and ceramic lined ball mills to obtain finer particle sizes.
Hindalco manufactures ground hydrate with different particle size (5-15 micron) distribution.
Surface-treated fine hydrate as well as super-ground fine hydrate (1-2.5 micron) are also available.

Algeldrate obtained in the Bayer process, is calcined at temperature above 1200°C and up to 1600°C to manufacture special grade alumina.
During calcinations, alumina hydrate crystals lose bound moisture and recrystallise to form alumina crystals.

The particle size of alumina remains at 85-100 micron.
Special alumina contains predominantly alpha phase.
The degree of calcination is a measure of the hardness of alumina – soft to hard.

Coarse alumina is classified based on the soda (Na2O) content:
Low soda alumina - Na2O <0.1%
Medium soda alumina - 0.1% < Na2O <0.2%
Normal Soda alumina - 0.20% < Na2O < 0.45%

Calcined alumina is ground in fluid energy mills or ceramic lined ball mills to meet the desired particle size required by the customers.
Hindalco manufactures fine alumina with varying particle size (0.5 to 8 micron) and distribution.
Low soda, medium soda and normal soda type are available in fine alumina also.

The global Algeldrate market size was valued at USD 1.5 billion in 2020 and is projected to reach USD 1.9 billion by 2025, growing at a cagr 5.5% from 2020 to 2025.
The major drivers for the market include the rising consumer demand for Algeldrate in different applications and enduse industries, such as flame retardants, and paints & coatings.
However, the substitutes present in the market, for instance, magnesium hydroxide, can restrain the market growth.

Covid-19 Impact On The Global Algeldrate Market:
The global Algeldrate market is expected to witness a moderate decrease in Algeldrate growth rate in 2020-2021, as the Algeldrate industry witness a significant decline in Algeldrate production.
Algeldrate has affected the market for Algeldrate manufacturers catering to the glass and rubber industries, which were not considered essential.

Moreover, most of the global companies operating in this market are based in Asia Pacific, the US, and European countries, which are adversely affected by the pandemic.
These companies having their manufacturing units in China and other Asian countries are also severely affected.
Therefore, disruptions in the supply chain have resulted in hampering production units due to a lack of raw materials and workforce.

Algeldrate Market Dynamics:

Driver: Increasing demand for non-halogenated flame retardants:
The growing number of residential and commercial establishments has increased the possibilities of explosions and fire-related accidents. 
Therefore, several countries across North America and Europe have mandated stringent fire safety regulations and protocols.

This has led to the increased use of flame retardants in buildings to meet these government regulations.
The major application of flame retardants is in electric wire insulation in building & construction, and transportation.

Flame retardants are used in circuit boards, electronic casing, and cables & wire systems.
Stringent fire safety standards to reduce the spread of fires in residential and commercial buildings are driving the demand for halogen-free flame retardants.

Use of Algeldrate in water treatment plants Algeldrate (alum) is the most common coagulant used in water and wastewater treatment.
The main purpose of using alum in these applications is to improve the settling of suspended solids and color removal.

Alum is also used to remove phosphate from wastewater treatment effluent.
Thus, the growing urbanization in emerging economies, such as China and India, is expected to fuel the demand for water treatment plants in residential areas.

Nevertheless, many people still lack access to safe water and suffer from preventable water-borne microbial diseases leading to the increased demand for wastewater treatment plants.
Thus, the use of aluminum hydroxide in water treatment plants in residential areas is expected to act as an opportunity for the growth of the Algeldrate market across the globe.


Environmental issues related to alumina production:
Alumina production leads to bauxite residue, also known as red mud.
The disposal of bauxite residue/red mud is a challenge due to relatively large volumes, occupying land areas, and the alkalinity of the residue and the run-off water.

Only a very small proportion of the bauxite residue produced are re-used in any way.
Although the residue has a number of characteristics of environmental concern, the most immediate and apparent barrier to remediation and utilization is Algeldrate high alkalinity and sodicity.

The high pH of the bauxite residue is a problem from both a health and safety point-of-view.
This can pose a challenge for the Algeldrate market.

Applications of Algeldrate:
Over 90% of all Algeldrate produced is converted to Aluminium Oxide (alumina) that is used to manufacture aluminum.
As a flame retardant, Algeldrate is chemically added to a polymer molecule or blended in with a polymer to suppress and reduce the spreading of a flame through a plastic.
Algeldrate is also used as an antacid that can be ingested in order to buffer the pH within the stomach.

Algeldrate is the hydrated oxide of aluminium.
Algeldrate is separated from ore bauxite using Bayer process with average particle size ranging from 80-100 micron.

The blocky crystals of Algeldrate impart good reactivity.
Algeldrate can react with a base as well as an acid and finds many applications as raw material.

Algeldrate is used in the manufacture of many inorganic chemicals like:
Non- ferric alum
Poly aluminium chloride
Aluminium fluoride
Sodium aluminate
Algeldrate gel
Alumina hydrate is available in wet as well as dry form.

Fine hydrate:
Algeldrate contain 3 molecules of water.
On exposure to heat above 220°C, alumina hydrate decomposes into aluminium oxide (alumina) and water.

This irreversible, endothermic reaction process makes alumina hydrate an effective flame retardant.
Also, the smoke generated by decomposition is non-corrosive and non-poisonous.
Ground alumina hydrate is used as fire retardant filler in applications like polymer composites, cable compounds, solid surface counter tops, etc.

Uses of Algeldrate:
Of the Common fillers used in Plastics, Rubber, FRP, SMC, DMC moulding and other polymers only Algeldrate has flame retarding and smoke suppressing properties as well as being an economical resin extender. 

Algeldrate is used in polyester resins.
However with increased attention being given to smoke & toxic fume emissions, Algeldrate has found large volume application in vinyl as a low smoke, non toxic replacement for antimony and in polyurethane, latex, neoprene foam system, Rubber, wire & Cable insulation, vinyl walls & flooring coverings and epoxies.

Algeldrate acts as a flame retardant and smoke suppressor because of Algeldrate thermodynamic properties.
Algeldrate endothermic dehydration cools the plastic & Rubber parts and dilute with water vapour those combustible gases that do escape.
The latter is probably the main phenomenon associated with smoke suppression other excellent performance include electrical and track resistance.

Algeldrate widely use in Paper Industries as a whitening agent in place of titanium dioxide.

Algeldrate is also use in Paints Industries.
Algeldrate can replace upto 25% of the Titanium dioxide pigment & therefore is an economical extender reducing production cost.

Fire retardant filler:
Algeldrate also finds use as a fire retardant filler for polymer applications.
Algeldrate is selected for these applications because Algeldrate is colorless (like most polymers), inexpensive, and has good fire retardant properties.

Magnesium hydroxide and mixtures of huntite and hydromagnesite are used similarly.
Algeldrate decomposes at about 180 °C (356 °F), absorbing a considerable amount of heat in the process and giving off water vapour.
In addition to behaving as a fire retardant, Algeldrate is very effective as a smoke suppressant in a wide range of polymers, most especially in polyesters, acrylics, ethylene vinyl acetate, epoxies, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and rubber.

Precursor to Al compounds:
Algeldrate is a feedstock for the manufacture of other aluminium compounds: calcined aluminas, aluminium sulfate, polyaluminium chloride, aluminium chloride, zeolites, sodium aluminate, activated alumina, and aluminium nitrate.

Freshly precipitated Algeldrate forms gels, which are the basis for the application of aluminium salts as flocculants in water purification.
This gel crystallizes with time.

Algeldrate gels can be dehydrated (e.g. using water-miscible non-aqueous solvents like ethanol) to form an amorphous Algeldrate powder, which is readily soluble in acids.
Heating converts Algeldrate to activated aluminas, which are used as desiccants, adsorbent in gas purification, and catalyst supports.

Under the generic name "Hydrargillite", Algeldrate is used as an antacid in humans and animals (mainly cats and dogs).
Algeldrate is preferred over other alternatives such as sodium bicarbonate because Al(OH)3, being insoluble, does not increase the pH of stomach above 7 and hence, does not trigger secretion of excess acid by the stomach.

Brand names include Alu-Cap, Aludrox, Gaviscon or Pepsamar.
Algeldrate reacts with excess acid in the stomach, reducing the acidity of the stomach content, which may relieve the symptoms of ulcers, heartburn or dyspepsia.

Such products can cause constipation, because the aluminium ions inhibit the contractions of smooth muscle cells in the gastrointestinal tract, slowing peristalsis and lengthening the time needed for stool to pass through the colon.
Some such products are formulated to minimize such effects through the inclusion of equal concentrations of magnesium hydroxide or magnesium carbonate, which have counterbalancing laxative effects.

Algeldrate is also used to control hyperphosphatemia (elevated phosphate, or phosphorus, levels in the blood) in people and animals suffering from kidney failure.
Normally, the kidneys filter excess phosphate out from the blood, but kidney failure can cause phosphate to accumulate.
The aluminium salt, when ingested, binds to phosphate in the intestines and reduce the amount of phosphorus that can be absorbed.

Precipitated Algeldrate is included as an adjuvant in some vaccines (e.g. anthrax vaccine).
One of the well-known brands of Algeldrate adjuvant is Alhydrogel, made by Brenntag Biosector.

Since Algeldrate absorbs protein well, Algeldrate also functions to stabilize vaccines by preventing the proteins in the vaccine from precipitating or sticking to the walls of the container during storage.
Algeldrate is sometimes called "alum", a term generally reserved for one of several sulfates.

Vaccine formulations containing Algeldrate stimulate the immune system by inducing the release of uric acid, an immunological danger signal.
This strongly attracts certain types of monocytes which differentiate into dendritic cells.

The dendritic cells pick up the antigen, carry Algeldrate to lymph nodes, and stimulate T cells and B cells.
Algeldrate appears to contribute to induction of a good Th2 response, so is useful for immunizing against pathogens that are blocked by antibodies.
However, Algeldrate has little capacity to stimulate cellular (Th1) immune responses, important for protection against many pathogens, nor is Algeldrate useful when the antigen is peptide-based.

Algeldrate is used in various industries as:
Algeldrate is used as a raw material in the production of Aluminium chemicals
Algeldrate is used as a raw material in the manufacture of glass and glazes

Algeldrate is used as a raw material in catalyst production
Algeldrate is used as a flame retardant and smoke suppressant filler in plastics (for example: Cables, rubber products and carpet backing)

Algeldrate is used as a raw material for fertilizers, and fiber cement board products
Algeldrate is used as an extender and a bodying agent in paper, solvent- and water-borne paints, UV-curable coatings, inks, and adhesives

Algeldrate is used as a polishing and cleansing agent Mould wash and separating agent
Algeldrate is used as a filler of cast polymer products such as onyx and solid surfaces

Uses at industrial sites:
Algeldrate is used in the following products: coating products, fillers, putties, plasters, modelling clay, polymers and washing & cleaning products.
Algeldrate has an industrial use resulting in manufacture of another substance (use of intermediates).

Algeldrate is used in the following areas: mining, building & construction work and formulation of mixtures and/or re-packaging.
Algeldrate is used for the manufacture of: chemicals, furniture, plastic products and rubber products.

Release to the environment of Algeldrate can occur from industrial use: in the production of articles, as an intermediate step in further manufacturing of another substance (use of intermediates), formulation of mixtures, manufacturing of Algeldrate and in processing aids at industrial sites.
Other release to the environment of Algeldrate is likely to occur from: indoor use (e.g. machine wash liquids/detergents, automotive care products, paints and coating or adhesives, fragrances and air fresheners), outdoor use, indoor use in long-life materials with low release rate (e.g. flooring, furniture, toys, construction materials, curtains, foot-wear, leather products, paper and cardboard products, electronic equipment) and outdoor use in long-life materials with low release rate (e.g. metal, wooden and plastic construction and building materials).

Consumer Uses:
Algeldrate is used in the following products: cosmetics and personal care products, coating products, inks and toners, fillers, putties, plasters, modelling clay, pharmaceuticals, adhesives and sealants, washing & cleaning products, lubricants and greases and polishes and waxes.
Release to the environment of Algeldrate can occur from industrial use: formulation of mixtures and formulation in materials.
Other release to the environment of Algeldrate is likely to occur from: indoor use (e.g. machine wash liquids/detergents, automotive care products, paints and coating or adhesives, fragrances and air fresheners) and outdoor use.

Widespread uses by professional workers:
Algeldrate is used in the following products: inks and toners, coating products, fillers, putties, plasters, modelling clay, washing & cleaning products, adhesives and sealants, cosmetics and personal care products, lubricants and greases and polishes and waxes.
Algeldrate is used in the following areas: building & construction work, printing and recorded media reproduction, formulation of mixtures and/or re-packaging and agriculture, forestry and fishing.

Algeldrate is used for the manufacture of: textile, leather or fur and wood and wood products.
Other release to the environment of Algeldrate is likely to occur from: indoor use (e.g. machine wash liquids/detergents, automotive care products, paints and coating or adhesives, fragrances and air fresheners) and outdoor use.

Algeldrate is characterised by: 
High purity 
High whiteness 
Relatively low density (2.4g/cm3) compared to other mineral fillers (typically 2.7g/cm3)   
Medium Mohs hardness of 3 
Decomposition around 180oC, releasing water (making Algeldrate an excellent halogen-free flame retardant)

Properties of Algeldrate:
Algeldrate is amphoteric.
In acid, Algeldrate acts as a Brønsted–Lowry base.

Algeldrate neutralizes the acid, yielding a salt:
3 HCl + Al(OH)3 → AlCl3 + 3 H2O

In bases, Algeldrate acts as a Lewis acid by binding hydroxide ions:
Al(OH)3 + OH− → [Al(OH)4]−

Physical Properties:
Powdery substance
Algeldrate adds thermal properties that provide translucency and whiteness
Solid surface material
Flame retardant

Performance Benefits of Algeldrate:
Flame retardant / smoke suppressant
Ultra-white / translucent
High purity – blush resistance
Faster gel time
Low viscosity / higher loadings
Higher mechanical properties

Production of Algeldrate:
Virtually all the Algeldrate used commercially is manufactured by the Bayer process which involves dissolving bauxite in sodium hydroxide at temperatures up to 270 °C (518 °F).
The waste solid, bauxite tailings, is removed and Algeldrate is precipitated from the remaining solution of sodium aluminate.
This Algeldrate can be converted to aluminium oxide or alumina by calcination.

The residue or bauxite tailings, which is mostly iron oxide, is highly caustic due to residual sodium hydroxide.
Algeldrate was historically stored in lagoons; this led to the Ajka alumina plant accident in 2010 in Hungary, where a dam bursting led to the drowning of nine people.
An additional 122 sought treatment for chemical burns.

The mud contaminated 40 square kilometres (15 sq mi) of land and reached the Danube.
While the mud was considered non-toxic due to low levels of heavy metals, the associated slurry had a pH of 13.

Structure of Algeldrate:
Al(OH)3 is built up of double layers of hydroxyl groups with aluminium ions occupying two-thirds of the octahedral holes between the two layers.
Four polymorphs are recognized.

All feature layers of octahedral Algeldrate units, with hydrogen bonds between the layers.
The polymorphs differ in terms of the stacking of the layers.

All forms of Al(OH)3 crystals are hexagonal:
Gibbsite is also known as γ-Al(OH)3 or α-Al(OH)3
Bayerite is also known as α-Al(OH)3 or β-Algeldrate
Nordstrandite is also known as Al(OH)3

Aluminium trihydrate, once thought to be Algeldrate, is an aluminium phosphate.
Nonetheless, both gibbsite and Aluminium trihydrate refer to the same polymorphism of Algeldrate, with gibbsite used most commonly in the United States and Algeldrate used more often in Europe.
Algeldrate is named after the Greek words for water (hydra) and clay (argylles).

Safety of Algeldrate:
In the 1960s and 1970s Algeldrate was speculated that aluminium was related to various neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease.
Since then, multiple epidemiological studies have found no connection between exposure to environmental or swallowed aluminium and neurological disorders, though injected aluminium was not looked at in these studies.

Neural disorders were found in experiments on mice motivated by Gulf War illness (GWI).
Algeldrate injected in doses equivalent to those administered to the United States military, showed increased reactive astrocytes, increased apoptosis of motor neurons and microglial proliferation within the spinal cord and cortex.

Identifiers of Algeldrate:
CAS Number: 21645-51-2
ChEBI: CHEBI:33130
ChEMBL: ChEMBL1200706
ChemSpider: 8351587
DrugBank: DB06723
ECHA InfoCard: 100.040.433
KEGG: D02416
PubChem CID: 10176082
RTECS number: BD0940000
CompTox Dashboard (EPA): DTXSID2036405
InChI: InChI=1S/Al.3H2O/h;3*1H2/q+3;;;/p-3
A02AB02 (WHO) (algeldrate)
SMILES: [OH-].[OH-].[OH-].[Al+3]

CAS number: 21645-51-2
EC number: 244-492-7
Hill Formula: AlH₃O₃
Chemical formula: Al(OH)₃ * x H₂O
Molar Mass: 78 g/mol
HS Code: 2818 30 00
Quality Level: MQ200

Properties of Algeldrate:
Chemical formula: Al(OH)3
Molar mass: 78.003 g·mol−1
Appearance: White amorphous powder
Density: 2.42 g/cm3, solid
Melting point: 300 °C (572 °F; 573 K)
Solubility in water: 0.0001 g/(100 mL)
Solubility product (Ksp): 3×10−34
Solubility: soluble in acids and alkalis
Acidity (pKa): >7
Isoelectric point: 7.7

Density: 2.42 g/cm3 (20 °C)
Melting Point: 300 °C Elimination of water of crystallisation
pH value: 8 - 9 (100 g/l, H₂O, 20 °C) (slurry)
Vapor pressure: <0.1 hPa (20 °C)

Molecular Weight: 81.028 g/mol
Hydrogen Bond Donor Count: 3
Hydrogen Bond Acceptor Count: 3
Rotatable Bond Count: 0
Exact Mass: 81.0132325 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass: 81.0132325 g/mol
Topological Polar Surface Area: 3Ų
Heavy Atom Count: 4
Complexity: 0
Isotope Atom Count: 0
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count: 0
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count: 0
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count: 0
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count: 0
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count: 4
Compound Is Canonicalized: Yes

Thermochemistry of Algeldrate:
Std enthalpy of formation (ΔfH⦵298): −1277 kJ·mol−1

Specifications of Algeldrate:
Identity: conforms
Chloride (Cl): ≤ 0.01 %
Sulfate (SO₄): ≤ 0.05 %
Fe (Iron): ≤ 0.01 %
Na (Sodium): ≤ 0.3 %
Loss on ignition (700 °C): 30.0 - 35.0 %
Bulk density: about 90
Particle size (< 150 µm): about 90

Related compounds of Algeldrate:
Boric acid
Gallium(III) hydroxide
Indium(III) hydroxide
Thallium(III) hydroxide
Scandium(III) hydroxide
Sodium oxide
Aluminium oxide hydroxide

Names of Algeldrate:

Regulatory process names:
Aluminium hydroxide
aluminium hydroxide
Aluminum hydroxide, dried

IUPAC names:
Alumina hydrate
Alumina trihydrate
Aluminium Hydroxide
Aluminium hydroxide
aluminium hydroxide
Aluminium Hydroxide
Aluminium hydroxide
aluminium hydroxide
Aluminium hydroxide, Alumina hydrate
Aluminium hydroxide_JS
Aluminium hydroxyde
aluminium trihydrate
Aluminium trihydrate
Aluminium trihydroxide
aluminium trihydroxide
aluminium(3+) ion trihydroxide
Aluminium(3+) trihydroxide
aluminium(3+) trihydroxide
aluminium(III) hydroxide
aluminuim hydroxide
Aluminum Hydroxide
Aluminum hydroxide
aluminum hydroxide
Aluminum hydroxide
Aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3)
Aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3)
Aluminum Trihydrate
Aluminum trihydrate
aluminum trihydrate
Aluminum trihydroxide
aluminum trihydroxide

Preferred IUPAC name:
Aluminium hydroxide

Systematic IUPAC name:

Trade names:
AB H-Series Alumina Trihydrate
Alumina Hydrate
Alumina hydrate
Aluminium hydrate
Aluminium Hydroxide
Aluminium hydroxide
aluminium hydroxide
Aluminium trihydroxide
Aluminum hydroxide
Aluminum hydroxide highly dispersed precipitated
aluminum trihydrate
Hidróxido de aluminio
Hydrated alumina
hydroxid hlinitý
HYMOD® Surface-Treated Alumina Trihydrate
JR-800, MT-500SA etc.
KB-30, HS , HC, Hydrate, Aluminium hydroxide
MICRAL® Alumina Trihydrate
MOLDX® Optimized Alumina Trihydrate
ONYX ELITE® Alumina Trihydrate
SB Alumina Trihydrate

Other names:
Aluminium oxide, hydrate
Aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3)
Aluminum oxide (Al2O3), hydrate
Aluminic acid
Aluminic hydroxide
Aluminium(III) hydroxide
Aluminium hydroxide
Aluminium trihydroxide
Hydrated alumina
Orthoaluminic acid

Other identifiers:

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