Synonyms: Les polyglucosides d'alkyle; Alkyl polyglucoside 55 ; APG; APG 55; APG55; Alkil Poliglikozit 55
Alkyl Polyglycoside (APG) are a class of nonionic surfactants widely used in a variety of cosmetic, household and industrial applications.
Les polyglucosides d'alkyle; polyglucosides d'alkyle; Des polyglucosides d'alkyle; Alkyl polyglucoside 55 ; APG; APG 55; APG55; Les polyglucosides d'alkyle; polyglucosides d'alkyle; Des polyglucosides d'alkyle; Alkyl polyglucoside 55 ; APG; APG 55; APG55; LES POLYGLUCOSİDES D'ALKYLE; POLYGLUCOSİDES D'ALKYLE; DES POLYGLUCOSİDES D'ALKYLE; ALKYL POLYGLUCOSİDE 55 ; APG; APG 55; APG55; ; les polyglucosides d'alkyle; polyglucosides d'alkyle; des polyglucosides d'alkyle; alkyl polyglucoside 55 ; apg; apg 55; apg55; Les polyglucosides d alkyle; polyglucosides d'alkyle; Des polyglucosides d'alkyle; Alkyl polyglucoside 55 ; APG; APG 55; APG55; Les polyglucosides d'alkyle; polyglucosides d'alkyle; Des polyglucosides d'alkyle; Les polyglucosides d'alkyle; polyglucosides d'alkyle; Des polyglucosides d'alkyle; Alkyl polyglucoside 55 ; APG; APG 55; APG55; Les polyglucosides d'alkyle; polyglucosides d'alkyle; Des polyglucosides d'alkyle; Alkyl polyglucoside 55 ; APG; APG 55; APG55; LES POLYGLUCOSİDES D'ALKYLE; POLYGLUCOSİDES D'ALKYLE; DES POLYGLUCOSİDES D'ALKYLE; ALKYL POLYGLUCOSİDE 55 ; APG; APG 55; APG55; ; les polyglucosides d'alkyle; polyglucosides d'alkyle; des polyglucosides d'alkyle; alkyl polyglucoside 55 ; apg; apg 55; apg55; Les polyglucosides d alkyle; Alkyl polyglucoside 55 ; APG; APG 55; APG55; LES POLYGLUCOSİDES D'ALKYLE; POLYGLUCOSİDES D'ALKYLE; DES POLYGLUCOSİDES D'ALKYLE; ALKYL POLYGLUCOSİDE 55 ; APG; APG 55; APG55; ; les polyglucosides d'alkyle; polyglucosides d'alkyle; des polyglucosides d'alkyle; alkyl polyglucoside 55 ; apg; apg 55; apg55; Les polyglucosides D'alkyle; polyglucosides D'alkyle; Des polyglucosides D'alkyle; Polyglycoside d'Alkyle
Alkyl polyglycoside 55
General chemical structure of an Alkyl Polyglycoside, a common form of alkyl polyglycoside.
Alkyl Polyglycoside (APG) are a class of nonionic surfactants widely used in a variety of cosmetic, household and industrial applications. Biodegradable and of plant origin from sugars, these surfactants are generally derivatives of glucose and fatty alcohols.  The raw materials are usually starch and fat, and the end products are usually complex mixtures of compounds with different sugars including the hydrophilic end and alkyl groups of varying length including the hydrophobic end.  When derived from glucose, they are known as Alkyl Polyglycoside.
Uses of Alkyl Polyglycoside
Alkyl polyglycoside is used to improve foaming in detergents. Alkyl polyglycoside is also used in the personal care industry because it is biodegradable and safe for sensitive skin. 
Alkyl polyglycosides are produced by combining a sugar such as glucose with a fatty alcohol in the presence of acid catalysts at elevated temperatures.
Alkyl Polyglycosides (APGs) of different hydrocarbon chain lengths have been prepared using an indirect method involving the condensation of fatty alcohol with dextrose. The chemical structures of the compounds prepared were confirmed using different spectroscopic techniques, mainly Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy. The surface properties of solutions containing different concentrations of the prepared alkyl polyglycosides were determined at different temperatures. The results of the spectroscopic analysis demonstrate that these materials were prepared according to the correct techniques, producing pure materials. The results of the determination of the critical micellar concentration (CMC) demonstrate that the surface properties of these compounds depend mainly on the nature of their hydrophobic component.
Alkyl polyglycoside (APG)
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Appearance of Alkyl Polyglycoside: liquid
Use of Alkyl Polyglycoside: Water Treatment Chemicals, Rubber Auxiliary Agents, Plastic Auxiliaries, Coating Auxiliaries, Textile Auxiliaries, Paper Chemicals, Leather Auxiliaries, Electronic Chemicals
Color of Alkyl Polyglycoside: yellow
Alkyl Polyglycoside Solid Content: 50.0-52.0%
PH value of Alkyl Polyglycoside (20% Aq.): 11.5-12.5
Viscosity of Alkyl Polyglycoside (20 ° C): 1000-2500MPa.S
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Introduction: Alkyl polyglycoside is a new type of nonionic surfactant of a complete nature, directly composed of renewable natural glucose and fatty alcohol. Alkyl polyglycoside exhibits the characteristics of a common nonionic and anionic surfactant with high surface activity, good ecological safety and intermiscibility. Almost no surfactant can compare favorably with Alkyl Polyglycoside in terms of ecological safety, irritation and toxicity. Alkyl polyglycoside is internationally recognized as the preferred "green" functional surfactant.
INCI name: Coco-glucoside
Synonyms of Alkyl Polyglycoside: DECYL GLUCOSIDE; D-Glucopyranose, oligomer, C8-16-alkyl Polyglycoside
Alkyl Polyglycoside CAS #: 141464-42-8
0814B55 Alkyl Polyglycoside Test Items
Appearance, 25 ° C Clear yellow liquid
Solid content% 50-52
PH value of Alkyl Polyglycoside (20% aq.) 11.5-12.5
Viscosity of Alkyl Polyglycoside (20 ° C, mPa.s) 1000-2500
Alkyl Polyglycoside Free Fatty Alcohol (% by weight) 1 max
Alkyl Polyglycoside Sulphated Ash (% by weight) 3 max
Application of Alkyl Polyglycoside:
Alkyl Polyglycoside 0814 offers excellent dishwashing performance, especially in combination with anionic and amphoteric surfactants. This product is therefore well suited to the manufacture of manual washing products. In manual dishwashing formulations, Alkyl Polyglycoside exhibits equivalent performance to 1214 Alkyl Polyglycoside coupled with the advantage of improved low temperature behavior.
Alkyl Polyglycoside 0814 provides good detergent performance when used for surfactant systems in a wide variety of household and institutional cleaning products, for example, hard surface cleaners and liquid laundry detergents.
Packing of Alkyl Polyglycoside: 50/200 / 220KG /
drum or according to customers' needs.
Storage of Alkyl Polyglycoside: Alkyl Polyglycoside can be stored in sealed, original containers protected from freezing and below 40 ° C for at least 1 year.
Maximum Storage Temperature: The maximum recommended storage temperature of Alkyl Polyglycoside 0814 is 43 ° C. When heating, avoid prolonged localized temperatures above 43 ° C to avoid possible discoloration of the product. Use warm water if possible. Low pressure steam is acceptable if the product is monitored regularly.
Bulk Storage Materials: Carbon steel should not be used to store or handle Alkyl Polyglycoside 0814 due to probable iron contamination. Both plastic drums or IBCs recommended in high density polyethylene (HDPE) are acceptable.
Polyalkyl glucosides have attracted great research interest as environmentally friendly biological surfactants. Therefore, we have investigated the effects of n-hexyl polyglucoside and octyl-decyl polyglucoside on the thermodynamics and kinetics of CH4 hydrate formation, and experimented with the separation of CH4 / N2 via hydrate formation with n-hexyl polyglucoside and octyl-decyl polyglucoside, respectively. The results show that both could increase the rate of hydrate formation and shorten the reaction time. As a result, the efficiency of CH4 / N2 separation via hydrate formation is greatly improved. The use of alkylpolyglucosides in the hydrate could promote the development and industrial application of a hydrate-based separation process.
KEYWORDS: Alkyl polyglycoside, hydrate, thermodynamics, kinetics, separation
Alkyl polyglycoside as components of water-based lubricants
Water can be used as an ecological lubricating base if it is possible to select additives capable of advantageously modifying its tribological and anticorrosion properties. In addition, these additives are not expected to be harmful to human health and the natural environment. These conditions limit or even eliminate the possibility of applying the additives used in traditional oily bases because they are insoluble in water and often toxic. Polyalkyl glucosides (APGs) have been suggested as additives improving the lubricating properties of water. They are biodegradable and should not be recycled. They exhibit surface activity. They produce micelles at low concentration and lyotropic liquid crystals at high concentration. Two types of alkylpolyglucosides differing in alkyl chain lengths and degrees of polymerization were used in this study. Tribological tests were carried out using a T-11 ball-to-disc tester. The balls were made of steel, while the discs were made of steel, aluminum oxide, zirconium oxide, polyamide and poly (methyl methacrylate). The description of the device and the methods has been given in the literature (Szczerek and Tuszyński in TriboTest 8: 273-284, 2002). The addition of Alkyl Polyglycoside improves the lubricating properties of the water. The relative decrease in resistance to movement and wear depends on both the type of frictional torque and the type of Alkyl Polyglycoside used. The results of the tribological tests obtained were correlated with the activity of the alkyl polyglycosides measured as the wettability of the friction couples by their solutions.
Key words: coefficient of friction, wear, lubricants, surfactants
There are a number of publications dealing with the water lubrication of ceramic [2, 3], plastic and composite friction couples [4, 5]. Steel friction couples have been coated [6, 7] or corrosion inhibitors have been added to the water . Analysis of the data in the literature [2–8] indicates that pure water does not meet the requirements that lubricants must meet. Therefore, it is necessary to use suitable additives which can reduce resistance to movement and wear, counteract friction, inhibit the corrosive action of water and increase its viscosity. Surfactants appear to be the appropriate substances, mainly due to their ability to adsorb at the interface and produce ordered structures in solutions [9–11].
New additives which have a beneficial effect on the lubricating and physicochemical properties of water as a lubricant have been described in our articles [12–16]. Among the compounds tested so far, special attention should be paid to Alkyl Polyglycoside (Alkyl Polyglycoside), mainly due to the fact that they are biodegradable and not ohas no harmful effect on humans and the natural environment.
Polyalkyl glucosides as water lubricity modifiers
Alkyl Polyglycosides (Figure 1) are a group of surfactant compounds.
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Molecular structure of Alkyl Polyglycoside (APG)
Their hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts are clearly separated. The hydrophilic group in an alkyl polyglycoside molecule typically consists of one to five parts of condensed glucoside (DP = 1 to 5). The hydrophobic group in Alkyl Polyglycoside molecules is an alkyl chain generally containing six to eighteen carbon atoms. The surface activity depends on both the hydrophilic part and the hydrophobic part, although to varying degrees. The surface activity of surfactants is determined mainly by the length of the chain. According to Traube's rule, the surface activity at the water / air interface is tripled with an increase in chain length by one CH2 group (at 20 ° C). The rule cannot be directly applied to the solid / solution interface but it gives an idea of the influence of the hydrophobic part. Therefore, shorter chain alkyl polyglycosides (n <6) exhibit low surface activity which limits their wide application.
The hydrophilic part affects the adsorption to a lesser extent. However, it affects the solubility in polar solvents. Depending on the structure of the molecule, alkyl polyglucosides exhibit different solubility in various solvents. Compounds with a degree of polymerization (DP) of 1 to 5 containing alkyl chains of 6 to 14 carbon atoms in length are soluble in water. Molecules of 16 to 22 carbon atoms are soluble in oil. In general, increasing the degree of polymerization increases the solubility in a polar medium while the lengthening of the alkyl chain increases the solubility in a nonpolar medium [17, 18]. From the point of view of the application of Alkyl Polyglycosides as additives improving the lubricating properties of water, these compounds should be both water soluble and highly surfactant.
Alkyl polyglycosides on the surfaces of the friction couples result in the formation of a surface structure whose composition will determine the formation of a lubricating film.
The physicochemical properties of Alkyl Polyglycoside are interesting. They occur as monomers at low concentrations and produce micelles above the Critical Micellar Concentration (CMC) typically on the order of one hundredth of a percent. Aqueous solutions of alkylpolyglucosides may appear as lyotropic liquid crystals at concentrations greater than 30% [12, 15].
Alkyl Polyglycoside used as additives dramatically reduce resistance to movement and wear and also improve anti-epileptic properties [12, 15]. Up to now, steel-to-steel friction couples have been the main subject of research. It is therefore interesting to analyze whether the alkyl polyglycosides will have tribological properties which are just as beneficial in the friction couples whose elements are made up of various materials.
The aim of this research was to determine the effect of friction torque material type on the tribological properties of aqueous solutions of APG. The experimental part presents the study of the effect of the concentration of aqueous solutions of two types of alkyl polyglycoside on the surface activity: the surface tension (σ) and the wetting angle (θ). This is followed by tribological tests on 1% solutions. The tests are used to assess the resistance to movement and wear of the friction torque elements.
The surface activity is the basis of the application of Alkyl Polyglycoside (APG) as additives modifying the lubricating properties of water. Therefore, the presentation of the results of the investigation is preceded by a discussion of the effect of Alkyl Polyglycoside on their affinity for the surface.
The problem of the contact of a lubricant with a solid is essential from a tribological point of view. The surface phase and the mass phase can be distinguished at the interface in a solution. A “fuzzy” border can be found between the two phases. Due to the adsorption of the solutions, the surface phase is enriched with the component which shows a higher affinity for the surface. Alkyl polyglycoside is characteristic as the individual components compete for "free sites" on the surface.
The problems of adsorption at the interface become more complex when solutions contain surfactants which can form micelles both in the over phase.
face and in ground phase. Surfactants are present in solutions as monomers in a range of low concentrations, but after exceeding the critical surface aggregation concentration (CSAC), they produce surface micelles [9–11, 18]. Micelle formation in the surface phase ends at a concentration corresponding to the Critical Micellar Concentration (CMC) in the bulk phase. A considerable decrease in surface tension (σ) and wetting angle (θ) of Alkyl Polyglycoside solutions compared to water is a confirmation of the high surface activity of Alkyl Polyglycoside.
Variations in the σ value depending on the concentration of alkyl polyglycoside in water are characteristic of surfactant solutions.