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CAS:    7727-54-0
MF:    H8N2O8S2
MW:    228.2
EINECS:    231-786-5

Persulfates are strong oxidizing agents widely used in the production of metals, textiles, photographs, cellophane, rubber, adhesive papers, foods, soaps, detergents and hair bleaches. 
Ammonium Persulfate is used as a hair bleaching agent. 
Ammonium Persulfate may induce irritant dermatitis, contact urticaria and allergic contact dermatitis and represents a major allergen in hairdressers.
Ammonium persulfate is white, odorless single crystal, the formula is (NH4) 2S2O8, it has strong oxidation and corrosion, when heated, it decomposes easily, moisture absorption is not easy, Ammonium Persulfate is soluble in water, the solubility increases in warm water, it can hydrolyze into ammonium hydrogen sulfate and hydrogen peroxide in an aqueous solution. 

The dry product has good stability, storage is easy, and Ammonium Persulfate has the advantage of convenience and safety and so on. 
When heated to 120 °C, it can decompose, Ammonium Persulfate is easily damped and it can cake in moist air. 
Ammonium Persulfate is mainly used as an oxidizing agent and the preparation of hydrogen peroxide, potassium persulfate and other persulfate. 
Ammonium Persulfate can be used as free initiator of polymerization reaction, particularly vinyl chloride emulsion polymerization of polymerizable compound and redox polymerization. 
Ammonium Persulfate can be used as bleaching agent in grease, soap industry. 
Ammonium Persulfate can be used to prepare aniline dyes and dye oxidation and electroplating industry, photographic industry and chemical analysis. 

For food-grade, Ammonium Persulfate can be used as modifier of wheat, brewer's yeast mildew. 
Ammonium Persulfate can be used as metal etchant, circuit board cleaning and etching, copper and aluminum surface activation, modified starch, pulp and textile bleaching at low temperature and desizing, circulating water purification treatment systems, oxidative degradation of harmful gases, low formaldehyde adhesive stick bound to accelerate, disinfectants, hair dye decolorization.
Ammonium persulfate is non-flammable, but it can release of oxygen, so it has the role of combustion-supporting, storage environment must be dry and clean, and well-ventilated. 

People should pay attention to moisture and rain, Ammonium Persulfate should not be transported in rain. 
Keep away from fire, heat and direct sunlight. 
Ammonium Persulfate should keep sealed packaging, clear and intact labels. 
Ammonium Persulfate should be stored separately with flammable or combustible materials, organic compounds, as well as rust, a small amount of metal, and other reducing substances, Ammonium Persulfate should avoid be mixed to prevent the decomposition of ammonium persulfate and cause explosion.

Ammonium Persulfate is strong oxidant, it can explode when mixed with reducing agent, sulfur, phosphorus etc; it can explode when be heated, impacted, and meet fire.
Ammonium Persulfate can decompose of oxygen when high heat; it can generate toxic nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides and ammonia fumes when heated.
Ammonium persulfate (APS) is the inorganic compound with the formula (NH4)2S2O8. 
Ammonium Persulfate is a colourless (white) salt that is highly soluble in water, much more so than the related potassium salt. 
Ammonium Persulfate is a strong oxidizing agent that is used as a catalyst in polymer chemistry, as an etchant, and as a cleaning and bleaching agent.

Ammonium Persulfate Chemical Properties
Melting point: 120 °C
Density: 1.98
Vapor density: 7.9 (vs air)
Vapor pressure: 0Pa at 25℃
Refractive index: 1.50
Storage temp.: Store at +15°C to +25°C.
Solubility H2O: soluble
Form: powder
Color: White to yellow
Specific Gravity: 1.982
Odor: Odorless
PH Range: 1 - 2
PH: 1.0-2.5 (25℃, 1M in H2O)
Water Solubility: 582 g/L (20 ºC) decomposes
Sensitive: Moisture Sensitive
Merck: 14,541
Exposure limits: ACGIH: TWA 0.1 mg/m3
Stability: Stable. Oxidizing. May ignite combustible material. 
Incompatible with bases, combustible material, hydrogen peroxide, peroxy compounds, silver compounds, zinc. 
May decompose upon exposure to water or moist air.
LogP: -1 at 20℃
CAS DataBase Reference: 7727-54-0(CAS DataBase Reference)
EPA Substance Registry System: Ammonium Persulfate (7727-54-0)

Ammonium Persulfate is colorless monoclinic crystal or white crystalline powder. 
Ammonium Persulfate is soluble in water, the solubility is 58.2g/100ml water at 0℃.
Ammonium persulfate is a colorless or white crystalline solid.

Ammonium Persulfate can be used as analytical reagents, photographic fixing agent and reducing agent.
Ammonium Persulfate can be used as food preservative, oxidizing agent and initiator of high-molecular polymer.
Ammonium Persulfate can be used as raw material of producting persulfate and hydrogen peroxide in chemical industry, inhibitor of polymerization organic polymer, initiator of during the polymerization of vinyl chloride monomer. 
Ammonium Persulfate can be used as bleaching agent in grease, soap industry. 
Ammonium Persulfate can also be used as corrodent in plate metals cutting eclipse and oil extraction in oil industry. 

For food-grade, Ammonium Persulfate can be used as modifier of wheat, brewer's yeast mildew.
Ammonium Persulfate can be used for flour modifier (Limited ≤0.3g/kg, the Japanese standard, 1999); Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungicide (limit 0.1%, FAO/WHO, 1984).
The above information is edited by the chemicalbook of Wang Xiaodong.
Ammonium Persulfate is a bleaching agent for food starch that is used up to 0.075% and with sulfur dioxide up to 0.05%.

Regarding Ammonium Persulfate's mechanism of action, the sulfate radical adds to the alkene to give a sulfate ester radical. 
Ammonium Persulfate is also used along with tetramethylethylenediamine to catalyze the polymerization of acrylamide in making a polyacrylamide gel, hence being important for SDS-PAGE and western blot.

Illustrative of its powerful oxidizing properties, Ammonium Persulfate is used to etch copper on printed circuit boards as an alternative to ferric chloride solution.
This property was discovered many years ago. 
In 1908, John William Turrentine used a dilute ammonium persulfate solution to etch copper. 
Turrentine weighed copper spirals before placing the copper spirals into the Ammonium Persulfate solution for an hour. 
After an hour, the spirals were weighed again and the amount of copper dissolved by ammonium persulfate was recorded. 

This experiment was extended to other metals such as nickel, cadmium, and iron, all of which yielded similar results.
Ammonium Persulfate is a standard ingredient in hair bleach.
Persulfates are used as oxidants in organic chemistry.
For example, in the Minisci reaction and Elbs persulfate oxidation

Ammonium Persulfate acts as a polymerization initiator in polymer chemistry, as an etchant and cleaner in the manufacture of printed circuit boards, as a booster in hair bleaching formulations in cosmetics and as a gel breaker in the oil and gas industry.

Consumer uses
Disinfectants and bleaches
Bleaching agent for hair colourant and lightener formulations
Bleaching and strengthening agent for flour in the baking industry

Industrial uses
Printed circuit board etching
Activation of copper and aluminium surfaces
Initiator for the polymerization of monomers
Paper and textile cold bleaching and desizing
Decontamination for circuit water system
Oxidative degradation of harmful gases
Accelerated curing of low formaldehyde adhesives
Cleaning agent for laboratory glassware
Additive to industrial starch

Production methods    
Ammonium Persulfate can be derived by the electrolysis of ammonium sulfate and dilute sulfuric acid and then crystallized.
Electrolytic process Ammonium sulfate and sulfuric acid formulates to form liquid electrolyte, Ammonium Persulfate is decontaminated by electrolysis, HSO4-can discharge and generate peroxydisulfate acidat in the anode, and then reacts with ammonium sulfate to generate ammonium persulfate, ammonium persulfate goes through filtration, crystallization, centrifugal separation, drying to get Ammonium Persulfate product when the content reaches a certain concentration in the anode.

Anode reaction: 2HSO4--2e → H2S2O8
Cathodic reaction: 2H ++ 2e → H2 ↑
(NH4) 2S2O4 + H2S2O8 → (NH4) 2S2O8 + H2SO4

Contact allergens    
Persulfates are strong oxidizing agents widely used in the production of metals, textiles, photographs, cellophane, rubber, adhesive papers, foods, soaps, detergents, and hair bleaches. 
Ammonium persulfate is used as a hair bleaching agent. 

Ammonium Persulfate may induce irritant dermatitis, (mainly) nonimmunologic contact urticaria, and allergic contact dermatitis and represents a major allergen in hairdressers. 
People reacting to Ammonium Persulfate also react to other persulfates such as potassium persulfate.

Ammonium Persulfate allergy is diagnosed from the clinical history and by performing special allergy tests, i.e. prick tests (for contact urticaria) and patch tests (for dermatitis). 
Patch testing with 2.5% ammonium persulfate in petrolatum is used.

Routine patch testing with Ammonium Persulfate is not recommended as it may rarely produce a nonspecific, idiosyncratic release of histamine that results in an anaphylactic reaction. 
Injectable epinephrine (adrenaline) should be readily available when patch testing with Ammonium Persulfate is performed.

Ammonium persulfate
Ammonium peroxydisulfate
Diammonium peroxydisulfate
Ammonium peroxodisulfate
Diammonium peroxydisulphate
Ammonium persulphate
Ammonium peroxydisulphate
Diammonium peroxodisulphate
Peroxydisulfuric acid (((HO)S(O)2)2O2), ammonium salt (1:2)
CCRIS 1430
Persulfate d'ammonium [French]
EINECS 231-786-5
HSDB 7985
ammonium persuiphate
ammonium per sulphate
ammonium peroxidisulfate
Peroxydisulfuric acid (((HO)S(O)2)2O2), diammonium salt
ammonium persulphate-d8
EC 231-786-5
diazanium;sulfonatooxy sulfate
Ammonium persulfate [UN1444] [Oxidizer]
Ammonium peroxydisulfate, Electrophoresis Grade

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