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Anionic Polyacrylamide, white Granular is a water-soluble high polymer solid powder.
Anionic Polyacrylamide’s not soluble in most organic solvent, with good flocculating activity.
Anionic Polyacrylamide, also briefly referred as PAM, is commonly a polymer with acrylamide monomers bonded connected by end to end configuration; Anionic Polyacrylamide is a hard glassy solid at room temperature.

CAS Number: 9003-05-8
Molecular Formula: (C3H5NO)x
Molecular Weight: 71.08
EINECS Number: 231-545-4

Anionic Polyacrylamide (abbreviated as PAM or pAAM) is a polymer with the formula (-CH2CHCONH2-). 
Anionic Polyacrylamide has a linear-chain structure. 
Anionic Polyacrylamide is highly water-absorbent, forming a soft gel when hydrated. 

Anionic polyacrylamide is a type of synthetic polymer that is widely used in various industrial and environmental applications. 
Anionic Polyacrylamide is a water-soluble polymer formed from the polymerization of acrylamide monomers. 
The "anionic" part of its name refers to the fact that it carries a negative charge on its molecular structure. 

In 2008, an estimated 750,000,000 kg were produced, mainly for water treatment and the paper and mineral industries.
Because of the difference in production methods, the products can be white powder, translucent beads and flaky like. 
Anionic Polyacrylamides density is 1.302 g/cm3 (23 °C) with glass transition temperature being 153 °C and softening temperature being 210 °C. 

Anionic Polyacrylamide has good thermal stability and is soluble in water; its aqueous solution is clear and transparent with its viscosity increasing with increased molecular weight of the polymer, and also having a logarithmic relationship with the change in concentration of the polymer. 
Except for a few solvent such as acetic acid, acrylic acid, ethylene glycol, glycerol and formamide, Anionic Polyacrylamide is generally insoluble in organic solvents.

Anionic Polyacrylamide is formed by the polymerization of free acrylamide monomer radical. 
Anionic Polyacrylamide can be produced by several methods such as solution polymerization, inverse emulsion polymerization, suspension polymerization and solid state polymerization.
Demanded product should have controllable molecular weight, good water solubility and with little residual monomers.

Anionic Polyacrylamide is one of the most widely used water-soluble polymer species with a large number of pendant amide groups presenting on its molecular backbone. 
Amide group has a high chemical activity which can forms a series of derivatives with many kinds of compounds. 
Polyacrylamide has effects of flocculation, thickening, drag reduction, adhesive, colloidal stabilizing, filming and preventing scale. 

Anionic Polyacrylamide is widely used in papermaking, mining, coal washing, metallurgy, oil exploitation and other industrial sectors and is also a important chemical for water treatment.
Anionic Polyacrylamide can be synthesized as a simple linear-chain structure or cross-linked.
Anionic Polyacrylamide is relatively stable to heat with its solid only being softened at 220~230 °C and its solution subjecting to significant degradation only at above 110 °C. 

Anionic Polyacrylamide is insoluble in benzene, toluene, xylene, gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel, but soluble in water. 
Anionic Polyacrylamide can react with alkaline with partial hydrolysis of polyacrylamide. 
Anionic Polyacrylamide will have imidization reaction in strongly acidic (pH≤2.5) which will reduce its solubility in water. 

Anionic Polyacrylamide can be cross-linked by the poly-nuclear olation complex ion formed between aldehyde (such as formaldehyde) and high metal (such as aluminum, chromium, zirconium, etc.) and is easy to be degraded by the action of the mechanical and (or) oxygen.
In oil exploitation, Anionic Polyacrylamide is mainly used as oil displacement agent, water blocking agent, profile control agent, thickener, drag-reducing agent, water treatment agent.

Negatively charged copolymers of acrylamide are widely used as retention aids and dry-strength resins.
Anionic Polyacrylamide is a polyolefin. 
Anionic Polyacrylamide can be viewed as polyethylene with amide substituents on alternating carbons. 

Unlike various nylons, Anionic Polyacrylamide is not a polyamide because the amide groups are not in the polymer backbone. 
Owing to the presence of the amide (CONH2) groups, alternating carbon atoms in the backbone are stereogenic (colloquially: chiral). 
For this reason, Anionic Polyacrylamide exists in atactic, syndiotactic, and isotactic forms, although this aspect is rarely discussed. 

The Anionic Polyacrylamide is initiated with radicals and is assumed to be stereorandom.
However, different molecular mass ranges are used for these two roles.
Anionic Polyacrylamide is copolymerized by acrylate And acrylamide monomer that are known for its ultrahigh molecular weight polymer with 30 million Further it has outstanding adsorption bridge effect It can be utilized as per the varied requirements of customers for the performance of the products.

Anionic acrylamide copolymer retention aids typically have molecular masses in the range of 5 to 20 million grams per mole. 
The strength agents typically have molecular masses in the hundreds of thousands.
Another difference is in the form delivered to the mill. 

Though anionic retention aids can be delivered as solid beads or in solution, it is more popular to get them as water-in-oil emulsions.
Before such emulsion products can be used they have to be “inverted” with a dilution of about 100-to-1 with a lot of agitation.
Further time (at least half an hour) is needed for the individual molecules to uncoil themselves and achieve their full potential as retention aids.

The monomers used in their preparation are acrylamide and acrylic acid.
The acrylic acid is usually present in its corresponding sodium salt form in the final formulation of retention aid or strength aid. 
The strength agents are usually shipped as solutions having solids levels in the range of 10 to 50%. 

Linear Anionic Polyacrylamide is a water-soluble polymer. 
Other polar solvents include DMSO and various alcohols. 
Cross-linking can be introduced using N,N-methylenebisacrylamide. 

Some crosslinked materials are swellable but not soluble, i.e., they are hydrogels.
Partial hydrolysis occurs at elevated temperatures in aqueous media, converting some amide substituents to carboxylates. 
This hydrolysis thus makes the polymer particularly hydrophilic. 

The polymer produced from N,N-dimethylacrylamide resists hydrolysis.
Copolymers of acrylamide include those derived from acrylic acid.
A polymerformed from 2-propenamide(CH2:CHCONH2). 

Anionic Polyacrylamide gelsare made using a cross-linking agentto form three-dimensional matrices.
They are used in gel electrophoresis.
Anionic Polyacrylamide is a hard, brittle material. 

Anionic Polyacrylamide is readily soluble in cold water but solubility in organic compounds is generally very limited. 
The polymer undergoes reactions characteristic of the amide group; for example, alkaline hydrolysis introduces carboxylic groups and reaction with formaldehyde gives methylol groups.
Anionic Polyacrylamide has found use as a ftocculant in the processing of minerals and in water treatment. 

Copolymers of acrylamide and acrylic acid are used to increase the dry strength of paper.
Anionic polyacrylamide can accelerate the settlement of particles in the suspension, with a very significant speed of accelerating solution, promote filtration and other effects. 
Anionic polyacrylamide is mainly used for flocculation settlement of various industrial wastewater, precipitation clarification treatment. 

Such as the wastewater treatment of paper and pulp wastewater, the wastewater treatment of the mineral and metal smelting process, the wastewater treatment of steel mills and stone processing plants.
Anionic Polyacrylamide upon rapid mechanical stirring, polyacrylamide is easily soluble in cold water form a transparent adhesive solution. 
Increasing the temperature does not affect its solubility and only affects its dissolution when the concentration is increased to a high viscosity.

Anionic Polyacrylamide has a over 1% solubility in solvents such as glycerol, ethylene glycol, formaldehyde, acetic acid and lactic acid (these materials may be used as the plasticizer for laminating polyacrylamide). 
However, Anionic Polyacrylamide can only be swelled without being dissolved in solvents such as propionic acid, propylene glycol; it is also not soluble in solvent such as acetone and hexane.

Anionic Polyacrylamide has a moderate hygroscopic property, if not exposed to position of high temperatures, the powdered polyacrylamide can subject to long-term storage. 
For liquid Anionic Polyacrylamide, when its concentration is greater than 17%, it can be stored for more than one year with no significant change in the solution viscosity. 
In the pH range of 3 to 9, it can maintain a good degree of stability; at high pH, ​​the viscosity will be increased gradually.

Anionic Polyacrylamide has miscibility with most water-soluble natural or synthetic resins, latex systems, and most of the salts. 
Anionic Polyacrylamide can also quickly miscible with non-ionic, cationic and anionic surfactants, though with certain surfactants affecting the viscosity.
The viscosity of Anionic Polyacrylamide solution has a linear correlation with its molecular weight; in addition, the higher the temperature, the lower the viscosity.

The increase of the molecular weight of polyacrylamide will cause increased intrinsic viscosity.
The carboxyl group in long-chain yields anionic polyacrylamide; the amino group yields cationic version. 
Because of the existence of amino group or carboxyl group in the long-chain of Anionic Polyacrylamide, it is easy for flocculation when encountering aluminum ions.

The retention trend of Anionic Polyacrylamide is similar with that of rosin soap with the former one having a high retention rate.
Anionic Polyacrylamide is non-toxic and with a high molecular weight and is highly water soluble, and can introduce a variety of ionic groups for adjusting the molecular weight to obtain specific performance; it has good adhesion to many solid surface and dissolved substances, and can adhere or bridge the suspended particles dispersed in the solution for flocculation of them which is easy for filtration and separation.

Anionic polyacrylamide can be used as a cytoplasm additive in the paper industry with better retention and drainage effect. 
Anionic Polyacrylamide has a particularly dispersing effect for long-fiber pulp when its molecular weight is greater than 3.5 million. 
In addition, Anionic Polyacrylamide can also be used as a water treatment agent. 

In petroleum industry, Anionic Polyacrylamide can be used as oilfield mud additives, thickeners, and settling agents. 
In coal industry, Anionic Polyacrylamide is used as coal-washing additive.
Anionic polyacrylamide has generally two ways of preparation, one is copolymerization, which was prepared by the copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid or sodium acrylate aqueous solution; the other is the chemical conversion method, that is, from partial alkaline hydrolysis of polypropylene amide, or prepared by alkaline hydrolysis of poly-acrylonitrile. 

Here is copolymerization method whose procedure is simple and easy to control. 
The specific method is by mixing the 20% acrylamide and sodium acrylate aqueous solution in certain ratio. 
200 parts of this mixed monomer were added about 1 part of 1% EDTA solution, and then add it into 460 parts of deionized water; then add 2-3 parts of both 5% ammonium persulfate and sodium hydrogen sulfite solution under continuous flow of nitrogen, stir for 3-4 hours at 40~50 °C.

Anionic polyacrylamide (APAM) is a kind of polyacrylamide (PAM) and shows electronegative which contains functional groups of sulfonic acid, phosphoric acid or carboxylic acid.
Anionic polyacrylamide is the generic name for a group of very high molecular weight macromolecules produced by the free-radical polymerization of acrylamide and an anionically charged comonomer, mainly the sodium salt of acrylic acid, sodium acrylate. 

The combination of molecular weight and ionic charge results in extremely viscous aqueous solutions, one of the main properties of these polymers.
Both the charge density (ionicity), and the molecular weight can be varied. By varying the acrylamide/anionic monomer ratio, a charge density from 0 to 100% along the polymer chain can be obtained. 
The molecular weight is determined by the type and concentration of the reaction initiator and the reaction parameters.

Anionic polyacrylamide has no systemic toxicity to aquatic organisms or micro-organisms. 
The polymer is much too large to be absorbed into tissues and cells. 
The functional anionic groups do not interfere with the functioning of fish gills or daphnia respirators. 

Any adverse effects observed in laboratory tests are always seen at concentrations of over 100 mg/L and are probably due to the resulting viscosity of the test medium. 
The preparation of the test solutions at such concentrations requires high-energy stirring for long periods of time, sometimes several hours. 
Therfore, Anionic Polyacrylamide can be concluded that these harmful concentrations will not exist in the natural environment.

Melting point: >300 °C
Density: 1.189 g/mL at 25 °C
refractive index: n20/D 1.452
Flash point: >230 °F
storage temp.: 2-8°C
solubility: Water
form: Granules
color: White to faintly yellow
Odor: odorless
Water Solubility: SOLUBLE
Stability: Stable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, aluminium, copper, iron, iron salts
FDA 21 CFR: 172.255; 173.315
Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS): POLYACRYLAMIDE
EWG's Food Scores: 2-4

Anionic polyacrylamide is is an ultra-high molecular weight polymer made fron the copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylate, soluble in water easily and insoluble in organic solvents, such as ethanol and acetone. 
Which has the properties of flocculation, thickening, shear, resistance reducing and dispersion, etc.
Anionic polyacrylamides molecular weight is as high as 30 million or more, and it has extremely strong adsorption and bridging efficiency. 

Different molecular weights can be selected depending on the users different uses and requirements for product pertormance.
Anionic polyacrylamide is cationic, and thus having strong flocculation and absorption ability on the anionic material such as cellulose. 
As retention aids in the paper industry, Anionic polyacrylamide can increase filler and fines retention; as a filter aid, it has a strong flocculation effects on slurry and can accelerate the filtration accelerated of the wet in the wire section layer of paper machine; as a neutral sizing precipitating agent, it can partly substitute alum, and making rosin gum be precipitated and adhered between the fibers at higher pH. 

Anionic polyacrylamide can also accelerate the settlement of fibers in the white water and the flocculation of the suspended solids in pulp waste water, and thus can be used for waste water processing.
Preparation: the polymerization of acrylamide aqueous solution is a common method for preparing polyacrylamide. 
According to the trigger mode, there are different methods such as thermal initiator and oxidation-reduction induction. 

Polymer prepared by persulfate thermal initiating has relative small molecular weight at about 20 to about 1,000,000. On the other hand, polymer produced with oxidation-reduction method usually have relative high molecular weight polymer, up to about 300 to 400 million. 
For the application of retention and drainage aid in paper industry, it is better to apply polyacrylamide with higher molecular weight. 
The following is oxidation-reduction triggering polymerization. 

The resulting polymer, under alkaline conditions, is subject to Hofmann degradation reaction of amide in the sodium hypochlorite solution to obtain the acrylamide-amino-ethylene copolymer containing about 1% of free amino group.
Finally, neutralize with hydrochloric acid and further adjust to pH 5.5 to 6. 
The resulting product has a cationic property, and is a kind of cationic polyacrylamide with good application performance and low cost.

Anionic polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is an important means of DNA, RNA and protein analysis and separation. 
Ions and charged molecules mobilize in electric field with the mobility rate being related to their molecular size and shape, the strength of the molecular charge, the current strength and the resistance of the media to the current and therefore forming separate bands.

Anionic polyacrylamide can separated the substances according to their differences on charge, molecular size and the shape, thus having a molecular sieve effect as well as an electrostatic effect; it has a higher resolution than agarose gel electrophoresis and is suitable for the isolation of DNA oligonucleotides and its sequence analysis. 
Compared with agarose gel electrophoresis, it has the following advantages: (1)A stronger distinguishing ability, though the maximum fragment is 500 times as long as the smallest fragment length, they can still be well separated; (2) Capable of loading a higher amount of DNA than agarose gel; (3)The purity recovered from PAGE recovered is high which is suitable for demanding experiments.

Anionic polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (gel electrophoresis with vertical plate): it can isolate and analyze several different RNA samples or large doses of RNA samples simultaneously.
The basic principle of SDS denaturing in-continuous polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is based on differences in the molecular weight of the protein, SDS is an anionic surfactant, capable of binding with the hydrophobic portion of the protein thus making the protein bring a large number of anions SDS. 
Protein molecules thus bring a lot of negative charge which is far beyond its original charge. 

Thus the difference between the charges on different proteins has no significant effect. 
SDS can also make protein structure become loose with converged shape; the mobility rate of SDS-protein complex is only related to molecular weight. 
PAGE not only has molecular sieve effect but also has concentrated effect. 

Owing to the effect of the discontinuous pH gradient, the sample is compressed into a narrow band, thereby improving the separation efficiency.
Considering the volume of polyacrylamide produced, these materials have been heavily scrutinized with regards to environmental and health impacts.
Anionic polyacrylamide is of low toxicity but its precursor acrylamide is a neurotoxin and carcinogen.

Thus, concerns naturally center on the possibility that polyacrylamide is contaminated with acrylamide.
Considerable effort is made to scavenge traces of acrylamide from the polymer intended for use near food.
Additionally, there are concerns that polyacrylamide may de-polymerise to form acrylamide. 

Under conditions typical for cooking, polyacrylamide does not de-polymerise significantly.
The single claim that polyacrylamide reverts to acrylamide has been widely challenged.

Anionic polyacrylamide is most commonly partially biodegraded by the action of amidases, producing ammonia and polyacrylates. 
Anionic polyacrylamide are hard to biodegrade, but some soil microbe cultures have been shown to do so in aerobic condtions.

Production Methods Of Anionic polyacrylamide:
Acrylonitrile is hydrated to obtain acrylamide with copper as the catalyst, and further polymerized into Anionic polyacrylamide in the action of K2S2O8. 
Copper-aluminum alloy is converted into catalyst by alkali washing and pour into the hydration reactor. 
The raw material of acrylonitrile is pumped to storage tanks and then into the measuring tank, pour the water subjecting to post-ion exchange process into the measuring tank and then pump raw materials through the pre-heater continuously into the hydration reactor in proportion; control at 85-125 °C for hydration reaction to obtain aqueous solution of acrylamide with the remaining acrylonitrile recovered through flash column and condenser and further flowed back into the water metering tank for recycling usage and the acrylamide solution flowing from flash tank into the tank; Pump it into high slot to the resin exchange column to become 7-8% monomer after entering into tank, send it to the polymerization reactor to produce gel-like polyacrylamide gel package which is the final product.

Colloidal polyacrylamide: add 1 200 kg of deionized water into the hydrolysis reactor, add under stirring of acrylonitrile, 0.3 kg of aluminum hydroxide, cupric hydroxide for complex catalysis, and have hydrolysis reaction at 85~125 °C. 
After completion of the reaction, distill off the unreacted monomer acrylonitrile. 
Prepare a 7% to 8% acryloyl aqueous solution, add polymerization vessel and have polymerization reaction upon the triggering of ammonium persulfate.

High molecular weight-polyacrylamide; hydrolyze acrylonitrile at 110~140 °C, 0.3 MPa into acrylamide. 
Add PAGE into the polymerization vessel containing deionized water, and have reaction for 8 to 24 h in the triggering of 50 mg/kg of ammonium persulfate. 
Then, it is hydrolyzed into the final product under alkaline conditions and at 70~80 °C.

Acrylonitrile is first catalyzed into acrylamide, and then further polymerized into Anionic polyacrylamide in the presence of K2S2O8.
Add measured acrylonitrile into the reaction vessel; further add a catalytic amount of copper-based catalyst. Stir and warm up to 85~120 °C. 
The reaction pressure was controlled at 0.29~0.39 MPa. In continuous operation, the feed content was controlled at 6.5% with empty velocity of about 5h-1. 

The obtained acrylamide was then transferred polymerization vessel; add a certain amount of deionized water. 
Have the polymerization reaction in the triggering of potassium persulfate; add an appropriate amount of sodium bisulfite at 10 mins after the start of the reaction. 

Gradually heat to 64 °C, cool the reaction mixture, and have reaction at about 55 °C for 6h. 
Remove the unreacted monomer at vacuum (80 °C) under reduced pressure to obtain the finished product.

Uses Of Anionic polyacrylamide:
Anionic polyacrylamide is used as a flocculant in water treatment industry. 
Also used in petroleum geology drilling configuration for removing non-dispersing low solid phase mud.
Anionic polyacrylamide can be used as setting agent in sugar industry settling agent (sugar co-agent); film formers.

Anionic polyacrylamide can be used as a soil conditioner, flocculants, and can be used in textile and paper sizing reinforcement.
Anionic polyacrylamide can be used at coal field, oil field and flocculant agents.
Anionic polyacrylamide can be used as efficient flocculants for neutral and alkaline medium, and can be used as drilling mud additives.

Anionic polyacrylamide can also be used as oilfield mud additives, sewage treatment agent, and for textile sizing, paper reinforcement.
Anionic polyacrylamide is an important water-soluble polymer, and also has various values effects such as flocculation, thickening, cleavage resistant, reducing resistance, and dispersing properties. 
These properties are biased according to the difference of the derivative ions. 

Therefore, Anionic polyacrylamide has wide application in various fields such as oil exploration, mineral processing, coal washing, metallurgy, chemicals, paper, textile, sugar, medicine, environmental protection, building materials, and agricultural production.
Anionic polyacrylamide can be used as the flocculant for water-based drilling fluid which can improve the rheological properties of the drilling fluid, reducing friction.

Anionic polyacrylamideis widely used in petrochemical, metallurgy, coal, mineral processing and textile and other industrial sectors, and is also used as precipitation flocculant, oil field water thickeners, drilling mud treatment agent, textile pulp, paper reinforcing agent, fiber modifier, soil conditioners soil stabilizing agent, fiber paste, resin finishing agents, synthetic resin coatings, adhesives, and dispersing agents.
In the 1970s and 1980s, the proportionately largest use of these polymers was in water treatment.

The next major application by weight is additives for pulp processing and papermaking. 
About 30% of Anionic polyacrylamide is used in the oil and mineral industries.
One of the largest uses for Anionic polyacrylamide is to flocculate solids in a liquid. 

This process applies to water treatment, and processes like paper making and screen printing. 
Anionic polyacrylamide can be supplied in a powder or liquid form, with the liquid form being subcategorized as solution and emulsion polymer.
Even though these products are often called 'Anionic polyacrylamide', many are actually copolymers of acrylamide and one or more other species, such as an acrylic acid or a salt thereof. 

These copolymers have modified wetting and swellability.
The ionic forms of Anionic polyacrylamide has found an important role in the potable water treatment industry. 
Trivalent metal salts, like ferric chloride and aluminum chloride, are bridged by the long polymer chains of Anionic polyacrylamide. 

This results in significant enhancement of the flocculation rate. 
This allows water treatment plants to greatly improve the removal of total organic content (TOC) from raw water.
In oil and gas industry Anionic polyacrylamide derivatives especially co-polymers have a substantial effect on production by enhanced oil recovery by viscosity enhancement. 

High viscosity aqueous solutions can be generated with low concentrations of Anionic polyacrylamide polymers, which are injected to improve the economics of conventional water-flooding. 
In a separate application, hydraulic fracturing benefits from drag reduction resulting from injection of these solutions. 
These applications use large volumes of polymer solutions at concentration of 30–3000 mg/L.

Anionic polyacrylamide is commonly used as a flocculant in the treatment of water and wastewater. 
Anionic polyacrylamide helps to aggregate and settle suspended solids in water, making it easier to separate and remove impurities.
Anionic polyacrylamide is used to improve the extraction of oil from reservoirs. 

Anionic polyacrylamide can modify the viscosity of water, which aids in displacing oil from underground formations and increasing the overall recovery rate.
Anionic polyacrylamide can be applied to soil to reduce erosion. 
Anionic polyacrylamide forms a stable, water-absorbent gel when mixed with soil, which can help prevent soil erosion by reducing water runoff.

Anionic polyacrylamide is used in the production of paper and pulp to improve retention and drainage during the papermaking process.
Anionic polyacrylamide is used in the textile industry as a sizing agent to improve the weaving process and the quality of fabrics.
Anionic polyacrylamide can be employed in the mining industry for the settling and dewatering of tailings and in the separation of minerals from ore.

Anionic polyacrylamide is used in various applications where the flocculation and clarification of liquids are required, such as in municipal water treatment and in industrial processes.
The primary functions of Anionic polyacrylamide soil conditioners are to increase soil tilth, aeration, and porosity and reduce compaction, dustiness and water run-off. 
Typical applications are 10 mg/L, which is still expensive for many applications.

Secondary functions are to increase plant vigor, color, appearance, rooting depth, and emergence of seeds while decreasing water requirements, diseases, erosion and maintenance expenses. FC 2712 is used for this purpose.
Anionic polyacrylamide is also often used in molecular biology applications as a medium for electrophoresis of proteins and nucleic acids in a technique known as PAGE. 
Anionic polyacrylamide was first used in a laboratory setting in the early 1950s. 

In 1959, the groups of Davis and Ornstein and of Raymond and Weintraub independently published on the use of Anionic polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to separate charged molecules.
The technique is widely accepted today, and remains a common protocol in molecular biology labs.
Anionic polyacrylamide has other uses in molecular biology laboratories, including the use of linear polyacrylamide (LPA) as a carrier, which aids in the  precipitation of small amounts of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA).

Many laboratory supply companies sell LPA for this use.
In addition, under certain conditions, Anionic polyacrylamide can be used to selectively precipitate only RNA species from a mixture of nucleic acids.
The elastic modulus of Anionic polyacrylamide can be changed by varying the ratio of monomer to cross-linker during the fabrication of polyacrylamide gel.

This property makes polyacrylamide useful in the field of mechanobiology, as a number of cells respond to mechanical stimuli.
The polymer is also used to make Gro-Beast toys, which expand when placed in water, such as the Test Tube Aliens. 
Similarly, the absorbent properties of one of its copolymers can be utilized as an additive in body-powder.

Anionic polyacrylamide has been used in Botox as a subdermal filler for aesthetic facial surgery (see Aquamid).
Anionic polyacrylamide was also used in the synthesis of the first Boger fluid.
Anionic polyacrylamide is used in textile the printing and dyeing industry can serve as a fabric treatment of the slurry finishing agent and the protective layer of supplemented anti-wrinkle anti-mildew can reduce the tendon yarn Attractive rate. 

Anionic polyacrylamide post-treatment agent can prevent static and flame retardant of fabrics. 
When used as a printing additive the polyacrylamide can make the product adhere to a large fault high and bright and can also be used as a bleached non-silicon polymer stabilizer.
Anionic polyacrylamide is used as a flocculant: for suspended particles thicker high concentration particle belt matrix water pH is neutral or basic sewage since the anionic polyacrylamide molecular chain contains a quantity The resolved solid particles suspended in the water are adsorbed to form a large flocculation in the particle frame bridge. 

Therefore it accelerates the settlement of the particles in the suspension there is a very obvious acceleration of the clarification of the solution promoting the effect of filtration. 
Anionic polyacrylamide is widely used in chemical industrial wastewater waste liquid treatment municipal sewage treatment. 
Since the water industry the purification Shenqing Washing Delta metallurgy Iron and Steel Industry Zinc Aluminum Plug Industry Electronic Industry etc.
Anionic polyacrylamide is used in the petroleum industry oil production drilling mud waste mud treatment preventing water from making it reducing the recovery and improving the recovery rate and three oil production are widely used.
Anionic polyacrylamide is used in papermaking industries one is to increase fillers pigments and other resolutions. 
To reduce the loss of raw materials and pollution to the environment; the second is to increase the strength of the paper (including dry strength and wet strength) in addition using PAM can also improve paper anti-tearness and porousness to improve visual and printing performance In food and tea packaging paper.
Anionic polyacrylamide in other industries such as the food industry used in sugar cane beet sugar production sugar juice clarification and syrup phosphorus float extraction. 
The fermentation of the enzyme preparation is clear and clearing the industry and is also used for the recovery of feed protein stable quality good performance.
The recovered protein powder has increased and gains the survival rate of chicken and has no adverse effects synthetic resin coating and civil engineering grouting materials. 

Water building materials industry improve cement quality construction industrial adhesive flock repair and blocking agent soil improvement electroplating industry printing and dyeing industry etc.
Anionic polyacrylamide can be used in agriculture to improve soil structure and water retention. 
By adding it to soil, Anionic polyacrylamide can enhance water infiltration, reduce erosion, and promote better root growth.

Fracturing fluids in hydraulic fracturing (fracking): In the oil and gas industry, anionic polyacrylamide is utilized in fracking operations as part of the fracturing fluid to increase the viscosity of the fluid and carry proppants into fractures created in the rock, thus improving the extraction of hydrocarbons.
In the food industry, anionic polyacrylamide can be used in processes like sugar refining, distilling, and the clarification of fruit juices.

In addition to its use in textile manufacturing, anionic polyacrylamide is employed in treating wastewater generated by the textile industry to remove dyes, suspended solids, and other contaminants.
In addition to its role in papermaking, anionic polyacrylamide is used to treat wastewater produced in the pulp and paper industry to remove pollutants and improve water quality.
Anionic polyacrylamide can assist in the desalination process by aiding in the separation of brine from fresh water.

Anionic polyacrylamide is sometimes used in construction to stabilize soil and prevent erosion at construction sites.
Anionic polyacrylamide can be found in cosmetic products as a thickening and stabilizing agent.

Anionic polyacrylamide is used in products like shampoos, lotions, and gels as a thickening and stabilizing agent.
Anionic polyacrylamide is used in a variety of industrial processes where solid-liquid separation is required, such as in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries.

Safety Profile Of Anionic polyacrylamide:
Anionic polyacrylamide in its dry form may be an irritant to the skin, eyes, and respiratory system. 
Direct contact with the skin or eyes should be avoided. 
If contact occurs, it's essential to rinse the affected area with plenty of water.

When handling anionic polyacrylamide in its powdered form, there is a potential inhalation risk. 
Dust or aerosolized particles should be minimized, and workers should wear appropriate personal protective equipment, such as respiratory protection and safety goggles.

Environmental Impact Of Anionic polyacrylamide: 
In its liquid form, anionic polyacrylamide can be introduced into the environment through wastewater discharges. 
While it is generally not considered highly toxic to aquatic life, it can affect water quality and sedimentation processes in natural water bodies if not used and disposed of properly. 
Environmental regulations should be followed to prevent adverse impacts.

Toxicity Of Anionic polyacrylamide: 
Anionic polyacrylamide itself is non-toxic, but if it contains polymerized monomers (a double bond), it would be toxic to humans. 
For this reason, upon the completion of its preparation, a certain amount of sodium bicarbonate should be added to remove residual monomers.
The above information is edited by the chemicalbook of Dai Xiongfeng.

Synonyms Of Anionic polyacrylamide:
Anionic polyacrylamide copolymer
Polyacrylamide (1500 MW)

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