CAS NUMBER: 84-65-1
EC NUMBER: 201-549-0
MOLECULAR FORMULA: C14H8O2
MOLECULAR WEIGHT: 208.21
Anthraquinone, also called anthracenedione, is an aromatic hydrocarbon with several quinone isomers.
Anthraquinone, also called anthracenedione or dioxoanthracene, is an aromatic organic compound with formula C14H8O2.
Isomers include various quinone derivatives.
The term anthraquinone, however refers to the isomer, Anthraquinone (IUPAC: 9,10-dioxoanthracene) wherein the keto groups are located on the central ring.
Anthraquinone is a building block of many dyes and is used in bleaching pulp for papermaking.
Anthraquinone is a yellow, highly crystalline solid, poorly soluble in water but soluble in hot organic solvents.
Anthraquinone is almost completely insoluble in ethanol near room temperature but 2.25 g will dissolve in 100 g of boiling ethanol.
Anthraquinone is found in nature as the rare mineral hoelite.
Anthraquinone is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon derived from anthracene or phthalic anhydride.
Anthraquinone is used in the manufacture of dyes, in the textile and pulp industries, and as a bird repellant.
Anthraquinone appears as yellow crystals or powder.
Anthraquinone is an anthraquinone that is anthracene in which positions 9 and 10 have been oxidised to carbonyls.
Anthraquinone, also called Anthraquinone, the most important quinone derivative of anthracene and the parent substance of a large class of dyes and pigments.
Anthraquinone is prepared commercially by oxidation of anthracene or condensation of benzene and phthalic anhydride, followed by dehydration of the condensation product.
Anthraquinones are organic compounds found in some plants.
Chemically they come in the form of simple anthrones or bianthrones.
Anthraquinones are used for dyes, pigments as well as for medicinal purposes.
Anthraquinone is a substance used as a bird repellent.
Anthraquinone has a low aqueous solubility, volatile with a low risk of leaching to groundwater.
Anthraquinone is non-persistent in soil but can be persistent in water under certain conditions.
Anthraquinones is a potent aromatic compound that besides being used commercially it offers numerous therapeutic benefits such as inhibits cancer growth by inducing apoptosis, relive constipation, ease bowl movement etc.
Anthraquinones are found naturally in some plants such as senna, buckthorn, yellow dock etc while it can also be produced using chemical routes such as anthracene oxidation, naphthalene oxidation, condensation of 1, 4-naphthoquinone with butadiene etc.
However its intake should strictly be regulated since it may cause some serious side effects.
Anthraquinone (9,10-dioxoanthracene) is an aromatic organic compound.
Anthraquinone is a derivative of anthracene.
Anthraquinone has the appearance of yellow or light gray to gray-green solid crystalline powder.
USES OF ANTHRAQUINONE:
-Uses Used as dye intermediates, paper cooking agent and hydrogen peroxide raw materials
-Use as a pulp and paper pulp cooking aids, can reduce the amount of alkali, shorten the cooking time.
-Use Most ofanthraquinoneis used in dyes, but the amount ofvapalizingaid used as pulp is rapidly increasing.
-for the production of dyes anthraquinone as raw materials, the sulfonation, chlorination, nitrification, etc., can be a wide range of dye intermediates for the production of anthraquinone disperse dyes, acid dyes, vat dyes, the reaction Dyes, etc., to form a full-color dye grade.
-According to statistics, anthraquinone dyes have more than 400 varieties, in the field of synthetic dyes occupy a very important position.
-Used as a papermaking pulp cooking agent in the alkaline cooking liquor only by adding a small amount of anthraquinone, you can speed up thedelignification, shorten the cooking time, improve pulp yield and reducewasteload.
-There are more and more paper mills currently using anthraquinone additives.
-The consumption of anthraquinone as a cooking additive has grown rapidly.
-Anthraquinone and other applications.
-Anthraquinone compounds can be used for the production of high concentrations of hydrogen peroxide; in the fertilizer industry to produce desulfurization agent anthraquinone disulfonate.
-Used in the printing and dyeing industry asa dispensing aids.
-Use of organic synthesis of high-level dye intermediates, such as indanthrene reductive dyes, acid dyes, some active dyes important raw materials.
-Used as paper cooking agent and hydrogen peroxide raw materials, etc., can reduce the amount of alkali, shorten the cooking time.
-Used as a papermaking pulp cooking agent in the alkaline cooking liquor only add a small amount of anthraquinone, you can speed up thedelignificationspeed, shorten the cooking time, improve the pulp yield, reducewasteload.
-There are more and more paper mills currently using anthraquinone additives.
-Digester additive in papermaking:
Anthraquinone is used as a digester additive in production of paper pulp by alkaline processes, like the kraft, the alkaline sulfite or the Soda-AQ processes. The anthraquinone is a redox catalyst. The reaction mechanism may involve single electron transfer (SET). The anthraquinone oxidizes the reducing end of polysaccharides in the pulp, i.e., cellulose and hemicellulose, and thereby protecting it from alkaline degradation (peeling). The anthraquinone is reduced to 9,10-dihydroxyanthracene which then can react with lignin. The lignin is degraded and becomes more watersoluble and thereby more easy to wash away from the pulp, while the anthraquinone is regenerated. This process gives an increase in yield of pulp, typically 1-3% and a reduction in kappa number.
-Use in flow batteries:
Anthraquinone is used as an electrolyte in flow battery which can provide long term electrical storage.
Anthraquinone is used as a bird repellant on seeds, and as a gas generator in satellite balloons.
Anthraquinone has also been mixed with lanolin and used as a wool spray to protect sheep flocks against kea attacks in New Zealand.
USAGE AREAS OF ANTHRAQUINONE:
-manufacture of dyes
-textile and pulp industries
-as a bird repeller
-Production of dyes
-Can be used as a goose repellent
-Catalyst for producing wood pulp
-Used in medicines to treat various diseases
APPLICATION OF ANTHRAQUINONE:
Anthraquinone is used in production of dyes, such as alizarin.
Many natural pigments are derivatives of anthraquinone.
Anthraquinone is also used as a catalyst in production of wood pulp in pulp and paper industry.
Another use is as a bird repellant on seeds.
A derivative of anthraquinone (2-ethylanthraquinone) is used to produce hydrogen peroxide commercially.
Anthraquinone is used as a laxative.
Anthraquinone (AQ) can be used:
-In the synthesis of water-soluble anthraquinone derivatives such as Anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonic acid, disodium salt (AQ-2,6) and Anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid, monosodium salt (AQ-2).
-These AQ derivatives are useful as redox catalysts for aeration in Becher process.
-As an indicator to determine the acid strength of poly(4-vinylpyridinium) hydrogen sulfate (P(4-VPH)HSO4) catalyst.
-As a pulping catalyst.
PROPERTIES OF ANTHRAQUINONE:
-Quality Level: 200
-vapor density: 7.16 (vs air)
-vapor pressure: 1 mmHg ( 190 °C)
-Boiling point: 379-381 °C (lit.)
-Melting point: 284-286 °C (lit.)
-SMILES string: O=C1c2ccccc2C(=O)c3ccccc13
-InChI key: RZVHIXYEVGDQDX-UHFFFAOYSA-N
PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ANTHRAQUINONE:
-Appearance: Light yellow powder
-Purity: ≥ 98.0 %
-Initial Melting Point: 284 ~ 286 ºC
-Loss on drying: ≤2%
-Solubility: Insoluble in water, soluble in ethyl ether, ethanol and acetone
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ANTHRAQUINONE:
Anthraquinone is semisoluble in water but dissolves in alcohol, nitrobenzene and aniline.
Anthraquinone is chemically fairly stable under normal conditions.
Anthraquinone is a combustible, light yellow to green crystalline solid.
FEATURES OF ANTHRAQUINONE:
-Available in various packaging options
PRODUCTION OF ANTHRAQUINONE:
Anthraquinone is obtained by oxidation of anthracene using sodium dichromate plus sulfuric acid, and is purified by dissolving in concentrated sulfuric acid at 130 °C and pouring into boiling water, whereupon anthraquinone separates as pure solid, and is recovered by filtration.
Further purification may be accomplished by sublimation or crystallization from nitrobenzene, aniline or tetrachloroethane.
OCCURENCE OF ANTHRAQUINONE:
Anthraquinones naturally occur in some plants (eg. aloe, senna, rhubarb, and Cascara buckthorn), fungi, lichens, and insects, where they serve as a basic skeleton for their pigments.
Natural anthraquinone derivatives tend to have laxative effects.
STORAGE OF ANTHRAQUINONE:
Stored in a cool dry place out of direct sunlight.