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Antimony trioxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Sb2O3. 
Antimony trioxide is the most important commercial compound of antimony. 
Antimony trioxide is found in nature as the minerals valentinite and senarmontite.
Like most polymeric oxides, Antimony trioxide dissolves in aqueous solutions with hydrolysis. 
A mixed arsenic-antimony oxide occurs in nature as the very rare mineral stibioclaudetite.

Antimony trioxide (ATO) is commonly used as a co-synergist with halogenated flame retardants to enhance their effectiveness. 

CAS: 1309-64-4
EC Number: 215-474-6

IUPAC Name: oxo(oxostibanyloxy)stibane
Molecular Formula: O3Sb2
Molecular Weight: 291.52 g/mol

Boiling Point: 1425 °C
Melting Point: 655 °C
Appearance: white solid
Odor: odorless
Density: 5.2 g/cm3, α-form
5.67 g/cm3 β-form
Solubility in water: 370±37 µg/L between 20.8 °C and 22.9 °C
Solubility: soluble in acid
Magnetic susceptibility (χ): −69.4×10−6 cm3/mol
Refractive index (nD): 2.087, α-form
2.35, β-form

Antimony trioxide is formed by reacting antimony trichloride (SbCl3) with water. 
Antimony trioxide is used in combination with some brominated flame retardants, and might also be used in conjunction with zinc borate, both within and outside the United States on commercial furniture, draperies, wall coverings, and carpets. 
Antimony trioxide is also used in enamels, glasses, rubber, plastics, adhesives, textiles, paper, and as a paint pigment

When antimony reacts with air through heating, it forms an inorganic compound known as antimony trioxide. 
Antimony trioxide is one of the essential compounds of antimony. 
Antimony trioxide is gray or white and exists in a cubic crystalline form. 
Antimony trioxide is also known as Atox B, Atox E, Antimony white, Flowers of Antimony, Blue star RG, and Antimony (III) oxide.

The inorganic compound has a density of 5.7 g cm3 and a vapor density of 10 (air = 1). 
The boiling point is 1425°C, and the melting point is 1425°C. 
The substance is only soluble with hydrolysis, where it forms an aqueous solution. 
However, Antimony trioxide is marginally water soluble.

The antimony trioxide structure varies depending on the temperature of the sample. 
For instance, dimeric Sb4O6 is discovered under high temperatures. 
The Sb4O6 molecules appear as bicyclic cages that look the same as related oxides of phosphorous trioxide and phosphorous (III). 
This cage structure is maintained in a cubic habit. 
A more stable orthorhombic form with pairs of Sb-O chains is discovered if the compound is exposed to temperatures below 606 °C.

Antimony trioxide (ATO) is commonly used as a co-synergist with halogenated flame retardants to enhance their effectiveness. 

Uses of Antimony Trioxide:

Flame Retardancy
A significant amount of antimony trioxide produced annually goes to enhance flame retardancy. 
Antimony trioxide is added to certain flame retardants, making them efficient in consumer products such as textiles, upholstered furniture, children’s products, and plastics.
In its physical state, antimony trioxide has no flame-retardant properties. 
However, when combined with other compounds, Antimony trioxide acts as a synergist. 
Typically, Antimony trioxide combines with halogenated compounds to create chemical compounds with flame retardant properties.

The process involves:

-Stopping the thermal decomposition reaction under gas
-Sealing against oxygen
-The carbonaceous char is formed under the solid phase

PET production
Antimony trioxide is also used as a catalyst in producing polyethylene terephthalate (PET). 
Polyethylene terephthalate is a polymer commonly used in bottles, films, and synthetic fibers. 
Antimony trioxide is also among the most popular materials in the beverage and food packaging industry. 
Antimony trioxide is a suitable material because it is lightweight and impermeable to CO2.

As with other compounds in PET, antimony can be used to migrate water into the bottles. 
However, current legislation establishes migration limits for antimony trioxide and other compounds.

The amount of antimony used in the preparation of PET may range from 100-300 mg/kg. 
This implies that a one-liter bottle can contain 3-9 milligrams of antimony. 
The high amount shows that the set limits can exceed if total migration occurs. 
For that reason, further studies have been carried out to determine the leaching or migration of the substance.

Antimony trioxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Sb2O3. 
Antimony trioxide is the most important commercial compound of antimony. 
Antimony trioxide is found in nature as the minerals valentinite and senarmontite.
Like most polymeric oxides, Antimony trioxide dissolves in aqueous solutions with hydrolysis. 
A mixed arsenic-antimony oxide occurs in nature as the very rare mineral stibioclaudetite.

The annual consumption of Antimony trioxide in the United States and Europe is approximately 10,000 and 25,000 tonnes, respectively. 
The main application is as flame retardant synergist in combination with halogenated materials. 
The combination of the halides and the antimony is key to the flame-retardant action for polymers, helping to form less flammable chars. 
Such flame retardants are found in electrical apparatuses, textiles, leather, and coatings.

Other applications:

Antimony trioxide is an opacifying agent for glasses, ceramics and enamels.
Some specialty pigments contain antimony.
Antimony trioxide is a useful catalyst in the production of polyethylene terephthalate (PET plastic) and the vulcanization of rubber.

The major use of Antimony Oxide is as a Flame Retardant synergist in plastics, rubber, textiles, adhesives, fiberglass & Paper. 
Glass manufacturers use it as a fining agent or as degasser (to remove bubbles). 
Porcelain and Enameling services use it as an opacifier. 
Paint manufacturers use Antimony Oxide as a white pigment. 
Antimony trioxide is sometimes used with other materials to form yellow pigments.

Antimony trioxide is an amphoteric oxide. 
Antimony trioxide dissolves in aqueous sodium hydroxide solution to give the meta-antimonite NaSbO2, which can be isolated as the trihydrate. 
Antimony trioxide also dissolves in concentrated mineral acids to give the corresponding salts, which hydrolyzes upon dilution with water.
With nitric acid, the trioxide is oxidized to antimony(V) oxide.

When heated with carbon, the oxide is reduced to antimony metal. 
With other reducing agents such as sodium borohydride or lithium aluminium hydride, the unstable and very toxic gas stibine is produced.
When heated with potassium bitartrate, a complex salt potassium antimony tartrate, KSb(OH)2·C4H2O6, is formed.

Re-volatilizing of crude antimony(III) oxide
Step 1) Crude stibnite is oxidized to crude antimony(III) oxide using furnaces operating at approximately 500 to 1,000 °C. 
The reaction is the following:

2 Sb2S3 + 9 O2 → 2 Sb2O3 + 6 SO2

Step 2) The crude antimony(III) oxide is purified by sublimation.

Oxidation of antimony metal:

Antimony metal is oxidized to Antimony trioxide in furnaces. 
The reaction is exothermic. 
Antimony trioxide is formed through sublimation and recovered in bag filters. 
The size of the formed particles is controlled by process conditions in furnace and gas flow. 
The reaction can be schematically described by:

4 Sb + 3 O2 → 2 Sb2O3

The structure of Sb2O3 depends on the temperature of the sample. 
Dimeric Sb4O6 is the high temperature (1560 °C) gas.
Sb4O6 molecules are bicyclic cages, similar to the related oxide of phosphorus(III), phosphorus trioxide.
The cage structure is retained in a solid that crystallizes in a cubic habit. 
The Sb–O distance is 197.7 pm and the O–Sb–O angle of 95.6°.
This form exists in nature as the mineral senarmontite.
Above 606 °C, the more stable form is orthorhombic, consisting of pairs of -Sb-O-Sb-O- chains that are linked by oxide bridges between the Sb centers. 
This form exists in nature as the mineral valentinite.

Antimony trioxide is a chemical added to some flame retardants to make them more effective in consumer products, including upholstered furniture, textiles, carpeting, plastics, and children’s products.

Antimony trioxide is also used to manufacture some polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic, which is used to make some ovenproof or microwavable plastic trays, as well as some plastic water bottles.

Antimony trioxide, also known as antimony oxide or Sb2O3, is the most widely produced compound of elemental antimony. 
The nations that produce the most antimony trioxide are China, South Africa, Bolivia, Russia, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan. 
Typical applications for antimony trioxide include flame retardant synergist for use in plastics, rubber, paints, paper, textiles, and electronics; polyethylene terephthalate polymerization catalyst; a clarifying agent for glass; an opacifier for porcelain and enamel; and a white pigment for paint. 
When used as a flame retardant, antimony trioxide is often used in combination with halogenated compounds. Antimony trioxide is used as a synergist to enhance the activity of the halogenated flame retardant.
In the absence of antimony trioxide about twice as much halogenated compound would be needed to reach the same level of flame retardancy.

Antimony trioxide has been used as a white pigment since ancient times. 
The pigmentation from antimony oxide in plastics can be controlled and adjusted by the judicious selection of a Sb2O3 grade having a specific particle size. 
The product with the smallest particle size and the narrowest particle-size range imparts the whitest color and highest opacity. 
Translucent plastics can be made by using low tint grades with relatively large particles.

Particle size during manufacture is controlled by adjusting the temperature and rate at which the antimony vapors are precipitated as these vapors exit the furnace. 
The lower the temperature and the slower the precipitation rate, the larger the particles.

Antimony trioxide behaves as a condensed-phase flame retardant in cellulosic materials. 
Antimony trioxide can be applied by impregnating a fabric with a soluble antimony salt followed by a second treatment that precipitates antimony oxide in the fibers. 
When the treated fabric is exposed to a flame, the oxide reacts with the hydroxyl groups of the cellulose (qv) causing them to decompose endothermically. 
The decomposition products, water and char, cool the flame reactions while slowing the production and volatilization of flammable decomposition products.

Antimony trioxide is one of the most important chemical compounds of antimony. 
Antimony trioxide appears as white or gray in color in cubic crystalline form.

Antimony trioxide's structure depends on the temperature of sample. 
Under high temperature (1560°C), dimeric Sb4O6 is noted. 
Sb4O6 molecules appear as bicyclic cages similar to that of related oxides of phosphorus (III) and phosphorus trioxide. 
The cage structure is maintained in crystallized solid in a cubic habit. 
Distance between Sb-O is 197.7 pm with an O-Sb-O angle of 95.6°. 
Below 606 °C, the more stable type is orthorhombic that includes pairs of Sb-O chains linked by oxide bridges between the Stibium centers.

Antimony trioxide has a dipole moment of zero.

Antimony reacts with oxygen in air on heating forming Sb2O3. 
The flame is bluish white. 
The chemical reaction is given as:

4Sb(s) + 3O2(g) → 2sb2O3(s)

Antimony reacts with water at red heat forming Sb2O3. 
This is expressed as:

2Sb(s) + 3H2O(g) → Sb2O3(s) + 3H2(g)

Antimony trioxide is found in nature as the minerals Valentinite and Senarmontite. 
Many commercial manufacturers produce Antimony Trioxide using stibnite ores (Antimony Trisulfide) or as a by-product of lead smelting. 
Antimony Trioxide can also be produced using Antimony Trichloride, which is derived from Stibnite. 
Although not feasible for commercial purposes, this inorganic compound can also be produced by burning elementary Antimony in air.

This inorganic compound has a number of industrial uses. 
They can be summed up as follows:

Antimony trioxide is used as a pigment for other antimony compounds.
Antimony trioxide is used as an ingredient in fire retardant paints. 
Paint manufacturers use Antimony trioxide as a white pigment. 
Antimony trioxide is also with other substances to produce yellow pigments.
Antimony trioxide is used in fire-retardant composition of plastics, paper, textiles and rubbers.
Antimony trioxide is also deployed as a catalyst in the chemical industry
Glass and ceramic producers use Antimony trioxide as an improver. 
Glass manufacturers use Antimony trioxide to remove bubbles (degasser) and as a fining agent.
Antimony trioxide is used as an opacifier in porcelain and enameling products.
Antimony trioxide is used to improve functioning of halogenated flame-retardants by sequentially freeing halogenated radicals to slow down gas phase chain reaction of flames dispersed.
In Titanium Dioxide preparation, Antimony trioxide is used as a flocculant.

Other Properties and Facts
Antimony trioxide's refractive index is 2.087 (nD).
Strength of its izod effect and translucency are two chief features that are reduced because of the size of particle and color strength of antimony trioxide. 
Reduction in translucency restricts choice of accessible color due to high loading needed to counterbalance the pigmentation of Antimony Trioxide.
Synergy between antimony and halogenated flame-retardants is well exploited in flame-retarding thermoplastics.
Other related compounds are Diantimony Tetraoxide and Antimony Pentoxide.

For flame-retardant plastics, combining antimony trioxide with a halogen based flame-retardant auxiliary creates a synergistic effect that enhances its efficiency. 
Furthermore, it is possible to reduce the total amount of required flame retardant additive, and flame retardancy can be achieved without impairing the functional properties of the plastic material.


Antimonous oxide
Antimony(III) oxide, CP
Antimony Trioxide Nanopowder
Antimony Trioxide Nano powder
Antimony(III) oxide, >=99%
Antimony(III) oxide, 99.5%
Antimony (III) Oxide Nanopowder
Antimony(III) oxide, elec. gr.
Antimony(III) oxide, puriss. p.a.
Antimony(III) oxide, 99.99% trace metals basis
Antimony(III) oxide, 99.999% trace metals basis
Yttrium Aluminium Oxide (YAlO3) Sputtering Targets
Antimony(III) oxide, elec. gr. (99.999%-Sb) PURATREM
Antimony(III) oxide, powder, 5 mum, ReagentPlus(R), 99%
Antimony trioxide, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
Antimony(III) oxide, nanopowder, <250 nm particle size (TEM), >=99.9% trace metals basis
Antimony oxide (Sb2O3)
C.I. 77052
Antimonious oxide
Antimony trioxide
C.I. Pigment White 11
Diantimony trioxide
Thermoguard S
Antimony sesquioxide
Antimony oxide
Flowers of antimony
Antimony oxide (O3Sb2)
Antimony trioxide (Sb2O3)
Antimony white
Dechlorane A-O
Thermoguard B
Antimony(3+) oxide
Chemetron Fire Shield
AP 50
Nyacol A 1530
Nyacol A 1510LP
Patox S
Stibiox MS
Atox S
Thermoguard L
Patox L
Patox M
Timonox White Star
Patox H
AT 3
Atox F
Antimony oxide (SbO1.5)
Patox C
White Star
Timonox Red Star
AP 50 (metal oxide)
Fireshield FSPO 405
Atox B
Flame Cut 610R
UF (oxide)
Pyroguard AN 700
Pyroguard AN 900
FCP 100
White Star N
Fire Cut AT 3
Ultrafine II
Antimony Bloom 100A
Antimony Bloom 500A
Flame Cut 610
Trutin 40
P 3
Polysafe 100T
Patox U
LSB 80
Pyroguard AN 800
AN 800
FireShield LS-FR
Sanka Anchimonzol C
F 45
F 45 (oxide)
FireShield H
Octoguard FR 10
HM 203P
Polysafe 60
Flameguard VF 59
Pyroguard AN 800T
Atox R
Patox HS
TT 88
FSPO 405
MSA (flame retardant)
Bluestar RG
Bluestar Z
Timonox RT
TMS (flame retardant)
Poliflam HT 3
Microfine AO 5
Microfine AO 3
AO 3
AO 5
Stox W 60
A 120 (corrosion inhibitor)
A 120
Patox A
Patox P
Performax 401
Patox MK
Patox CF
Triox Blanc
KN (oxide)
Patox K
SB 203
Antis W
Patox MZ
Antis N
AO 112
HT 105
Garoflam SB 96DINP
S 05N
LO 112
Selectipur 7835
Patox SUF
Fire Cut AT 3CN
Timonox Red Star TMS
FT 2001M
PE-FR 80
Sb 203-99.90
H 1910
Antiox PBT 262415
Microfine AO 9
Amspec SP
Amspec Select
Red Star
PetCat R 9
Twinkling Star
H 1010
YP 00040
Hiromaster C 605
Brightsun HB
S 12N
Patox KF
TH 1
FR 5099
GX 2005
Addiflam SL-A 3
TH 1 (oxide)
Brightsun HB 500
NAN 0200
Campine Z
Patox KN
Fire Cut TOP 5
Akrosperse E 29072
AN 602
Campine PA 261717
Saficire Triox
Nonnen KN-W
Nonnen SM 4
Fire Cut AT 3TL(HB)
KAT 999
FCP 300
Nano 200
KS 08
Sicabatch 402001
S 04N
Campine MT
Fire Cut WP 2
Hiromaster L 200
Patox CZ


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