Argan oil is a plant oil produced from the kernels of the argan tree (Argania spinosa L.), which is indigenous to Morocco and southwestern Algeria.
Argan oil, often referred to as "liquid gold," is a highly prized and versatile natural oil that is extracted from the nuts of the argan tree (Argania spinosa).
Argan oil also contains traces of tocopherols (vitamin E), phenols, carotenes, squalene.
CAS Number: 223747-87-3
99% of argan oil consists of triglycerides and related derivatives.
This tree is native to the southwestern region of Morocco and has been traditionally cultivated by the Berber people for centuries.
In Morocco, argan oil is used to dip bread in at breakfast or to drizzle on couscous or pasta.
Argan oil is also used for cosmetic purposes.
Argan oil has a relative density at 20 °C (68 °F) ranging from 0.906 to 0.919.
Some trace phenols in argan oil include caffeic acid, oleuropein, vanillic acid, tyrosol, catechol, resorcinol, (−)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin.
Depending on the extraction method, argan oil may be more resistant to oxidation than olive oil.
The argan nut contains one to three oil-rich argan kernels. Extraction yields from 30% to 50% of the oil in the kernels, depending on the method.
Argan oil takes about 40 kilograms (88 lb) of dried argan fruit to produce only one litre of oil.
Argan oil, extraction is key to the production process.
To extract the kernels, workers first dry Argan oil fruit in the open air and then remove the fleshy pulp.
Some producers remove the flesh mechanically without drying the fruit.
Argan oil usually use the flesh as animal feed.
A tradition in some areas of Morocco allows goats to climb argan trees to feed freely on the fruits.
The kernels are then later retrieved from the goat droppings, considerably reducing the labour involved in extraction at the expense of some potential gustatory aversion.
In modern practice, the peels are removed by hand.
Workers gently roast kernels they will use to make culinary argan oil.
After the Argan oil kernels cool, workers grind and press them.
The brown-coloured mash expels pure, unfiltered argan oil.
Finally, they decant unfiltered argan oil into vessels.
The remaining press cake is protein-rich and frequently used as cattle feed.
Argan oil is produced from the kernels of the nuts from argan tree (Argania Spinosa), endemic tree that grows in southwestern Morocco.
Moroccan oil is sometimes called “liquid gold” as it contains all the necessary components to help our skin, nails and hair look adorable and healthy.
Argan oil is traditionally produced by hand-pressing the kernels found inside the fruit of the argan tree.
Argan oil is extracted through a labor-intensive process that involves cracking the nuts, roasting them, and then mechanically pressing them to release the oil.
In modern times, some producers also use mechanical methods for oil extraction.
Argan oil is considered a relatively international product exported from Morocco, although different companies in Europe and North America distribute argan oil around the globe.
Argan oil is non-refined vegetable oil, of the more well-known "virgin oil" type, is produced from the argan tree [Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels].
The argan tree is deemed to be an important forest species from both social and economic standpoints.
Argan oil has rapidly emerged as an important product able to bring more income to the local population.
In addition, Argan oil also has important environmental implications, owing to its ability to stand against desert progression.
Currently, argan oil is mainly produced by women's cooperatives in Morocco using a semi-industrial mechanical extraction process.
This allows the production of high-quality argan oil.
Depending on the method used to prepare argan kernels, two types of argan oil can be obtained: food or cosmetic grade.
Cosmetic argan oil is prepared from unroasted kernels, whereas food argan oil is achieved by cold pressing kernels roasted for a few minutes.
Previously, the same food argan oil was prepared exclusively by women according to a laborious ancestral process.
Extraction technology has been evolved to obtain high-quality argan oil at a large scale.
The extraction process and several accompanying parameters can influence the quality, stability, and purity of argan oil.
In view of this, the present review discusses different aspects related to argan oil chemical composition along with its nutritional and cosmetic values.
Similarly, Argan oil details different processes used to prepare argan oil, as well as its quality control, oxidative stability, and authenticity assessment.
Argan oil has been a culinary staple in Morocco for centuries — not only because of its subtle, nutty flavor but also its wide array of potential health benefits.
This naturally occurring Argan oil is derived from the kernels of the fruit of the argan tree.
Although native to Morocco, argan oil is now used across the globe for a variety of culinary, cosmetic and medicinal applications.
The triglyceride content of argan oil is dominated by fatty acids oleic acid and linoleic acid and to a lesser extent palmitic acid.
Unsaponifiable matter consititutes 1% and is made up of carotenes (37%), tocopherols (8%), terpene alcohols (2%), sterols (29%) and xanthophylls (5%).
The tocopherol level as well as the presence of phenols contribute to argan oils stability.
Unroasted kernels are used to produce cosmetic grade argan oil.
The argan tree provides food, shelter and protection from desertification.
The trees' deep roots help prevent desert encroachment.
The canopy of argan trees also provides shade for other agricultural products, and the leaves and fruit provide feed for animals.
The argan tree also helps landscape stability, helping to prevent soil erosion, providing shade for pasture grasses, and helping to replenish aquifers.
Producing argan oil has helped to protect argan trees from being cut down.
In addition, regeneration of the Arganeraie has also been carried out: in 2009 an operation to plant 4,300 argan plants was launched in Meskala in the province of Essaouira.
The Réseau des Associations de la Réserve de Biosphère Arganeraie (Network of Associations of the Argan Biosphere Reserve, RARBA) was founded in 2002 with the aim of ensuring sustainable development in the Arganeraie.
RARBA has been involved with several major projects, including the Moroccan national antidesertification programme (Programme National de Lutte contre la desertification, PAN/LCD).
The project involved local populations and helped with improvements to basic infrastructure, management of natural resources, revenue-generating activities (including argan oil production), capacity reinforcement, and others.
The production of argan oil has always had a socioeconomic function.
At present, its production supports about 2.2 million people in the main argan oil–producing region, the Arganeraie.
Much of the argan oil produced today is made by a number of women's co-operatives.
Co-sponsored by the Social Development Agency with the support of the European Union, the UCFA (Union des Cooperatives des Femmes de l’Arganeraie) is the largest union of argan oil co-operatives in Morocco.
Argan oil comprises 22 co-operatives that are found in other parts of the region.
Argan oil is an excellent moisturizer for the skin, providing deep hydration without leaving a greasy residue.
Argan oil's suitable for all skin types, including dry and sensitive skin.
Rich in vitamins, antioxidants, and essential fatty acids, argan oil nourishes the skin, helping to maintain its health and radiance.
The antioxidants in argan oil, such as vitamin E and polyphenols, help combat free radicals, potentially reducing the signs of premature aging, including fine lines and wrinkles.
Argan oil is known for its potential to support skin healing and reduce inflammation, making it beneficial for minor wounds, cuts, and skin irritations.
Despite being an oil, argan oil is non-comedogenic, which means it's less likely to clog pores.
Some individuals use it to help control acne and reduce the appearance of blemishes.
Pregnant women often use argan oil to keep the skin supple and hydrated, reducing the likelihood of stretch marks during pregnancy.
Argan oil is a popular choice for hair care, helping to moisturize and soften hair, reduce frizz, and improve hair texture and shine.
Massaging argan oil into the scalp can help alleviate dryness, itchiness, and flakiness, promoting a healthy scalp.
Argan oil can strengthen brittle nails and hydrate cuticles, contributing to healthier-looking nails.
Some studies suggest that argan oil may have anti-inflammatory properties, which can benefit skin health and overall well-being.
The soothing and moisturizing properties of argan oil make it useful for providing relief from sunburned skin and reducing redness and discomfort.
People with skin conditions like eczema and psoriasis may use argan oil to help alleviate symptoms, such as itching and inflammation.
Argan oil's smooth texture makes it suitable for massages targeting sore muscles and joints, potentially providing relief.
The antioxidants in argan oil contribute to overall health by protecting cells from oxidative damage and supporting the immune system.
Some individuals consume argan oil as part of their diet for potential health benefits, including improved cholesterol levels and reduced inflammation.
Melting point: Max. 15 °C
Boiling point: >300 °C
Smoke point: 150 - 200 °C
Flash point (AOCS Cc 9a-48): >250 °C
Auto-ignition temperature: >300 °C
Argan oil is prepared from the fruits of argan trees (Argania).
The seeds contained in Argan oil fruits are lightly roasted.
Argan oil edible argan oil is obtained before grinding.
Argan oil unroasted beans are stored for the preparation of an oil used in cosmetology.
Until the 1980s, argan oil was considered a tourist attraction at best.
Argan oil was sold in recycled plastic bottles on the dusty roads of Morocco.
Now often referred to as "the best in the world" expensive vegetable oil”.
The result of such a metamorphosis is an intensive program aimed at preserving the argan tree through the production of high-quality argan oil in rural women's cooperatives.
This program includes the development and development of argan oil production techniques.
Chemical and microbiological determination of argan oil quality.
Cardiovascular protective properties of argan oil has found its popularity among consumers.
Argan oil comes from the argana spinosa, a tree of the Sapotaceae family.
Argan oil is endemic to Morocco, where argan groves naturally cover about 8000 km2.
Argan oil can also be found in parts of Algeria (Z. Charrouf and D. Guillaume, 2008) The argan tree is a spiny tree.
If grown in a favourable environment Argan oil can grow up to 10 meters high.
Argan oil lives a long life, often longer than 200 years.
Argan oil is prepared from the kernels contained in the fruit following a multistep process.
Traditionally, edible Argan oil is prepared by lightly roasting the kernels prior to grinding and made into a dough, before it is boiled with water to separate the oil.
Unroasted kernels are saved to use in cosmetology.(ibid) The oil is pressed by Berber women in cooperatives. Historically all aspects of the preparation; from peeling to grinding to pressing, was performed by hand, however nowadays some of the preparation is performed mechanically albeit under strict rules.
Argan oil a scratching machine is used, that pulls the skin and the pulp away from the seed and mechanical presses to extract the oil.
Argan oil gained Protected Geographical Indication recognition in 2010.
This means that only the oil produced in Morocco can be called ‘argan oil.’
Argan oils importance in Moroccan culture derives from it’s traditional use in local cuisine, medicine and cosmetics; the vegetable oil has been prescribed for reputed cosmetic, bactericidal, and fungicidal properties and as a treatment for infertility and heart disease.
Argan oil is known for its potential to promote skin healing, making it valuable for minor wounds, cuts, and abrasions.
Argan oil anti-inflammatory properties can aid in the healing process.
Some people use argan oil to improve the overall tone and brightness of their skin.
The oil's vitamin E content may contribute to a more radiant complexion.
Argan oil can be applied to the lips to moisturize and protect against chapping, providing a natural and soothing lip balm.
Due to its ability to hydrate and nourish the skin, argan oil is often used as an ingredient in anti-aging serums and creams, helping reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles.
Applying a few drops of argan oil to the hair can add shine and luster, making it a popular choice for those seeking glossy, healthy-looking hair.
For individuals with split ends or damaged hair, argan oil can help temporarily mend split ends, giving the appearance of smoother, healthier hair.
Some hairstylists use argan oil as a styling product to tame frizz, define curls, and add a natural, non-greasy hold to hairstyles.
Men with beards often use argan oil to condition and soften facial hair, reducing itchiness and promoting a well-groomed appearance.
Argan oil can be massaged into the nails and cuticles to strengthen brittle nails and prevent breakage.
Argan oil can be used as an ingredient in DIY hydrating face masks to replenish and revitalize the skin.
Unlike some heavier oils, argan oil is lightweight and absorbs quickly into the skin, making it an excellent choice for those who prefer a non-greasy moisturizer.
Mixed with natural exfoliants like sugar or salt, argan oil can be used to create homemade body and face scrubs, promoting smoother skin through gentle exfoliation.
Pregnant women often use argan oil to prevent or reduce stretch marks on the abdomen and other areas prone to stretching during pregnancy.
Men and women can apply argan oil as a pre-shave oil to soften the skin and prepare it for a smoother shave.
Argan oil serves as a neutral and moisturizing base for creating DIY natural perfumes by blending it with essential oils for custom scents.
Argan oil is favored in vegan and cruelty-free beauty products for its natural and ethical sourcing.
Production Of Argan oil:
After the first sales in the US of the cosmetic product in 2003, demand soared and production increased.
In 2012 the Moroccan government planned for increased production, then around 2,500 tonnes, to 4,000 tonnes by 2020.
Argan oil was found that stocks of argan oil were being diluted with oils such as sunflower, as the extraction process for pure argan oil can be difficult, and is costly.
In 2012, the Moroccan government started to randomly pull argan shipments and test for purity before exporting.
By 2020, production had greatly increased, especially after studies had suggested health benefits.
Almost all of the oil is sourced in Morocco, and is forecast to reach 19,623 US tons (17,802 tonnes) in 2022, up from 4,836 (4387 tonnes) in 2014; in value terms, US$1.79 billion (£1.4 billion).
The area of producing the oil is expanding: in 2020 it had started near the city of Agadir, 175 kilometres (109 mi) south of the traditional argan-producing area of Essaouira, and is due to expand north.
40 kilograms (88 lb) of dried argan fruit produces only one litre of oil.
Mechanically extracted oil production has started, with the industrial scale driving down prices, impacting the small co-operatives, where work is mostly done by Berber women in the traditional, labour-intensive way.
Mechanically produced oil can cost as little as US$22 a litre, less than half the cost of oil made by the cooperatives.
This can have a great social impact. However, the huge cosmetics company L'Oréal has pledged to source all of its argan oil from the small co-operatives that sign up to the principles of fair trade.
Uses Of Argan oil:
In Morocco, the Argan oil is used for culinary purposes, e.g. dipping bread, as salad dressing or on couscous.
Amlu, a thick brown paste with a consistency similar to peanut butter, is used locally as a bread dip.
Argan oil is produced by grinding roasted almonds and argan oil together using stones, and then mixing the paste with honey.
Since the early 2000s argan oil has been increasingly used in cosmetics and hair care preparations.
As of 2020, the main cosmetics products containing argan oil are face creams, lip glosses, shampoos, moisturizers, and soaps.
Argan oil is used in Moroccan cuisine as a flavorful and nutty cooking oil.
Argan oil's primarily used for drizzling over dishes just before serving, especially in salads, couscous, and tagines.
In traditional Moroccan recipes, argan oil is also used to make amlou, a sweet spread made from almonds, honey, and argan oil.
Argan oil is a popular ingredient in cosmetic and skincare products due to its moisturizing and nourishing properties.
Argan oil is commonly found in lotions, creams, serums, and hair care products.
Argan oil is used as a natural moisturizer for the skin, helping to hydrate and soften dry or rough skin.
Argan oil is also applied to the hair as a conditioner to improve shine, manageability, and overall hair health.
Argan oil is believed to have anti-aging benefits and is used to reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles.
Argan oil can be used as a lip conditioner and cuticle oil.
In traditional Moroccan medicine, argan oil has been used to treat various skin conditions, including eczema and acne, due to its potential anti-inflammatory properties.
Some people use argan oil topically for wound healing, insect bites, and skin infections.
The oil is also believed to have antioxidant properties that may benefit overall health.
Argan oil is often used as a hair treatment to repair and protect hair from damage caused by heat styling and environmental factors.
Argan oil can help reduce frizz, increase hair shine, and improve hair texture.
Applying argan oil to nails and cuticles can help strengthen and hydrate them, promoting healthy nails.
Due to its smooth texture and skin-friendly properties, argan oil is used as a carrier oil in massage therapy.
Some studies suggest that argan oil may have potential health benefits, such as lowering cholesterol levels and reducing inflammation, although further research is needed to confirm these effects.
In Moroccan cuisine, argan oil is used as a flavorful cooking oil.
Argan oil's drizzled over dishes just before serving, enhancing the flavor of salads, couscous, tagines, and grilled meats.
Argan oil can be used as a dipping oil for bread, often combined with spices, herbs, or balsamic vinegar for added flavor.
Argan oil's a key ingredient in Moroccan salad dressings, contributing a nutty and earthy flavor to salads.
Amlou is a Moroccan spread made from argan oil, almonds, and honey.
Argan oil's often enjoyed with bread or as a dip.
Argan oil is used as a natural moisturizer for the face and body.
Argan oil hydrates and nourishes the skin, making it soft and supple.
Due to its antioxidant-rich composition, argan oil is included in many anti-aging skincare products, such as serums and creams.
Argan oil serves as an effective and gentle makeup remover, breaking down cosmetics without the need for harsh chemicals.
Argan oil is popular as a hair conditioner and treatment.
Argan oil helps hydrate and repair damaged hair, reduce frizz, and enhance shine.
Massaging argan oil into the scalp can alleviate dryness, itchiness, and dandruff while promoting a healthy scalp.
Applying argan oil to nails and cuticles strengthens brittle nails and moisturizes cuticles.
Some individuals with acne-prone skin use argan oil to help control breakouts.
Argan oils non-comedogenic properties make it less likely to clog pores.
Pregnant women often use argan oil to prevent stretch marks by keeping the skin hydrated and supple.
Argan oil is sometimes applied to minor wounds, cuts, and skin irritations to aid in the healing process.
People with skin conditions like eczema and psoriasis may use argan oil to soothe itching and reduce inflammation.
Argan oil's smooth texture makes it suitable for massages targeting sore muscles and joints.
The oil's soothing properties make it beneficial for relieving sunburned skin, reducing redness and discomfort.
Argan oil serves as a carrier oil for diluting and applying essential oils in aromatherapy practices.
Some studies suggest that argan oil may have anti-inflammatory properties that benefit skin health and overall well-being.
The antioxidants in argan oil help protect cells from oxidative damage and may support the immune system when used in the diet.
Some people consume argan oil as part of their diet for potential health benefits, such as improved cholesterol levels and reduced inflammation.
Argan oil is used to nourish and moisturize the scalp, potentially reducing dryness, itchiness, and flakiness.
Argan oil can also help with dandruff control.
Argan oil's soothing and moisturizing properties make it beneficial for providing relief from sunburned skin, reducing redness and discomfort.
Some individuals with skin conditions like eczema or psoriasis use argan oil to help alleviate symptoms, such as itching, redness, and inflammation.
Pregnant women may apply argan oil to the abdomen and other areas prone to stretch marks to help keep the skin supple and reduce the appearance of stretch marks.
While not suitable for all skin types, argan oil's potential anti-inflammatory properties can be beneficial for some individuals with acne-prone skin.
Argan oil can be used as a lightweight moisturizer that won't clog pores.
Argan oil is an effective and natural makeup remover, gently breaking down makeup and impurities without harsh chemicals.
After shaving, argan oil can be applied to soothe and hydrate the skin, reducing razor burn and irritation.
The oil is sometimes used in massages targeting sore muscles and joints due to its smooth texture and potential soothing effects.
Argan oil may help reduce itching and inflammation caused by insect bites and stings when applied topically.
Some people use argan oil to help minimize the appearance of scars, particularly those resulting from surgery or injury.
Applying argan oil to dry and cracked heels can help soften and hydrate the skin, promoting healing and smoother feet.
Argan oil is used as a carrier oil in aromatherapy, allowing the safe application of essential oils for relaxation and stress relief.
In traditional Moroccan medicine, argan oil has been used for its potential therapeutic effects on conditions like rheumatism.
The antioxidants in argan oil may help support the immune system and protect against oxidative stress.
Argan oil's smooth texture and skin-friendly properties make it an ideal massage oil.
Argan oil can be used in professional massage therapy or for self-massage to relax muscles and relieve tension.
Men with beards often use argan oil as a beard conditioner to soften and manage facial hair.
Argan oil helps reduce beard itchiness and enhances the overall appearance of the beard.
Both men and women can apply argan oil as a pre-shave oil to prepare the skin for a smooth and comfortable shave.
Argan oil softens the hair and moisturizes the skin, reducing irritation and razor burn.
Argan oil can be applied directly to the lips as a natural and soothing lip balm.
Argan oil helps prevent chapped and dry lips.
Some makeup artists use argan oil as a makeup primer to create a smooth canvas for foundation and enhance makeup application.
Regularly massaging argan oil into the cuticles helps keep them soft, hydrated, and healthy.
Argan oil can also prevent hangnails.
Argan oil serves as a neutral base for creating DIY natural perfumes.
Argan oil can be blended with essential oils to create custom scents.
Mixed with natural exfoliants like sugar or salt, argan oil can be used to create homemade body and face scrubs.
These scrubs help remove dead skin cells and leave the skin feeling soft and smooth.
Argan oil's anti-inflammatory properties can help reduce itching and inflammation caused by insect bites and stings.
Applying a small amount to affected areas can provide relief.
In traditional Moroccan medicine, argan oil has been used for its potential therapeutic effects on conditions like rheumatism.
Argan oil may be used in massages targeting joints and areas of discomfort.
Argan oil is favored in vegan and cruelty-free beauty products for its natural and ethical sourcing.
Argan oil aligns with the principles of cruelty-free and vegan cosmetics.
Argan oil production supports sustainable practices, as it is often sourced from cooperatives that empower women and promote environmentally friendly harvesting techniques.
When used in aromatherapy or massage, argan oil can contribute to relaxation and stress relief, helping to create a calming atmosphere.
Safety Profile Of Argan oil:
While rare, some individuals may be allergic to argan oil.
Allergic reactions can vary in severity and may include symptoms such as itching, redness, swelling, hives, or even anaphylaxis in severe cases.
Argan oil's a good practice to perform a patch test by applying a small amount to a small area of skin and monitoring for any adverse reactions before widespread use.
The quality and purity of argan oil can vary among brands and sources.
To avoid potential hazards related to impurities or adulteration, Argan oil's essential to choose high-quality, pure argan oil from reputable suppliers.
While argan oil is non-comedogenic and generally suitable for most skin types, individual skin sensitivities can vary.
Some people may experience mild irritation or breakouts when using argan oil on their skin.
Argan oil's advisable to introduce it gradually into your skincare routine and discontinue use if any adverse effects occur.
Applying argan oil to the skin can increase sensitivity to sunlight, making you more prone to sunburn.
Argan oil's essential to apply sunscreen as well and take appropriate sun protection measures.
Synonyms Of Argan oil:
ARGAN NUT OIL
ARGAN VOLATILE OIL
ARGANIA SIDEROXYLON OIL
ARGANIA SPINOSA KERNEL OIL
ARGANIA SPINOSA KERNEL OIL [INCI]
ARGANIA SPINOSA OIL
LYCIODES CANDOLLEANUM OIL
LYCIODES SPINOSUM OIL
SIDEROXYLON ARGAN OIL
SIDEROXYLON SPINOSUM OIL
Sideroxylon spinosum oil [WHO-DD]
VERLANGIA ARGAN OIL