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CAS Number: 7758-87-4
EC Number: 231-840-8
MDL Number: MFCD00015984
Molecular Formula: CaPO4

By definition, all calcium orthophosphates consist of three major chemical elements: 
calcium (oxidation state +2), phosphorus (oxidation state +5), and oxygen (oxidation state −2). 
The orthophosphate group (PO43−) is structurally different from meta (PO3−), pyro (P2O74−), and poly (PO3)nn−.  
The chemical composition of many calcium orthophosphates includes hydrogen, either as an acidic orthophosphate anion such as HPO42− or H2PO4−, and/or incorporated water as in dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (CaHPO4 · 2H2O).

Calcium orthophosphates are the main mineral constituents of bones and teeth, and there is great interest in understanding the physical mechanisms that underlie their growth, dissolution, and phase stability. 
Most calcium orthophosphates are sparingly soluble in water, but all dissolve in acids; the calcium to phosphate molar ratios (Ca/P) and the solubilities are important parameters to distinguish between the phases with crystallographic data. 
In general, the lower the Ca/P ratio, the more acidic and soluble the calcium phosphate phase.

The chemical and structural similarities of calcium orthophosphates (abbreviated as CaPO4) to the mineral composition of natural bones and teeth have made them a good candidate for bone tissue engineering applications. 
In early 1980s, researchers discovered self-setting calcium orthophosphate cements, which are a bioactive and biodegradable grafting material in the form of a powder and a liquid. 
Both phases form after mixing a viscous paste that after being implanted, sets and hardens within the body as either a non-stoichiometric calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) or brushite, sometimes blended with unreacted particles and other phases. 

As both CDHA and brushite are remarkably biocompartible and bioresorbable, calcium orthophosphate cements represent a good correction technique for non-weight-bearing bone fractures or defects and appear to be very promising materials for bone grafting applications. 
Besides, these cements possess an excellent osteoconductivity, molding capabilities and easy manipulation. 
Furthermore, reinforced cement formulations are available, which in a certain sense might be described as calcium orthophosphate concretes. 
The concepts established by calcium orthophosphate cement pioneers in the early 1980s were used as a platform to initiate a new generation of bone substitute materials for commercialization. 

Calcium orthophosphates are subject to intensive investigations owing to their biological importance. 
The ion-substituted non-stoichiometric nano-sized poorly crystalline calcium orthophosphates, mainly with apatite structure, build the inorganic component of hard tissues in the organisms. 
The main ion substitutes are the ions Na+, K+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Zn2+, Si2+, CO3 2-, Cl-, and F- and they differ in variety and amount depending on the type of the hard tissue, its age as well as on individual peculiarities. 
The so called “biological apatite” is formed in the living organisms as a result of biomineralization processes, the mechanism of which is not yet clarified. 

These processes include precipitation, dissolution and growth of poorly-crystalline calcium orthophosphates taking place in the organic matrix, e.g., collagen in the case of bones or amelogenin in the case of enamel, in the presence of body fluids. One of the ways to elucidate the elementary processes occurring during bone hard tissue mineralization is the biomimetic approach designed to study these processes. 
The knowledge of the elementary processes is crucial for the development of new bioactive calcium phosphate materials (close to the natural ones) that may be applied for bone repairing, reconstruction and remodeling.

As the inorganic constituents of skeletons, dentine and the enamel of teeth in all vertebrates, as well as antlers of male deer, calcium orthophosphates (CaPO4) appear to be the key materials to sustain all life on Earth. 
Therefore, biologically relevant CaPO4 possess all the necessary features of the biomaterials, such as biocompatibility, bioactivity, bioresorbability, osteoconductivity, osteoinductivity, and appear to be non-toxic, non-inflammatory and non-immunogenic. 

Calcium phosphates comprise the largest group of biominerals in vertebrate animals. 
Calcium phosphates also have many uses in industry, medicine and everyday life. 
Orthophosphates are salts of the tribasic phosphoric acid which include H2PO4-, HPO42- and PO43- ionic species. 
The phosphates containing HPO42- and PO43- generally constitute the biologically relevant calcium phosphates. 
Salts with only H2PO4- are not normally found under physiological conditions, but are commercially important as components in fertilizers. 
The basic chemical and physical properties of a material depend on the kinds and relative amounts of the consituent atoms and their locations relative to one another. 

In surgical disciplines, where bones have to be repaired, augmented or improved, bone substitutes are essential.
Therefore, an interest has dramatically increased in application of synthetic bone grafts. 
As various interactions among cells, surrounding tissues and implanted biomaterials always occur at the interfaces, the surface properties of the implants are of the paramount importance in determining both the biological response to implants and the material response to the physiological conditions. 

Hence, a surface engineering is aimed to modify both the biomaterials, themselves, and biological responses through introducing desirable changes to the surface properties of the implants but still maintaining their bulk mechanical properties. 
To fulfill these requirements, a special class of artificial bone grafts has been introduced in 1976. 
It is composed of various mechanically stable (therefore, suitable for load bearing applications) biomaterials and/or bio-devices with calcium orthophosphate coatings, films and layers on their surfaces to both improve interactions with the surrounding tissues and provide an adequate bonding to bones. 

Many production techniques of calcium orthophosphate coatings, films and layers have been already invented and new promising techniques are continuously investigated.
Tricalcium phosphate is an ingredient that helps foods, food products and food ingredients live up to consumer expectations time and time again, even after sitting in the pantry or refrigerator after purchase.

Tricalcium phosphate has several properties that make Tricalcium phosphate useful in food formulation. 
These include the following:

Tricalcium phosphate is almost insoluble in water, has a very low flavor profile, and usually comes in a fine white powder.
The chalky texture of tri-calcium phosphate makes Tricalcium phosphate useful as a free-flowing agent, as Tricalcium phosphate has the ability to take up to 10% of Tricalcium phosphate's weight in moisture.
Tricalcium phosphate's texture and color properties also make Tricalcium phosphate an effective clouding agent.
Ingredient labels list Tricalcium phosphate as tribasic calcium phosphate, tri-calcium orthophosphate, and precipitated calcium phosphate, or Tricalcium phosphate’s labeled in formulation paperwork as TCP. 

Tricalcium phosphate is also known as hydroxyapatite.
Tricalcium phosphate can also be used to meet the nutrition and dietary considerations of consumers.
Chemically, tricalcium phosphate is a calcium salt of phosphoric acid. 
Tricalcium phosphate's primary function in fortification is to increase the calcium content of foods.
Due to its mineral source, tricalcium phosphate can be used in vegan foods and is also allowed in organic products.

For those who may need to check the additive status for their country, tricalcium phosphate has E-number E341, a subclass of calcium phosphates. 
Because calcium bonds easily to other minerals, many calcium supplements feature calcium bonded with various minerals and vitamins. 
Tricalcium phosphate is a supplement in which calcium is bound to a phosphate molecule.

Though dietary deficiencies of phosphorus are uncommon, phosphorus is an essential part of cell membranes and nucleic acids. It also plays a vital role in many biological processes, including energy production, cell signaling, and bone mineralization. 
Calcium bonds easily with phosphorus. 
Studies have shownTrusted Source that tricalcium phosphate has a few unique characteristics when used in self-setting bone cements, biodegradable bioceramics, and composites for bone repair, as compared to other calcium salts. 

A white, odorless, tasteless very small particle size powder that is stable in air, insoluble in alchohol and very slightly soluble in water.
TCP is a subclass of calcium phosphates and makes up of a variable mixture of calcium phosphates and having the approximate composition of 10CaO·3P2O5 ·H2O. 
TCP can be used in vegan food and supplement for TCP's mineral origin.
Some calcium phosphate salts can be anhydrous, meaning the water has been removed from the salt form. 
Other calcium phosphates are termed dibasic, meaning they have two replaceable hydrogen atoms.

-Despite their inherent brittleness, CaPO4 materials possess several appealing characteristics as scaffold materials.
Namely, their biocompatibility and variable stoichiometry, thus surface charge density, functionality and dissolution properties, make them suitable for both drug and growth factor delivery. 
Therefore, CaPO4, especially hydroxyapatite (HA) and tricalcium phosphates (TCPs), have attracted a significant interest in simultaneous use as bone grafts and drug delivery vehicles. 
Namely, CaPO4-based three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds and/or carriers have been designed to induce bone formation and vascularization. 
These scaffolds are usually porous and harbor various types of drugs, biologically active molecules and/or cells.

-Due to a great chemical similarity with the biological calcified tissues, many calcium orthophosphates possess remarkable biocompatibility and bioactivity. 
Materials scientists use this property extensively to construct artificial bone grafts that are either entirely made of or only surface-coated with the biologically relevant calcium orthophosphate. 
-Nowadays, a variety of natural or synthetic CaPO4-based biomaterials is produced and has been extensively used for dental and orthopedic applications.

-Porous scaffolds made of calcium orthophosphates are very promising tools for tissue engineering applications. 
-Calcium orthophosphate bone cements (CPCs) are widely used in orthopedic surgery. 
Implants are highly susceptible to infection and often lead to the formation of microbial biofilms. 
-Antibiotics are often incorporated into bone cement to prevent infection. 
-Due to the chemical similarity to the inorganic constituents of calcified tissues of mammals, biologically relevant calcium orthophosphates (CaPO4) have been applied as artificial bioceramics suitable for reconstruction of various types of bone defects. 

-Since none of the known individual types of CaPO4 appears to be able to mimic both the composition and the properties of natural bones, various attempts have been sought to overcome this problem and a multiphasic (polyphasic) concept is one of the reasonable solutions. 
-Tricalcium phosphate is an ingredient that is heavily used across many industries – toothpaste, antacids, bone grafting material, baby powder, water filtration, nutritional supplements and ceramic coatings 
–Tricalcium phosphate is also in our food supply. 

-Tricalcium phosphate is a mineral found in many foods for many purposes.
-Within foods, tricalcium phosphate has roles such as anti-caking, clouding, and fortification. 
These all support the formulation of more desirable food products in terms of texture, appearance, performance, shelf-life, and nutrition. 
-Due to its mineral source, it can be used in vegan foods.

-Examples of how tricalcium phosphate functions in food manufacturing:
Acidity regulator
Adds smoothness and opacity to reduced fat foods and beverages, such as soymilk
Anticaking agent
Calcium and phosphorus mineral fortification – seen in some juices, soy beverages, yogurts, and cereal products
Clouding Agent

Firming agent – interacts with gelling agents to strengthen a food structure
Flour Treatment Agent
Humectant in some table salts, sugar, or baking powder
Stabilizer in some fats for frying
Leavening agent in some baked goods and breadings
Mineral salt in cheese products

-Calcium phosphate (tricalcium phosphate) is a mineral that is used as a supplement in people who do not get enough calcium from food.
-Calcium phosphate is used to treat calcium deficiencies that may be associated with low blood calcium, a parathyroid disorder, or osteoporosis and other bone conditions.
-Calcium phosphate may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.
-Tricalcium Phosphate or TCP can be used as a calcium and/or phosphorus nutrient supplement in pharmaceuticals and multivitamins. 

-Besides medicinal purposes, tricalcium phosphate is used as an anti-caking agent in manufacturing and agriculture. 
Tricalcium phosphate’s widely available and inexpensive. 
These qualities, combined with tricalcium phosphate's ability to separate materials, have made tricalcium phosphate popular around the world.
-Tricalcium Phosphate used as anticoagulant, nutritional supplement, calcium intensifier, PH regulator , buffer. 
To act as anticoagulant, additive for milk powder , sweets, pudding, flavoring and meat, Auxiliary for refinery of animal oil and food for yeast.

-In ceramics Tricalcium phosphate is used as a substitute for bone ash in glazes and bodies since Tricalcium phosphate's chemistry is similar.

-Ceramic and Glass
-Food & Beverage
-Industrial and Institutional
-Specialty Industries

-Anti-Caking Agent:
Food grade Tricalcium Phosphate is primarily used as an anti-caking agent. 
Anti-caking agents are very helpful in preventing the formation of lumps (caking) in food products. 
Without anti-caking agents products such as muffin or biscuit mixes, dry soups, hot chocolate mix, cream powders and more would be clumped and chunky. 
One of the most common uses for Tricalcium Phosphate is the anti-caking agent for powdered spices and solid drink mixes.

-Increase Nutritional Value:
Tricalcium Phosphate contains the calcium salt of phosphoric acid so you will often see this product used as a food additive for increasing calcium. 
Tricalcium Phosphate is popular in cereals, dairy products and juices.

-pH Regulator and Buffering Agent:
Tricalcium Phosphate can be added to milk, candy, pudding, wine, cheese, jams, condiments and meat products to regulate acidity and enhance flavor.
-Various calcium phosphates are used as diluents in the pharmaceutical industry. 
Diluents are added to pharmaceutical tablets or capsules to make the product large enough for swallowing and handling, and more stable.

Food grade TCP can be produced by the reaction of phosphoric acid with calcium carbonate or calcium hydroxide OR the reaction between calcium chloride solution and trisodium phosphate.

Storage Temperature: +20°C
Shipping Temperature: Ambient
Physical Form: Crystals
Colour: White
Molecular Weight:310.174
Appearance: white powder
Density: 3.14
Melting point: 1670°C
Storage temperature: room temp

Coefficient of refraction: 1.63
Solubility: water: 0.1 g/L (25 °C)
Formula Weight: 310.17g/mol
Packaging: Plastic powder jar
Melting Point: 1670°C
Quantity: 500g
Physical Form: Solid
Color: White

pH: 7
Min. Purity Spec: 98%
Physical Form (at 20°C): White powder
Melting Point: 450°C
Flash Point: Not applicable°C
Long-Term Storage: Store long-term in a cool, dry place

-Description of first aid measures:
*Skin contact:
Wash immediately with plenty of soap and water. 
Remove all contaminated clothes and footwear immediately unless stuck to skin.
*Eye contact:
Bathe the eye with running water for 15 minutes. 
Consult a doctor.
Wash out mouth with water. 
Consult a doctor.
Consult a doctor. 
Remove casualty from exposure ensuring one's own safety whilst doing so.

-Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures:
-Environmental precautions:
Do not discharge into drains or rivers.
-Methods and material for containment and cleaning up:
Clean-up procedures:
Transfer to a closable, labelled salvage container for disposal by an appropriate method.

-Extinguishing media:
Suitable extinguishing media for the surrounding fire should be used.
-Special hazards arising from the substance or mixture:
-Advice for fire-fighters: 
Wear protective clothing to prevent contact with skin and eyes.

-Control parameters:
-Exposure controls:
*Engineering measures:
Ensure there is sufficient ventilation of the area. 
*Hand protection:
Protective gloves.
*Eye protection:
Safety glasses. 
Ensure eye bath is to hand.
*Skin protection:
Protective clothing.

-Precautions for safe handling:
Handling requirements:
-Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities:
Storage conditions:
Store in cool, well ventilated area. 
Keep container tightly closed. 
-Specific end use(s): No data available

Stable under recommended transport or storage conditions.
-Chemical stability:
Stable under normal conditions.

Tricalcium phosphate hydrate
β-Calcium phosphate tribasic
β-Tricalcium phosphate
tert-Calcium phosphate
tri-Calcium (ortho)phosphate
amorphous calcium phosphate
Calcium Phosphate Tribasic
Calcium Phosphate, Tribasic
Pentacalcium Hidroxy Monophosphate
Calcium Hydroxyapatite
Tricalcium Monophosphate

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