DL-malic acid powder is a type of dicarboxylic acid that is produced by all animals and is found in many sour fruits and vegetables.
The name comes from the Latin word for apple, "malus," as it was first isolated from apple juice in 1785.
DL-malic acid powder is made from a combination of D-malic acid and the naturally occurring L-malic acid.
Malic acid is commonly used in sour candies to give a sour, tart flavor.
White or nearly white, crystalline powder or granules having a strongly acid taste.
One g dissolves in 0.8 mL of water and in 1.4 mL of alcohol.
DL-malic acid's solutions are optically inactive.
DL-malic acid melts at about 130°.
Malic acid is a dicarboxylic acid with the chemical formula C4H6O5, which has two structures known as enantiomers.
L-malic acid occurs naturally in all organisms, while D-malic acid must be synthesized in the laboratory.
A mixture of D-malic acid and L-malic acid is called a racemic mixture, which is commonly known as DL-malic acid.
The Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele first isolated malic acid from apple juice in 1785.
DL-malic acid's name comes from “malum,” which is the Latin word for apple.
DL-malic acid is a major contributor to the sourness in apples, although its concentration decreases as the apple ripens.
DL-malic acid is also the primary flavor in rhubarb and is used to flavor “salt and vinegar” potato chips.
L-malic acid is often formed in organisms as an intermediate product of metabolic reactions involving pyruvate.
It also has many esters and salts known as malates that play critical biological roles.
Malates are a source of carbon dioxide in the Calvin cycle, and they are also an intermediate product in the citric acid cycle.
D-malic acid is primarily used in health supplements, typically in the form of DL-malic acid.
DL-malic acid may be produced commercially by fermenting fumaric acid.
Racemic malic acid is typically synthesized by double hydrating maleic anhydride.
Chronic conditions characterized by discomfort and fatigue are some of the most common indications that you may need DL-malic acid, especially fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome. DL-malic acid may also help with other conditions that cause discomfort in the muscles, tendons and ligaments.
The presence of metal-based toxins is another condition that may mean you need DL-malic acid.
You may also benefit from DL-malic acid if you have infections in the mouth due to low saliva production.
D-malic acid is produced commercially in the D-/L-Racemic mixture by the catalytic hydration of maleic anhydride.
DL- Malic acid is the racemic mix of D isomer and L isomer.
Racemate can be made in the high temperature, high pressure conditions and water vapor effect by fumaric acid or maleic acid under the action of catalyst.
DL-Malic Acid is now recognized as a safe food additive, sour agent, preservative and pH regulator, the acidity is soft and persistence, acidity is 20% stronger than citric acid.
DL-malic acid can be used for all kinds of food, according to production need to use appropriately.
DL-malic acid powder is typically used by bodybuilders in conjunction with magnesium.
DL-malic acid helps support the muscles during exercise and may help with postworkout muscle recovery.
DL-malic acid can help boost muscle energy and aids in detoxifying the body.
DL-malic acid also has a sour, tart flavor that can be used as a flavoring for foods.
1-Helps with muscle recovery after exercise
2-May help boost muscle energy
3-Aids in detoxifying the body
4-Adds a sour, tart flavor to foods
DL-Malic acid Chemical Properties
Melting point: 131-133 °C(lit.)
Boiling point: 150℃[at 101 325 Pa]
Density: 1,609 g/cm3
Vapor density: 4.6 (vs air)
Vapor pressure: <0.1 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
FEMA: 2655 | L-MALIC ACID
Storage temp.: Refrigerator
Solubility methanol: 0.1 g/mL, clear, colorless
pka: pK1:3.458;pK2:5.097 (25°C)
Color: White to Off-White
Water Solubility: 500g/L at 25℃
Stability: Stable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong bases, amines, alkali metals, carbonates.
LogP: -1.3 at 24℃
CAS DataBase Reference: 617-48-1(CAS DataBase Reference)
EPA Substance Registry System: DL-malic acid, hydroxy-(617-48-1)
DL-malic acid is primarily used in the food and beverage industry.
The uses of DL-malic acid generally relate to the role of malic acid in the production of chemical energy for both aerobic and anaerobic conditions.
These uses include the management of discomfort, energy production, oral hygiene and general detoxification.
DL-Malic acid is used as a food additive.
DL-malic acid is a component of some artificial vinegar flavors.
Further, DL-malic acid is used in the preparation of chiral compounds, including κ-opioid rece.
DL-malic acid is utilized for chiral resolution by ligand-exchange capillary electrophoresis.
DL-malic acid can form chelates with metal ions and can be used to remove metal corrosion products (rust).
DL-malic acid can be used alone or in combination with other organic acids, used as metal cleaning agent.
DL-malic acid is used in the food industry as an emulsion stabilizer for acidulants, color retention agents, preservatives, egg yolk, etc, it is also used in the pharmaceutical industry. DL-malic acid is used as a acidulant for cool drinks (such as lactic acid bacteria drinks, milk drinks, soda, Cola), frozen foods (such as fruit Dew, ice cream, etc.), processed foods (such as fruit wine, mayonnaise), color-retaining agents for fruit drinks and the like, preservatives, and emulsion stabilizers for egg yolk and the like.
Uses also include raw materials for pharmaceutical products, cosmetics, dental solutions, metal detergents, anti-coagulant agents in the textile industry, and fluorescent whitening agents for polyester fibers.
DL-malic acid is internationally recognized as a safe food additive.
DL-malic acid is used as a sour agent, preservative and pH regulator.
DL-malic acid's sour taste is soft and long lasting, and the sour taste is 20% stronger than citric acid.
Can be used for all kinds of food, according to the production needs of the appropriate amount of use.
The food industry is used as an emulsion stabilizer for acidulants, color retention agents, preservatives, egg yolk, etc, also used in pharmaceutical used as biochemical reagents and experimental reagents used as a sour agent for cool drinks (pure cool drinks, concentrated cool drinks, powder cool drinks, lactic acid bacteria drinks, milk drinks, soda, cola drinks), cold food Acidulants (fruit Dew, ice cream), processed food Acidulants (chewing gum, fruit fructose, marmalade, orange peel jam, tomato juice, soy sauce, vinegar, fruit wine, mayonnaise, margarine), antacids, tone preserving agents for fruit drinks, etc., preservatives (emulsion stabilizers for mayonnaise, etc.).
DL-malic acid was neutralized with sodium carbonate solution and concentrated in vacuo to give DL-malic acid sodium.
DL-malic acid is also a seasoning, a salt substitute for patients with nephritis.
Malate can be used as an additive for margarine and other edible oils.
Non-edible uses of DL-malic acid include raw materials that can be used as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, dental solutions, metal detergents, buffers, anti-coagulants for textile industry, industrial deodorants, fluorescent whitening agents for polyester fibers, and a monomer for producing an alkyd resin.
DL-malic acid and L-malic acid are safe and non-toxic substances, used as flavor enhancers, flavoring agents, auxiliary drugs and pH control agents, the United States should not exceed 6.9% of Hard Candy, other food is about 0.7%, but these two kinds of malic acid should not be used in baby food, the purity of the requirements of more than 99%, the melting point of 127-130 ℃, heavy metal content in 0.002%.
The residue on ignition was less than 0.05%.
DL-malic acid is a strong acid, at 17 degrees C, 0.1 molar aqueous solution of pH 2.28, can stimulate the mucosa and damage the tooth enamel.
DL-malic acid as a commonly used food additive and flavoring agent, widely used in jelly and fruit-based food, contribute to the absorption of food and improve appetite.
As the acidulant, DL-malic acid can be used instead of citric acid; It is commonly used as a tone-retaining agent for a cool drink, a cold food, an acidulant for a processed food, a preservative, a fruit drink, and the like.
In the non-food industry, DL-malic acid can be used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, metal cleaners, industrial deodorants and buffers.
In the textile industry for the inhibitor, fluorescent whitening agent raw materials.
DL-malic acid can be prepared by adding water to fumaric acid or maleic acid through high temperature and high pressure catalysis.
Fumaric acid was dissolved in distilled water and heated to 50 °c and fed into the high pressure reactor.
DL-malic acid is heated to 180-199 ℃, and the pressure is about 1MPa.
After 8h of reaction, the temperature is lowered to below 100 ℃, and the reactant is forced out.
The crystals were precipitated by vacuum concentration at 60 °c.
After cooling, dehydration, and drying to obtain the finished product.
The yield was 88%. Another major method of production of malic acid is fermentation, which is produced by fermentation of carbohydrates with mutant yeast.
malic acid is produced by chemical synthesis, fermentation and enzymatic (or microbial) transformation.
Chemical synthesis of 1dl-malic acid 185 of maleic anhydride was dissolved in of water and stirred in a stainless steel autoclave at-C ± 3 °c and MPA for 6-8 hours.
In the reaction process, when the temperature> 120 ℃, maleic acid and water to produce malic acid; And when the temperature> 130 ℃, maleic acid itself also isomerization to fumaric acid. Under the reaction conditions, there is an equilibrium between malic acid and fumaric acid.
Therefore, when the reaction was completed, the ratio of maleic acid to malic acid was 1:1.7.
When fumaric acid is added in proportion at the beginning of the reaction, the yield can be increased from 63% to over 90%.
After the reactants were cooled to below l00 ° C., the autoclave was concentrated under reduced pressure at 60 ° C., and then cooled, crystallized, centrifuged and dried to obtain a finished product.
2 microorganisms (or enzymes) Conversion of fumaric acid to produce L-malic acid Brevibacterium, Brevibacterium flavum and short ammonia producing bacteria and other microorganisms can make the conversion of fumaric acid to malic acid.
First, the raw material fumaric acid and calcium carbonate were reacted to generate calcium fumarate, and then the calcium malate was generated by the conversion column (37 C).
L-malic acid was obtained by extraction, and the conversion rate was 98%.
Production of L-malic acid by one-step fermentation of a single strain aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus flavus and other microorganisms can produce L-malic acid by fermentation of sugar raw materials.
The fermentation rate was 4.4% ~ 4.95%, and the conversion rate of sugar was 68% ~ 75% when the fermentation was conducted in the fermentor for 40H.
4 mixed fermentation two-step production of L-malic acid first, Rhizopus Rhizopus R25 in the medium containing 12% glucose to accumulate fumaric acid, and then inoculated with common Proteus P1 to continue the fermentation 2d, the yield of L-glycolic acid was 5.2~5.48g/100mL, and the conversion rate of sugar was 86.7% ~ 91.3%.
With 18% of the potato powder can replace the medium containing 12% of glucose, L-malic acid production up to 5.47g/100mL.
The fermentation broth was diluted and filtered, and the clear solution was concentrated under reduced pressure and cooled to obtain calcium malate.
The L-malic acid was hydrolyzed with sulfuric acid and exchanged with 732 resin, and the eluate was exchanged with 301 anion resin to obtain a clear malic acid solution.
Finally, DL-malic acid is concentrated under reduced pressure, cooled to crystallize, and recrystallized to obtain a finished product.
Butanedioic acid, hydroxy-
Malic acid, DL-
Caswell No. 537
Succinic acid, hydroxy-
Kyselina jablecna [Czech]
Malic acid [NF]
FEMA No. 2655
Kyselina hydroxybutandiova [Czech]
EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 051101
Malic acid, L-
BUTANEDIOIC ACID, HYDROXY-, (S)-
INS NO. 296
Malic acid (NF)
FEMA Number 2655
Butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy-, (2S)-
Hydroxybutanedioic acid, (-)-
Hydroxybutanedioic acid, (+-)-
Racemic malic acid
DL-Malic acid, 99%
MALIC ACID [II]
MALIC ACID [MI]
MALIC ACID [FCC]
MALIC ACID [INCI]
MALIC ACID [VANDF]
Malic acid-, (L-form)-
DL-Malic acid, >=99%
MALIC ACID [USP-RS]
MALIC ACID [WHO-DD]
butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy-
Butanedioic acid, (.+-.)-
MALIC ACID [EP MONOGRAPH]
MALIC ACID [USP IMPURITY]
DL-Malic acid, FCC, >=99%
DL-Malic acid, analytical standard
HYDROXYBUTANEDIOIC ACID [HSDB]
DL-Malic acid, ReagentPlus(R), 99%
DL-Malic acid, >=98% (capillary GC)
HYDROXYBUTANEDIOIC ACID, (+/-)-
DL-Malic acid, ReagentPlus(R), >=99%
DL-Malic acid 1000 microg/mL in Methanol
DL-Malic acid, USP, 99.0-100.5%
DL-Malic acid, SAJ first grade, >=99.0%
DL-Malic acid 1000 microg/mL in Acetonitrile
DL-Malic acid, Vetec(TM) reagent grade, 98%
Malic acid, meets USP/NF testing specifications
Malic acid, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
MALIC ACID (CONSTITUENT OF CRANBERRY LIQUID PREPARATION) [DSC]
Malic acid, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
DL-Malic acid, meets analytical specification of FCC, E296, 99-100.5% (alkalimetric)