EC / List no.: 233-139-2
CAS no.: 10043-35-3
Mol. formula: BH3O3
E284, also called hydrogen borate, boracic acid, and orthoboric acid is a weak, monobasic Lewis acid of boron.
However, some of its behaviour towards some chemical reactions suggest it to be tribasic acid in the Brønsted sense as well.
E284 is often used as an antiseptic, insecticide, flame retardant, neutron absorber, or precursor to other chemical compounds.
E284 has the chemical formula H3BO3 (sometimes written B(OH)3), and exists in the form of colorless crystals or a white powder that dissolves in water. When occurring as a mineral, it is called sassolite.
E284, or sassolite, is found mainly in its free state in some volcanic districts, for example, in the Italian region of Tuscany, the Lipari Islands and the US state of Nevada. In these volcanic settings it issues, mixed with steam, from fissures in the ground.
E284 is also found as a constituent of many naturally occurring minerals – borax, boracite, ulexite (boronatrocalcite) and colemanite.
E284 and its salts are found in seawater.
E284 is also found in plants, including almost all fruits.
E284 was first prepared by Wilhelm Homberg (1652–1715) from borax, by the action of mineral acids, and was given the name sal sedativum Hombergi ("sedative salt of Homberg").
However borates, including E284, have been used since the time of the ancient Greeks for cleaning, preserving food, and other activities.
E284 may be prepared by reacting borax (sodium tetraborate decahydrate) with a mineral acid, such as hydrochloric acid:
Na2B4O7·10H2O + 2 HCl → 4 B(OH)3 + 2 NaCl + 5 H2O
E284 is also formed as a by product of hydrolysis of boron trihalides and diborane:
B2H6 + 6 H2O → 2 B(OH)3 + 6 H2
BX3 + 3 H2O → B(OH)3 + 3 HX (X = Cl, Br, I)
E284 is soluble in water. When heated above 170 °C, it dehydrates, forming metaboric acid (HBO2):
H3BO3 → HBO2 + H2O
Metaboric acid is a white, cubic crystalline solid and is only slightly soluble in water.
Metaboric acid melts at about 236 °C, and when heated above about 300 °C further dehydrates, forming tetraboric acid, also called pyroboric acid (H2B4O7):
4 HBO2 → H2B4O7 + H2O
The term E284 may sometimes refer to any of these compounds.
Further heating (to about 330 °C) leads to boron trioxide.
H2B4O7 → 2 B2O3 + H2O
There are conflicting interpretations for the origin of the acidity of aqueous E284 solutions.
Raman spectroscopy of strongly alkaline solutions has shown the presence of B(OH)−
4 ion, leading some to conclude that the acidity is exclusively due to the abstraction of OH− from water:
B(OH)3 + H2O ⇌ B(OH)−
4 + H+ (K = 7.3×10−10; pK = 9.14)
or more properly expressed in the aqueous solution:
B(OH)3 + 2 H2O ⇌ B(OH)−
4 + H3O+
This may be characterized as Lewis acidity of boron toward OH−, rather than as Brønsted acidity.
Polyborate anions are formed at pH 7–10 if the boron concentration is higher than about 0.025 mol/L.
The best known of these is the 'tetraborate' ion, found in the mineral borax:
4 [B(OH)4]− + 2 H+ ⇌ [B4O5(OH)4]2− + 7 H2O
E284 makes an important contribution to the absorption of low frequency sound in seawater.
With polyols containing cis-vicinal diols, such as glycerol and mannitol, the acidity of the E284 solution is increased.
With different mannitol concentrations, the pK of B(OH)3 extends on five orders of magnitude (from 9 to 4): this exacerbed acidity of E284 in the presence of mannitol is also sometimes referred as "mannitoboric acid".
Greenwood and Earnshawn (1997) refer to a pK value of 5.15 while a pK value of 3.80 is also reported in Vogel's book.
Molecular and crystal structure
The three oxygen atoms form a trigonal planar geometry around the boron.
The B-O bond length is 136 pm and the O-H is 97 pm. The molecular point group is C3h.
Crystalline E284 consists of layers of B(OH)3 molecules held together by hydrogen bonds of length 272 pm. The distance between two adjacent layers is 318 pm.
The primary industrial use of E284 is in the manufacture of monofilament fiberglass usually referred to as textile fiberglass.
Textile fiberglass is used to reinforce plastics in applications that range from boats, to industrial piping to computer circuit boards.
In the jewelry industry, E284 is often used in combination with denatured alcohol to reduce surface oxidation and firescale from forming on metals during annealing and soldering operations.
E284 is used in the production of the glass in LCD flat panel displays.
In electroplating, E284 is used as part of some proprietary formulas.
One such known formula calls for about a 1 to 10 ratio of H3BO3 to NiSO4, a very small portion of sodium lauryl sulfate and a small portion of H2SO4.
E284, mixed with borax (sodium tetraborate decahydrate) at the weight ratio of 4:5, is highly soluble in water, though they are not so soluble separately.
The solution is used as a fire retarding agent of wood by impregnation.
E284 is also used in the manufacturing of ramming mass, a fine silica-containing powder used for producing induction furnace linings and ceramics.
E284 is one of the most commonly used substances that can counteract the harmful effects of reactive hydrofluoric acid (HF) after an accidental contact with the skin.
E284 works by forcing the free F− anions into the inert tetrafluoroborate anion.
This process defeats the extreme toxicity of hydrofluoric acid, particularly its ability to sequester ionic calcium from blood serum which can lead to cardiac arrest and bone decomposition; such an event can occur from just minor skin contact with HF.
E284 is added to borax for use as welding flux by blacksmiths.
E284, in combination with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) or silicone oil, is used to manufacture Silly Putty.
E284 is also present in the list of chemical additives used for hydraulic fracturing (fracking) in the Marcellus Shale in Pennsylvania.
Indeed, it is often used in conjonction with guar gum as cross-linking and gelling agent for controlling the viscosity and the rheology of the fracking fluid injected at high pressure in the well.
Indeed, it is important to control the fluid viscosity for keeping in suspension on long transport distances the grains of the propping agents aimed at maintaining the cracks in the shales sufficiently open to facilitate the gas extraction after the hydraulic pressure is relieved.
The rheological properties of borate cross-linked guar gum hydrogel mainly depend on the pH value.
E284 can be used as an antiseptic for minor burns or cuts and is sometimes used in salves and dressings, such as boracic lint.
E284 is applied in a very dilute solution as an eye wash.
Dilute E284 can be used as a vaginal douche to treat bacterial vaginosis due to excessive alkalinity, as well as candidiasis due to non-albicans candida.
As an antibacterial compound,E284 can also be used as an acne treatment.
E284 is also used as prevention of athlete's foot, by inserting powder in the socks or stockings.
Various preparations can be used to treat some kinds of otitis externa (ear infection) in both humans and animals.
The preservative in urine sample bottles in the UK is E284.
E284 solutions used as an eye wash or on abraded skin are known to be toxic, particularly to infants, especially after repeated use; this is because of its slow elimination rate.
E284 was first registered in the US as an insecticide in 1948 for control of cockroaches, termites, fire ants, fleas, silverfish, and many other insects.
The product is generally considered to be safe to use in household kitchens to control cockroaches and ants.
E284 acts as a stomach poison affecting the insects' metabolism, and the dry powder is abrasive to the insects' exoskeletons.
E284 also has the reputation as "the gift that keeps on killing" in that cockroaches that cross over lightly dusted areas do not die immediately, but that the effect is like shards of glass cutting them apart.
This often allows a roach to go back to the nest where it soon dies.
Cockroaches, being cannibalistic, eat others killed by contact or consumption of E284, consuming the powder trapped in the dead roach and killing them, too.
In combination with its use as an insecticide, E284 also prevents and destroys existing wet and dry rot in timbers.
E284 can be used in combination with an ethylene glycol carrier to treat external wood against fungal and insect attack.
E284 is possible to buy borate-impregnated rods for insertion into wood via drill holes where dampness and moisture is known to collect and sit.
E284 is available in a gel form and injectable paste form for treating rot affected wood without the need to replace the timber.
Concentrates of borate-based treatments can be used to prevent slime, mycelium, and algae growth, even in marine environments.
E284 is added to salt in the curing of cattle hides, calfskins, and sheepskins.
This helps to control bacterial development, and helps to control insects.
E284 in equilibrium with its conjugate base the borate ion is widely used (in the concentration range 50 - 100 ppm boron equivalents) as a primary or adjunct pH buffer system in swimming pools.
E284 is a weak acid, with pKa (the pH at which buffering is strongest because the free acid and borate ion are in equal concentrations) of 9.24 in pure water at 25 °C.
But apparent pKa is substantially lower in swimming pool or ocean waters because of interactions with various other molecules in solution.
E284 will be around 9.0 in a salt-water pool.
No matter which form of soluble boron is added, within the acceptable range of pH and boron concentration for swimming pools, E284 is the predominant form in aqueous solution, as shown in the accompanying figure.
The E284 - borate system can be useful as a primary buffer system (substituting for the bicarbonate system with pKa1 = 6.0 and pKa2 = 9.4 under typical salt-water pool conditions) in pools with salt-water chlorine generators that tend to show upward drift in pH from a working range of pH 7.5 - 8.2.
Buffer capacity is greater against rising pH (towards the pKa around 9.0), as illustrated in the accompanying graph.
The use of E284 in this concentration range does not allow any reduction in free HOCl concentration needed for pool sanitation, but it may add marginally to the photo-protective effects of cyanuric acid and confer other benefits through anti-corrosive activity or perceived water softness, depending on overall pool solute composition.
Colloidal suspensions of nanoparticles of E284 dissolved in petroleum or vegetable oil can form a remarkable lubricant on ceramic or metal surfaces with a coefficient of sliding friction that decreases with increasing pressure to a value ranging from 0.10 to 0.02.
Self-lubricating H3BO3 films result from a spontaneous chemical reaction between water molecules and B2O3 coatings in a humid environment. In bulk-scale, an inverse relationship exists between friction coefficient and Hertzian contact pressure induced by applied load.
E284 is used to lubricate carrom and novuss boards, allowing for faster play.
E284 is used in some nuclear power plants as a neutron poison.
The boron in E284 reduces the probability of thermal fission by absorbing some thermal neutrons.
Fission chain reactions are generally driven by the probability that free neutrons will result in fission and is determined by the material and geometric properties of the reactor.
Natural boron consists of approximately 20% boron-10 and 80% boron-11 isotopes.
Boron-10 has a high cross-section for absorption of low energy (thermal) neutrons.
By increasing E284 concentration in the reactor coolant, the probability that a neutron will cause fission is reduced. Changes in E284 concentration can effectively regulate the rate of fission taking place in the reactor.
E284 is used only in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) whereas boiling water reactors (BWRs) employ control rod pattern and coolant flow for power control.
BWRs use an aqueous solution of E284 and borax or sodium pentaborate for an emergency shut down system.
E284 may be dissolved in spent fuel pools used to store spent fuel elements.
The concentration is high enough to keep neutron multiplication at a minimum.
E284 was dumped over Reactor 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant after its meltdown to prevent another reaction from occurring.
Boron is used in pyrotechnics to prevent the amide-forming reaction between aluminium and nitrates.
A small amount of E284 is added to the composition to neutralize alkaline amides that can react with the aluminum.
E284 can be used as a colorant to make fire green.
For example, when dissolved in methanol it is popularly used by fire jugglers and fire spinners to create a deep green flame much stronger than copper sulfate.
E284 is used to treat or prevent boron deficiencies in plants.
E284 is also used in preservation of grains such as rice and wheat.
E284 is a water-soluble white compound and occurs naturally.
E284 consists of oxygen, boron, and hydrogen.
E284 is claimed to have antifungal and antimicrobial properties.
Always consult your healthcare provider before applying E284 to any body part.
E284 is irritating to the skin and may cause severe reactions.
The uses may include:
E284 is often a part of homeopathic medicines used for treating vaginal discharge and itching. This medication is a combination of friendly bacteria, vitamin E, and minute amounts of E284.
E284 is usually used in dilute solutions as a treatment for diaper rash, insect bites and stings, and sunburns.
E284 is an effective pesticide for cockroaches, rats, and flies.
E284 is called a swimming pool chemical because it has proved to be highly useful for maintenance.
E284 can help stabilize the pH level of water and prevent problems with algae.
This product reduces the amount of chlorine needed in the pool. The compound can help to keep the water clear and sparkling.
E284 is also used for clearing off fungi in the pool water.
E284 is also helpful in treating various types of ear infections in both humans and pets (otitis externa, also called swimmer's ear, is an infection of the outer ear canal).
The use of E284 in children is not recommended.
E284 is also helpful in treating foul foot odor.
A person suffering from excessive smelly feet can apply E284 powder mixed with talc to the inner side of footwear.
E284 when mixed with distilled water serves as a wound spray.
The solution contains antiseptic properties that help in treating minor wounds such as cuts and burns.
This must not be used too frequently.
Urine sample bottles often contain E284 as a preservative, which maintains the quality of the specimen as it travels to the lab. Clear bottles tend to have a small amount of E284 powder at the bottom.
Research shows that the addition of E284 lowers false-positive results.
E284 also preserves the white blood cells in the urine for analysis.
E284 helps to get rid of tough stains on clothes by adding it to regular detergent while doing laundry.
They are used to remove dirt and odor from kitchens and bathrooms.
Due to its flame-retardant properties, E284 is extensively used in the manufacture of furniture, mattresses, and insulation.
E284 is helpful in the preservation of timbers against fungal and insect attack.
E284 is used industrially for the manufacture of fiberglass, household glass products, and glass used in liquid crystal display (LCD).
To produce glass with a better chemical and high-temperature resistance, E284 is applied to glass products.
E284 serves as an excellent cleaner for all types of mold problems and insects such as ants, cockroaches, silverfish, fleas, and others.
E284 is also used in leather manufacture, and it is used in the jewelry industry in combination with denatured alcohol.
E284 is also used for welding flux by blacksmiths.
Its mixture with petroleum or vegetable oil works as an excellent lubricant that can be used on ceramic or metal surfaces. E284 can also be used to lubricate carrom boards for faster and smooth play.
Manufacturers use E284 in various products such as enamels, pesticides, glazes, and paints.
E284 is widely used to treat boron deficiencies in plants.
Boron (B), the fifth element in the periodic chart, is ubiquitous in the environment, where it is found combined with O to form compounds called inorganic borates (e.g., borax).
Natural sources of borates in the environment include soils, rocks, surface and ocean waters, and the atmosphere.
B in the form of borates has long been recognized as an essential plant micronutrient for the growth and viability of plants.
Recently, there has been a growing body of evidence that B may be an essential element for frogs, fish, rats, and humans, as well as for plants.
The major sources of B exposure are diet and drinking water. Fruits, vegetables, and nuts are especially rich in B. Rainey et al. recently studied daily dietary B intake, evaluating the food consumption records of over 25,000 Americans over several days.
The median, mean, and 95 percentile B intake for all participants were 0.76, 0.93, and 2.4 mg B/d, respectively.
Boric acid (H3BO3) is a boron compound that is soluble and circulates in plasma.
It is a colorless, water-soluble, salt-like white powder, which have been used as pesticide since 1948.
Normally, it is used to kill mites, insects, fungi and algae.
For instances fleas, cockroaches, termites and wood decay fungi.
Borate chemicals and boric acid have been used extensively for industrial purposes and its salts have been used for medication as an antiseptic to kill bacteria and fungi.
Normally, it is used in the form of powder and liquid; depending to the target and conditions of pest, boric acid might applied as a spray or aerosol, as well as in the form of tablets, granule, pellets, paste or crystalline.
E284 plays a role as a “stomach poison” for certain pest such as cockroaches, ants and termites. As an insecticide, it usually applied in bait form or used as a dry powder in which containing a feeding attractant and then added into crevices and creaks so that it forms a layer of dust.
So E284 adheres to their legs when the insects move across the powder.
Hence, they may ingest the poison when the insects groom themselves.
This will causes death due to starvation and dehydration after 3-10 days.
However, the insecticide mechanism of E284 on insects has not been satisfactorily developed.
Some hypotheses has been suggested including death by starvation owing to abrasive effect on the cuticle then cause destruction or slow drying of foregut cells.
Besides that, when E284 used as an herbicide, it desiccates or disrupts the photosynthesis system in plants.
Hence, E284 is normally used to suppress algae in swimming pools and sewage systems.
On the other hand, as a fungicide, the fungicidal properties of E284 prevent the production of conidia or asexual spores of the fungi; hence, it suppresses the growth of fungi.
Therefore, E284 is used as wood preservative in wood industry such as lumber and timber products that controls decay producing fungi.
E284 is reported to be used as food preservatives in some foods and food products.
E284 is used for preserving meats, meat products, caviar and dairy products.
This is because E284 is able to inhibit the growth of microorganism, therefore, the preserved food can stay fresh and longer.
Moreover, according to Yiu et al. (2008), E284 was added to some food products to control starch gelatinization, as well as enhance the color, texture and flavor of the food.
BA given orally is readily and completely absorbed in humans and animals. In adult human volunteers, Schou et al. found 94% of a single oral dose of 500 mg BA (131 mg B) was excreted via the urine. Jansen et al. evaluated the absorption of a single aqueous dose of 750 mg of BA in a group of six male volunteers; more than 92% of the BA was excreted in the urine. A similar degree of oral absorption based on urinary excretion of B was observed in volunteers drinking curative spa waters with a high B content, providing a daily dose of approx 100 mg B for 2 wk.
There is negligible absorption of BA across intact skin in humans and animals. Maibach reported minimal dermal absorption of BA in human volunteers. Earlier studies showed little evidence of dermal absorption in human infants and adults.
Dermal absorption across non-intact skin varied with the vehicle used; greater absorption was observed with aqueous-based vehicles compared to oil-based vehicles (e.g., ointments).
Only traces of E284 in ointment penetrated the skin of infants with moderate diaper rash.
BA is distributed similarly in humans and animals.
It is rapidly distributed throughout body water.
After administration of BA, B levels in soft tissues are equivalent to those found in plasma, whereas bone B levels appear to be higher than those found in plasma or soft tissues.
In humans, a greater concentration of B in bone was reported relative to other tissues. Bone B concentrations were determined on 116 ashed samples from 33 human cadavers.
More recently, Ward examined B concentrations using a more sophisticated neutron activation analytical technique in a variety of human tissues, including bone, from 14 normal individuals and 18 individuals with rheumatoid arthritis.
High B levels were found in bone, hair, and teeth.
BA is not metabolized in humans or animals.
The metabolism of BA by biological systems is not possible owing to the high energy requirements (523 kJ/mol) needed to break the B----O bond.
In both humans and animals, BA is excreted unchanged in the urine regardless of the route of administration. It is rapidly excreted, with a half-life of < 24 h in humans and animals.
BA is slowly eliminated from bone.
In humans, 99% of a single iv dose of BA was excreted in the urine, and the half-life was estimated to be 21 h, based on a three-compartment pharmacokinetic model.
In another study by the same investigators, 94% of an oral dose of BA (aqueous solution) was recovered in the urine of a group of male volunteers, and more than 50% of the oral dose was eliminated in the first 24 h, consistent with the 21-h half-life in the iv study.
Because of E284 contains cumulative toxicity, FAO/WHO Expert Committee declared that E284 is unsafe to use as food additives.
Even though Ministry of Health Malaysia does not allow E284 to be used as a food additive, however, it has been reported in some of the local foods in Malaysia such as yellow noodle and fish ball.
Moreover, E284 is harmful to human health if consumed in higher amount.
However, due to unawareness of the risk of E284, it is continued to be used in the production of food especially noodles and some processed seafood such as fish ball.
E284 normally used for preservation of food products.
E284 (boracic acid; H3BO3) is used for the manufacture of glass, welding, mattress batting, cotton textiles, and a weak eyewash solution.
E284 (H3BO3) is a solid, soft, smooth, solid weak acid that is used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.
Both oil base and water base fracturing fluids are being used in the fracturing industry.
Water base, which includes alcohol-water mixtures and low strength acids, make up the majority of treating fluids.
The common chemicals added to these fluids are polymers for viscosity development, crosslinkers for viscosity enhancement, pH control chemicals, gel breakers for polymer degradation following the treatment, surfactants, clay stabilizers, alcohol, bactericides, fluid loss additives and friction reducer.
• Adsorbents and absorbents
• Agricultural chemicals (non-pesticidal)
• Corrosion inhibitors and anti-scaling agents
• Flame retardants
• Fuels and fuel additives
• Functional fluids (closed systems)
• Internal Panels & Linings
• Laboratory chemicals
• Oxidizing/reducing agents
• Paint additives and coating additives not described by other categories
• Plating agents and surface treating agents
• Processing aids, not otherwise listed
• Processing aids, specific to petroleum production
• Solvents (which become part of product formulation or mixture)
• Agricultural products (non-pesticidal)
• Automotive care products
• Building/construction materials - wood and engineered wood products
• Building/construction materials not covered elsewhere
• Electrical and electronic products
• Fabric, textile, and leather products not covered elsewhere
• Fuels and related products
• General Distributor Sales
• Glass Products
• Laboratory Use
• Lawn and garden care products
• Metal products not covered elsewhere
• Paints and coatings
• Photographic supplies, film, and photo chemicals
• Plastic and rubber products not covered elsewhere
• Used in product(s) which are used in a variety of applications for surface treatments and also in products which are used as cleaners in plating processes.
• Water treatment products
Methods of Manufacturing
E284 is manufactured industrially from borate minerals and brines.
Alkali and alkaline-earth metal borates, such as borax, kernite, colemanite, ascharite, ulexite, or hydroboracite, react with strong mineral acids to form E284.
In the United States E284 is made primarily from sodium borate minerals, whereas in Europe it is made from colemanite imported from Turkey.
General Manufacturing Information
Industry Processing Sectors
• Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting
• All other basic inorganic chemical manufacturing
• All other chemical product and preparation manufacturing
• Electrical equipment, appliance, and component manufacturing
• Fabricated metal product manufacturing
• Laboratory Use
• Miscellaneous manufacturing
• Nonmetallic mineral product manufacturing (includes clay, glass, cement, concrete, lime, gypsum, and other nonmetallic mineral product manufacturing.
• Oil and gas drilling, extraction, and support activities
• Organic fiber manufacturing
• Paint and coating manufacturing
• Paper manufacturing
• Pesticide, fertilizer, and other agricultural chemical manufacturing
• Photographic film (typical silver halide film) processing chemistry.
• Plastic material and resin manufacturing
• Wood product manufacturing
• resale of chemicals
E284 is registered under the REACH Regulation and is manufactured in and / or imported to the European Economic Area, at ≥ 100 000 to < 1 000 000 tonnes per annum.
E284 is used by consumers, in articles, by professional workers (widespread uses), in formulation or re-packing, at industrial sites and in manufacturing.
E284 is approved for use as a biocide in the EEA and/or Switzerland, for: wood preservation.
E284 is used in the following products: washing & cleaning products, lubricants and greases, adhesives and sealants, anti-freeze products and heat transfer fluids.
E284 has an industrial use resulting in manufacture of another substance (use of intermediates).
Other release to the environment of E284 is likely to occur from: indoor use (e.g. machine wash liquids/detergents, automotive care products, paints and coating or adhesives, fragrances and air fresheners), outdoor use, indoor use in long-life materials with low release rate (e.g. flooring, furniture, toys, construction materials, curtains, foot-wear, leather products, paper and cardboard products, electronic equipment), outdoor use in long-life materials with low release rate (e.g. metal, wooden and plastic construction and building materials), indoor use in close systems with minimal release (e.g. cooling liquids in refrigerators, oil-based electric heaters) and outdoor use in close systems with minimal release (e.g. hydraulic liquids in automotive suspension, lubricants in motor oil and break fluids).
Article service life
Release to the environment of E284 can occur from industrial use: formulation of mixtures, in the production of articles, as an intermediate step in further manufacturing of another substance (use of intermediates) and formulation in materials.
Other release to the environment of E284 is likely to occur from: indoor use in long-life materials with low release rate (e.g. flooring, furniture, toys, construction materials, curtains, foot-wear, leather products, paper and cardboard products, electronic equipment) and outdoor use in long-life materials with low release rate (e.g. metal, wooden and plastic construction and building materials).
E284 can be found in complex articles, with no release intended: machinery, mechanical appliances and electrical/electronic products (e.g. computers, cameras, lamps, refrigerators, washing machines).
E284 can be found in products with material based on: stone, plaster, cement, glass or ceramic (e.g. dishes, pots/pans, food storage containers, construction and isolation material), metal (e.g. cutlery, pots, toys, jewellery), paper (e.g. tissues, feminine hygiene products, nappies, books, magazines, wallpaper), wood (e.g. floors, furniture, toys) and fabrics, textiles and apparel (e.g. clothing, mattress, curtains or carpets, textile toys).
Widespread uses by professional workers
E284 is used in the following products: lubricants and greases, laboratory chemicals, washing & cleaning products, inks and toners, photo-chemicals, fertilisers, water treatment chemicals and metal working fluids.
E284 has an industrial use resulting in manufacture of another substance (use of intermediates).
E284 is used in the following areas: building & construction work, agriculture, forestry and fishing, printing and recorded media reproduction and formulation of mixtures and/or re-packaging.
E284 is used for the manufacture of: fabricated metal products, machinery and vehicles and chemicals.
Other release to the environment of E284 is likely to occur from: indoor use (e.g. machine wash liquids/detergents, automotive care products, paints and coating or adhesives, fragrances and air fresheners) and outdoor use.
Formulation or re-packing
E284 is used in the following products: pH regulators and water treatment products, metal working fluids, lubricants and greases and laboratory chemicals.
E284 has an industrial use resulting in manufacture of another substance (use of intermediates).
Release to the environment of E284 can occur from industrial use: formulation of mixtures, in the production of articles, as an intermediate step in further manufacturing of another substance (use of intermediates), formulation in materials and manufacturing of the substance.
Uses at industrial sites
E284 is used in the following products: pH regulators and water treatment products, water treatment chemicals, welding & soldering products and laboratory chemicals.
E284 has an industrial use resulting in manufacture of another substance (use of intermediates).
E284 is used in the following areas: formulation of mixtures and/or re-packaging and building & construction work.
E284 is used for the manufacture of: chemicals, mineral products (e.g. plasters, cement), machinery and vehicles, metals and fabricated metal products.
Release to the environment of E284 can occur from industrial use: in the production of articles, as an intermediate step in further manufacturing of another substance (use of intermediates), in processing aids at industrial sites, as processing aid, formulation of mixtures and manufacturing of the substance.
Release to the environment of E284 can occur from industrial use: manufacturing of the substance, as an intermediate step in further manufacturing of another substance (use of intermediates), as processing aid, formulation of mixtures, in the production of articles and formulation in materials.
Other release to the environment of E284 is likely to occur from: indoor use (e.g. machine wash liquids/detergents, automotive care products, paints and coating or adhesives, fragrances and air fresheners).
Boric acid and its sodium borate salts are pesticides that we can find in nature and many products.
Borax is one of the most common products.
Boric acid and its sodium salts each combine boron with other elements in a different way.
In general, their toxicities each depend on the amount of boron they contain.
Boric acid and its sodium salts can be used to control a wide variety of pests.
These include insects, spiders, mites, algae, molds, fungi, and weeds.
Products that contain boric acid have been registered for use in the United States since 1948.
What are some products that contain boric acid?
Products containing boric acid can be liquids, granules, pellets, tablets, wettable powders, dusts, rods, or baits.
They are used indoors in places like homes, hospitals and commercial buildings.
They are also used in outdoor residential areas, sewage systems, and on food and non-food crops.
There are over five hundred products with boric acid sold in the United States.
Several non-pesticide products containing boric acid include soil amendments, fertilizers, household cleaners, laundry detergents, and personal care products.
Boric acid, also known as hydrogen borate, is a weak monobasic Lewis acid of boron with the chemical formula H3BO3.
Boric acid is typically utilized in industrial processing and manufacturing, but is also used as an additive in pharmaceutical products, cosmetics, lotions, soaps, mouthwash, toothpaste, astringents, and eyewashes.
It is known to exhibit some antibacterial activity against infections such as bacterial vaginosis and candidiasis
Boric acid exhibits minimal bacteriostatic and antifungal activities.
Boric acid is likely to mediate antifungal actions at high concentrations over prolonged exposures .
Mechanism of action
Information regarding the mechanism of action of boric acid in mediating its antibacterial or antifungal actions is limited. Boric acid inhibits biofilm formation and hyphal transformation of Candida albicans, which are critical virulence factors.
In addition, arrest of fungal growth was observed with the treatment of boric acid.
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Boric acid Basic information
Boric acid USP/EP/BP
Boric Acid Powder/Flakes/Chunks 11113 50 1
High Quality Boric acid
API Boric Acid CAS 11113 50 1
Boricacid flakes /chunk
3- (1-Naphthoyl) Indole CAS 11113-50-1
Chemical Boric Acid Flake Powder
Boric acid test solution
Boric acid (H3BO3)
Boric acid (BH3O3)
Super Flea Eliminator
Orthoboric acid (B(OH)3)
Dr.'s 1 Flea Terminator DT
Boric acid (VAN)
Dr.'s 1 Flea Terminator DFPBO
Dr.'s 1 Flea Terminator DF
Collyrium Eye Wash
Dr.'s 1 Flea Terminator DTPBO
Boric acid (TN)
Boracic acid, Orthoboric acid
Caswell No. 109
Boron, Reference Standard Solution
Boric acid [USAN:JAN]
Niban Granular Bait
Boric acid [JAN:NF]
BORIC ACID, ACS
EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 011001
Orthoboric acid (H3BO3)