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E290 (Carbon dioxide)

E290 (Carbon dioxide) = DRY ICE

CAS Number: 124-38-9
EC Number: 204-696-9
MDL number: MFCD00011491
Molecular Formula: CO2

E290 (Carbon dioxide) (commonly abbreviated as CO2) is a clear gas composed of one atom of carbon (C) and two atoms of oxygen (O). E290 (Carbon dioxide) is one of many molecules where carbon is commonly found on the Earth. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) does not burn, and in standard temperature and pressure conditions E290 (Carbon dioxide) is stable, inert, and non-toxic. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) occurs naturally in small amounts (about 0.04 percent) in the Earth's atmosphere.

E290 (Carbon dioxide) is a colorless and non-flammable gas at normal temperature and pressure. 
Although much less abundant than nitrogen and oxygen in Earth's atmosphere, E290 (Carbon dioxide) is an important constituent of our planet's air. 
A molecule of E290 (Carbon dioxide) (CO2) is made up of one carbon atom and two oxygen atoms.
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is an important greenhouse gas that helps to trap heat in our atmosphere. 
Without E290 (Carbon dioxide), our planet would be inhospitably cold. 

E290 (Carbon dioxide) is the fourth most abundant component of dry air. 
Today E290 (Carbon dioxide) has a concentration of over 400 ppm (parts per million) in the atmosphere. 
Before industrial activity, there was around 270 ppm in the atmosphere. 
Atmospheric E290 (Carbon dioxide) concentrations have varied substantially through Earth history, which had profound impacts on climate and life. 

E290 (Carbon dioxide) plays a key role in Earth's carbon cycle, the set of processes that cycle carbon in many forms throughout our environment. 
Respiration, the process by which organisms liberate energy from food, emits E290 (Carbon dioxide).
When you exhale, it is E290 (Carbon dioxide) (amongst other gases) that you breathe out. 
Combustion in internal combustion engines produces E290 (Carbon dioxide).

Photosynthesis, the biochemical process by which plants and some microbes create food, uses up E290 (Carbon dioxide). 
Photosynthetic organisms combine E290 (Carbon dioxide) and water (H2O) to produce carbohydrates (such as sugars) and emit oxygen as a by-product. 
Places such as forests and areas of the ocean that support photosynthetic microbes, therefore, act as massive carbon "sinks", removing E290 (Carbon dioxide) from the atmosphere via photosynthesis. 

Earth's early atmosphere had much higher E290 (Carbon dioxide) levels and almost no oxygen; the rise of photosynthetic organisms led to an increase in oxygen which enabled the development of oxygen-breathing creatures such as us!
Burning generates CO2, although incomplete combustion due to limited oxygen supply or an excess of carbon can also produce carbon monoxide (CO).
E290 (Carbon dioxide) forms a weak acid, called carbonic acid (H2CO3), when dissolved in water.

E290 (Carbon dioxide) is the most abundant gas in the atmospheres of Mars and Venus. 
Solid, frozen E290 (Carbon dioxide) is called "dry ice". 
The polar ice caps of Mars are a mixture of normal water ice and dry ice. 
Liquid CO2 only forms at pressures higher than about 5 times the atmospheric pressure on Earth at sea level, so in many situations dry ice does not melt into a liquid form. 
Instead, dry ice goes directly from a solid state to a gaseous state in a process called sublimation.

E290 (Carbon dioxide) (chemical formula CO2) is an acidic colorless gas with a density about 53% higher than that of dry air. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) molecules consist of a carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) occurs naturally in Earth's atmosphere as a trace gas. 
The current concentration is about 0.04% (412 ppm) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. 
Natural sources include volcanoes, forest fires, hot springs, geysers, and E290 (Carbon dioxide) is freed from carbonate rocks by dissolution in water and acids. 

Because E290 (Carbon dioxide) is soluble in water, E290 (Carbon dioxide) occurs naturally in groundwater, rivers and lakes, ice caps, glaciers and seawater. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is present in deposits of petroleum and natural gas. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) has a sharp and acidic odor and generates the taste of soda water in the mouth. 
However, at normally encountered concentrations E290 (Carbon dioxide) is odorless.

As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric E290 (Carbon dioxide) is the primary carbon source for life on Earth and CO2s concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by photosynthetic organisms and geological phenomena. 
Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from E290 (Carbon dioxide) and water in a process called photosynthesis, which produces oxygen as a waste product. 
In turn, oxygen is consumed and CO2 is released as waste by all aerobic organisms when they metabolize organic compounds to produce energy by respiration. 

Since plants require CO2 for photosynthesis, and humans and animals depend on plants for food, CO2 is necessary for the survival of life on earth.
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is the most significant long-lived greenhouse gas in Earth's atmosphere.
E290 (Carbon dioxide) (CO2) is an important heat-trapping (greenhouse) gas, which is released through human activities such as deforestation and burning fossil fuels, as well as natural processes such as respiration and volcanic eruptions. 

The symmetry of a E290 (Carbon dioxide) molecule is linear and centrosymmetric at its equilibrium geometry. 
The length of the carbon-oxygen bond in E290 (Carbon dioxide) is 116.3 pm, noticeably shorter than the roughly 140-pm length of a typical single C–O bond, and shorter than most other C–O multiply-bonded functional groups such as carbonyls. 
Since CO2 is centrosymmetric, the molecule has no electric dipole moment.
As a linear triatomic molecule, CO2 has four vibrational modes as shown in the diagram. 

In the symmetric and the antisymmetric stretching modes, the atoms move along the axis of the molecule. 
There are two bending modes, which are degenerate, meaning that they have the same frequency and same energy, because of the symmetry of the molecule. 
When a molecule touches a surface or touches another molecule, the two bending modes can differ in frequency because the interaction is different for the two modes. 
Some of the vibrational modes are observed in the infrared (IR) spectrum: the antisymmetric stretching mode at wavenumber 2349 cm−1 (wavelength 4.25 μm) and the degenerate pair of bending modes at 667 cm−1 (wavelength 15 μm). 

The symmetric stretching mode does not create an electric dipole so is not observed in IR spectroscopy, but CO2 is detected in by Raman spectroscopy at 1388 cm−1 (wavelength 7.2 μm).
In the gas phase, E290 (Carbon dioxide) molecules undergo significant vibrational motions and do not keep a fixed structure. However, in a Coulomb Explosion Imaging (CEI) experiment, an instantaneous image of the molecular structure can be deduced. Such an experiment has been performed for E290 (Carbon dioxide). 
The result of this experiment, and the conclusion of theoretical calculations based on an ab initio potential energy surface of the molecule, is that none of the molecules in the gas phase are ever exactly linear.

E290 (Carbon dioxide) is soluble in water, in which it reversibly forms H2CO3 (carbonic acid), which is a weak acid since CO2's ionization in water is incomplete.
E290 (Carbon dioxide), (CO2), a colourless gas having a faint sharp odour and a sour taste. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) formed in combustion of carbon-containing materials, in fermentation, and in respiration of animals and employed by plants in the photosynthesis of carbohydrates. 
The presence of the gas in the atmosphere keeps some of the radiant energy received by Earth from being returned to space, thus producing the so-called greenhouse effect.

E290 (Carbon dioxide) was recognized as a gas different from others early in the 17th century by a Belgian chemist, Jan Baptista van Helmont, who observed E290 (Carbon dioxide) as a product of both fermentation and combustion. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) liquefies upon compression to 75 kg per square centimetre (1,071 pounds per square inch) at 31 °C (87.4 °F) or to 16–24 kg per sq cm (230–345 lb per sq in.) at −23 to −12 °C (−10 to 10 °F). 
By the mid-20th century, most E290 (Carbon dioxide) was sold as the liquid. 
If the liquid is allowed to expand to atmospheric pressure, it cools and partially freezes to a snowlike solid called dry ice that sublimes (passes directly into vapour without melting) at −78.5 °C (−109.3 °F) at the pressure of the normal atmosphere.

At ordinary temperatures, E290 (Carbon dioxide) is quite unreactive; above 1,700 °C (3,100 °F) it partially decomposes into carbon monoxide and oxygen.
Hydrogen or carbon also convert E290 (Carbon dioxide) to carbon monoxide at high temperatures. 
Ammonia reacts with E290 (Carbon dioxide) under pressure to form ammonium carbamate, then urea, an important component of fertilizers and plastics. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is slightly soluble in water (1.79 volumes per volume at 0 °C and atmospheric pressure, larger amounts at higher pressures), forming a weakly acidic solution. 
This solution contains the dibasic acid called carbonic acid (H2CO3).

The taste of soda water (and related taste sensations in other carbonated beverages) is an effect of the dissolved E290 (Carbon dioxide) rather than the bursting bubbles of the gas. 
Carbonic anhydrase 4 converts to carbonic acid leading to a sour taste, and also the dissolved E290 (Carbon dioxide) induces a somatosensory response.
E290 (Carbon dioxide) in Earth's atmosphere is a trace gas, having a global average concentration of 415 parts per million by volume (or 630 parts per million by mass) as of the end of year 2020. 

Atmospheric CO2 concentrations fluctuate slightly with the seasons, falling during the Northern Hemisphere spring and summer as plants consume the gas and rising during northern autumn and winter as plants go dormant or die and decay. 
Concentrations also vary on a regional basis, most strongly near the ground with much smaller variations aloft. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) dissolves in the ocean to form carbonic acid (H2CO3), bicarbonate (HCO3−) and carbonate (CO32−). 
There is about fifty times as much E290 (Carbon dioxide) dissolved in the oceans as exists in the atmosphere. 
The oceans act as an enormous carbon sink, and have taken up about a third of CO2 emitted by human activity.

E290 (Carbon dioxide) is an end product of cellular respiration in organisms that obtain energy by breaking down sugars, fats and amino acids with oxygen as part of their metabolism. 
This includes all plants, algae and animals and aerobic fungi and bacteria. 
In vertebrates, the E290 (Carbon dioxide) travels in the blood from the body's tissues to the skin (e.g., amphibians) or the gills (e.g., fish), from where E290 (Carbon dioxide) dissolves in the water, or to the lungs from where E290 (Carbon dioxide) is exhaled. 
During active photosynthesis, plants can absorb more E290 (Carbon dioxide) from the atmosphere than they release in respiration.

E290 (Carbon dioxide) appears as a colorless odorless gas at atmospheric temperatures and pressures. 
Relatively nontoxic and noncombustible. 
Heavier than air and may asphyxiate by the displacement of air. 
Soluble in water. 
Forms carbonic acid, a mild acid. 

E290 (Carbon dioxide) is a one-carbon compound with formula CO2 in which the carbon is attached to each oxygen atom by a double bond. 
A colourless, odourless gas under normal conditions, E290 (Carbon dioxide) is produced during respiration by all animals, fungi and microorganisms that depend directly or indirectly on living or decaying plants for food. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) has a role as a solvent, a vasodilator agent, an anaesthetic, an antagonist, a member of greenhouse gas, a human metabolite, a member of food packaging gas, a food propellant, a refrigerant, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolite, an 

Escherichia coli metabolite and a mouse metabolite. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is a one-carbon compound, a gas molecular entity and a carbon oxide.
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is a colorless, odorless, incombustible gas resulting from the oxidation of carbon.
E290 (Carbon dioxide), solid appears as an odorless, white solid. 
Noncombustible and nontoxic. 

Liquefies at -109°F. 
Can asphyxiate by displacement of air. 
A colourless gas under normal environmental conditions with a slight pungent odour. 
Commercial E290 (Carbon dioxide) is shipped and handled as a liquid in pressurised cylinders or bulk storage systems, or in compressed solid blocks of ‘dry ice’. 
Solid (dry ice) forms usually contain added substances, such as propylene glycol or mineral oil, as binders.

E290 (Carbon dioxide) is a gas consisting of one part carbon and two parts oxygen. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is one of the most important gases on the earth because plants use E290 (Carbon dioxide) to produce carbohydrates in a process called photosynthesis. 
Since humans and animals depend on plants for food, photosynthesis is necessary for the survival of life on earth.

E290 (Carbon dioxide) enters the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, and oil), solid waste, trees and other biological materials, and also as a result of certain chemical reactions (e.g., manufacture of cement). 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is removed from the atmosphere (or "sequestered") when E290 (Carbon dioxide) is absorbed by plants as part of the biological carbon cycle.

E290 (Carbon dioxide) (CO2) is a naturally occurring colorless and odorless gas. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) has a boiling point of −70 °C (sublimes), vapor density of 1.53, and is slightly soluble in water. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is essential for the survival of most living organisms and cycles in the ecosystem, through respiration (aerobic and anaerobic), photosynthesis, and combustion. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) plays an important role in the regulation of earth's temperature, and is one of the greenhouse gases.

Joseph Black, a Scottish chemist and physician, first identified E290 (Carbon dioxide) in the 1750s. 
At room temperatures (20-25 oC), E290 (Carbon dioxide) is an odourless, colourless gas, which is faintly acidic and non-flammable.
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is a molecule with the molecular formula CO2. 
The linear molecule consists of a carbon atom that is doubly bonded to two oxygen atoms, O=C=O.
Although E290 (Carbon dioxide) mainly consists in the gaseous form, E290 (Carbon dioxide) also has a solid and a liquid form. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) can only be solid when temperatures are below -78 oC. 

Liquid E290 (Carbon dioxide) mainly exists when E290 (Carbon dioxide) is dissolved in water. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is only water-soluble, when pressure is maintained. 
After pressure drops the CO2 gas will try to escape to air. 
This event is characterised by the CO2 bubbles forming into water.
E290 (Carbon dioxide) can be found mainly in air, but also in water as a part of the carbon cycle. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is a colorless, odorless gas. 

E290 (Carbon dioxide) is produced both naturally and through human activities, such as burning gasoline, coal, oil, and wood. 
In the environment, people exhale CO2 which contributes to CO2 levels in the air.
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms.
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is often referred to by E290 (Carbon dioxide)'s formula CO2.
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is present in the Earth's atmosphere at a low concentration and acts as a greenhouse gas.

In E290 (Carbon dioxide)'s solid state, E290 (Carbon dioxide) is called dry ice.
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is a major component of the carbon cycle.
Atmospheric E290 (Carbon dioxide) derives from multiple natural sources including volcanic outgassing, the combustion of organic matter, and the respiration processes of living aerobic organisms; man-made sources of E290 (Carbon dioxide) come mainly from the burning of various fossil fuels for power generation and transport use.

E290 (Carbon dioxide) is also produced by various microorganisms from fermentation and cellular respiration.
Plants convert E290 (Carbon dioxide) to oxygen during a process called photosynthesis, using both the carbon and the oxygen to construct carbohydrates.
In addition, plants also release oxygen to the atmosphere, which is subsequently used for respiration by heterotrophic organisms, forming a cycle.

E290 (Carbon dioxide) (CO2) is a naturally occurring gas, important to the carbon cycle for life and a byproduct of many forms of energy production. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is also a greenhouse gas.
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is taken out of the atmosphere by photosynthesis in plants to produce energy, and chemical uptake by the ocean (leading to ocean acidification). 

The total amount of E290 (Carbon dioxide) in the atmosphere has historically been in balance with the respiration of animals and plants. 
However, recently there has been a huge net increase in the levels of atmospheric and oceanic CO2. 
This is mainly due to humans digging carbon (in the form of fossil fuels) out of the ground and releasing E290 (Carbon dioxide) into the atmosphere. 
These fuels undergo combustion—which produces E290 (Carbon dioxide) as a byproduct. 
Chemically, E290 (Carbon dioxide) is one of the two main outputs in any form of combustion (the other being water).

Despite the minor amount of CO2 in the air, E290 (Carbon dioxide) is essential to plant life and is a key part of the global carbon cycle. 
Plants take in CO2, break down the CO2 into carbon and oxygen, release the oxygen to the atmosphere, and then retain the carbon to live and grow. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is a compound. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide)'s molecules consist of one carbon atom joined to two oxygen atoms.

In the atmosphere, E290 (Carbon dioxide) is a greenhouse gas.
At room temperature E290 (Carbon dioxide) is a colourless and odourless gas.
The E290 (Carbon dioxide) molecule is made up of one carbon atom joined to two oxygen atoms. 
This means E290 (Carbon dioxide) has a chemical formula is CO₂.
The amount of E290 (Carbon dioxide) in the atmosphere is maintained through a balance.

Processes that decrease the amount of CO₂ in the air include:
-Photosynthesis by plants which converts E290 (Carbon dioxide) and water to make their own food, glucose.
-Dissolving in sea water.

E290 (Carbon dioxide) makes up less than 1% of the atmosphere; however, E290 (Carbon dioxide) is an important greenhouse gas.
This means that E290 (Carbon dioxide)'s molecules in the atmosphere absorb radiation, keeping the Earth warmer than E290 (Carbon dioxide) would otherwise be.
For the past 100 or so years, E290 (Carbon dioxide) has been added to the atmosphere more quickly than E290 (Carbon dioxide) is removed. The extra E290 (Carbon dioxide) contributes towards global warming.

A colorless, odorless, non-combustible gas, present in low concentrations in the air we breathe (about three hundredths of one percent by volume).
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is produced when any substance containing carbon is burned. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is also a product of breathing and fermentation. 
Plants absorb E290 (Carbon dioxide) through photosynthesis.

Although E290 (Carbon dioxide) is released by human activities through the combustion of fossil fuels, E290 (Carbon dioxide) is also formed by certain natural processes.
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is the principal greenhouse gas that contributes to global warming.
E290 (Carbon dioxide) (CO2) is a colorless, odorless, incombustible gas that is vital to life on Earth. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is a naturally occurring chemical compound that is present in the atmosphere.

E290 (Carbon dioxide) exists in the Earth's atmosphere at a concentration of approximately 0.04 percent (400 parts per million) by volume. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is produced from human and animal respiration, volcanoes, hot springs, and geysers, and the burning of coal, petroleum, and natural gas, which are commonly known as fossil fuels.
Roughly all of the Earth's atmosphere is made up of five gases: nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor, argon, and E290 (Carbon dioxide). E290 (Carbon dioxide) is the fourth-most abundant compound in the atmosphere at 0.04 percent. 

Nitrogen and oxygen are the most abundant compounds at 78 percent and 20.9 percent, respectively. 
Meanwhile, E290 (Carbon dioxide) is the most abundant gas in the atmospheres of Mars and Venus.
The global carbon cycle is the exchange of E290 (Carbon dioxide) between the Earth's atmosphere, land, oceans, and fossil fuels, all of which emit and absorb CO2. 
For example, plants and some microbes use E290 (Carbon dioxide) in photosynthesis, the process by which these organisms create food. These organisms then emit oxygen as a byproduct of photosynthesis. 

Forests and parts of the ocean, which support photosynthetic organisms, act as carbon sinks that remove E290 (Carbon dioxide) from the atmosphere through photosynthesis. 
The early atmosphere of Earth had significantly higher E290 (Carbon dioxide) levels compared to now and contained nearly no oxygen. The emergence of photosynthetic organisms like plants led to increased oxygen levels in the atmosphere, allowing the development of oxygen-breathing organisms such as plants, animals, and human beings.
Two significant natural sources of E290 (Carbon dioxide) are volcanos and wildfires. 

Respiration, the process by which organisms convert food into energy, releases E290 (Carbon dioxide). 
The combustion of coal, petroleum, and natural gas, including internal combustion engines, also emit E290 (Carbon dioxide).
E290 (Carbon dioxide) (CO2) comes from both natural sources (including volcanoes, the breath of animals and plant decay) and human sources (primarily the burning of fossils fuels like coal, oil and natural gas to generate energy).
The amount of E290 (Carbon dioxide) in the atmosphere is determined by the carbon cycle - a system of 'sources' and 'sinks' of the gas that add and remove CO2, respectively. 

One part of the cycle involves rocks, starting with volcanoes, which belch CO2. 
This is countered by 'weathering', a process where atmospheric CO2 mixes with rainwater to make an acid that reacts with rocks, locking the CO2 away.
The emergence of life on our planet added a new layer to the carbon cycle. 
As plants grow, they take CO2 out of the atmosphere, and when they die, E290 (Carbon dioxide) is released again. 
Animals that consume the plants also store the CO2 for a while, before they too die and decompose.
Some dead plants don't decompose and instead become layers of coal, oil and other organic-rich sediments such as peat. 

Eventually, these layers would naturally burn or be recycled through volcanoes, returning the CO2 to the atmosphere over many thousands (if not millions) of years.
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is the substrate for the central carbon-fixing enzyme of photosynthesis, ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco), and is the form of inorganic carbon produced in respiration. 
The CO2 concentration in the atmosphere is increasing as a result of additional inputs from the burning of fossil fuels and from deforestation in excess of what can be removed by additional photosynthesis on land and solution in the ocean. 
This has implications not only for photosynthesis, but also for global climate: CO2 is the second most important greenhouse gas, after H2O vapour, in the atmosphere.

E290 (Carbon dioxide), CO2, is usually a gas. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is exhaled by animals and humans and used by plants to produce oxygen. 
In solid form, E290 (Carbon dioxide) is dry ice. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is a chemical compound that consists of two oxygen atoms and one carbon atom. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is necessary for everyday life because E290 (Carbon dioxide) is utilized by plants and exhaled by animals. 

E290 (Carbon dioxide), CO2, is a gas at room temperature and is a gas in the earth's atmosphere. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is made up of about 385 ppm in the Earth's atmosphere. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) (CO2) is a gas with a molecular structure composed of two oxygen atoms and one carbon atom. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is an important greenhouse gas because of CO2's ability to absorb infrared wavelengths. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is a chemical compound that is found in Earth's atmosphere as a gas. 

E290 (Carbon dioxide) is exhaled by animals and used by plants in a process called photosynthesis. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) in general is exhaled by animals and utilized by plants during photosynthesis. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) can be created by the combustion of fossil fuels or vegetable matter among other chemical processes.
E290 (Carbon dioxide), CO2, is a colorless, odorless, incombustible gas, present in the atmosphere and formed during respiration. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide), CO2, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. 

E290 (Carbon dioxide) is a chemical compound composed two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and exists in Earth's atmosphere as a gas E290 (Carbon dioxide) is composed of one carbon atom covalently bonded to two oxygen atoms. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is a gas (at standard temperature and pressure) that is exhaled by animals and utilized by plants during photosynthesis. 

E290 (Carbon dioxide), CO2, is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms and one carbon atom. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) present in our atmosphere as a gas absorbs many infrared wavelengths from the sun.
E290 (Carbon dioxide) (CO2) is a colourless and odourless gas. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is non-flammable and chemically non-reactive. 
CO2 is 1.5 times as heavy as air (E290 (Carbon dioxide)'s density is 1.80 g L-1 at 25°C and 1 atm) and, if 

E290 (Carbon dioxide) is emitted slowly, flows down-slope and may accumulate at low elevations. 
Concentration ranges of CO2 in dilute volcanic plumes can range from 1 ppm to hundreds of ppm above the tropospheric background of ~360 ppm, and the gas has a residence times in the lower atmosphere of approximately 4 years.
Due to the high levels of CO2 required to cause harm, concentrations of CO2 are often expressed as a percentage of the gas in air by volume (1% = 10,000 ppmv). This is in contrast to other volcanic gases.

E290 (Carbon dioxide) (or CO2) is a colourless and odourless naturally occurring gas in the earth’s atmosphere which is made up of one carbon atom and two oxygen atoms.  
As a greenhouse gas (GHG), E290 (Carbon dioxide) traps heat, making sure the planet isn’t uninhabitably cold.
E290 (Carbon dioxide) (CO2) is an essential component of photosynthesis (also called carbon assimilation). 
Photosynthesis is a chemical process that uses light energy to convert CO2 and water into sugars in green plants. 
These sugars are then used for growth within the plant, through respiration. 

The difference between the rate of photosynthesis and the rate of respiration is the basis for dry-matter accumulation (growth) in the plant. 
In greenhouse production the aim of all growers is to increase dry-matter content and economically optimize crop yield. 
CO2 increases productivity through improved plant growth and vigour. 
Some ways in which productivity is increased by CO2 include earlier flowering, higher fruit yields, reduced bud abortion in roses, improved stem strength and flower size. 
Growers should regard CO2 as a nutrient.

E290 (Carbon dioxide) is a naturally occurring gas in the atmosphere. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is also produced by burning fossil fuels which is described as a "greenhouse" gas which is extremely detrimental to the environment. 
Greenhouse gases are on the increase but are being offset by the increasing use of renewable energies.

E290 (Carbon dioxide) (chemical formula: CO2) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and exists in Earth's atmosphere in this state.
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is used by plants during photosynthesis to make sugars, which may either be consumed in respiration or used as the raw material to produce other organic compounds needed for plant growth and development. 

E290 (Carbon dioxide) is produced during respiration by plants, and by all animals, fungi and microorganisms that depend either directly or indirectly on plants for food. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is thus a major component of the carbon cycle. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is generated as a by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels or the burning of vegetable matter, among other chemical processes. 

Large amounts of E290 (Carbon dioxide) are emitted from volcanoes and other geothermal processes such as hot springs and geysers and by the dissolution of carbonates in crustal rocks.
E290 (Carbon dioxide) has no liquid state at pressures below 5.1 atmospheres. 
At 1 atmosphere (near mean sea level pressure), the gas deposits directly to a solid at temperatures below −78 °C and the solid sublimes directly to a gas above −78 °C. 
In its solid state, E290 (Carbon dioxide) is commonly called dry ice.

Through the decomposition of organic matter, CO₂ is released into the atmosphere as part of this natural process. 
At the same time, photosynthesis helps to significantly reduce atmospheric CO₂ . 
The solubility of CO₂ in water depends on the temperature, so the oceans both produce and reduce CO₂. 
Anthropogenic (man-​made) E290 (Carbon dioxide) sources primarily relate to the combustion processes of fossil fuels. 
CO₂ is an inert end product that accumulates in the atmosphere and is in constant exchange with the biosphere and the oceans. 

E290 (Carbon dioxide) reacts with water to form carbonic acid or hydrogen carbonate, which leads to a change in the pH value, i.e. the acidity of the water. 
Other anthropogenic CO₂ sources that intensify the greenhouse effect include changes to land usage, e.g. the clearing of forests or draining of wetlands such as moors.
E290 (Carbon dioxide) (CO2) is a colorless, odorless, non-flammable gas that naturally occurs in the atmosphere. 

CO2 is produced by body metabolism and is a normal component of exhaled breath. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) also results from the burning of fossil fuels and natural sources such as volcanic eruptions. 
CO2 levels in outdoor air typically range from 300 to 400 ppm (0.03% to 0.04%) but can be as high as 600-900 ppm in metropolitan areas. 
Although E290 (Carbon dioxide) is most commonly presents a gas, CO2 can also exist in a solid (dry ice) form. 

Provided sufficient oxygen is present, E290 (Carbon dioxide), CO2, is the end product of the process of combustion of carbon based materials. 
If there is insufficient oxygen, carbon monoxide CO, is formed instead. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is also the gas we exhale, since E290 (Carbon dioxide) is the product of respiration, whereby oxygen atoms are used to 'burn' (oxidise) the foodstuffs to release the energy necessary to sustain life. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is a low energy compound, that is, E290 (Carbon dioxide)'s formation corresponds to the maximum release of energy. 

This means that CO2 is relatively inert, since a lot of energy needs to be used to persuade E290 (Carbon dioxide) to react to form a higher energy compound.
However, Nature has found a way to get around this problem, and make use of CO2 by use of a catalyst (chlorophyll) and the energy from sunlight. 
This process, photosynthesis, which occurs in all green plants, converts CO2 and water to carbohydrates, releasing oxygen as a waste product.

CO2 is removed from the atmosphere, both by photosynthesis, and by the fact that large quantities of E290 (Carbon dioxide) dissolve in the oceans. 
But E290 (Carbon dioxide) is also created by respiration of living organisms, and these 3 processes maintain the balance of CO2 in the atmosphere at a near constant amount of ~0.04%. 
However, the burning of fossil fuels, which began on a large scale at the beginning of this century, has created concern that the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere will rapidly increase, with possible disastrous environmental consequences.

CO2 is a colourless, odourless gas under normal conditions, although if cooled to below -78.5°C E290 (Carbon dioxide) solidifies to form 'dry ice', which finds use as a refrigerant or for 'smoke' effects at rock concerts. 
It exists as a linear molecule of structure O=C=O. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) can be made in the laboratory by the action of heat or acids on carbonates. 
Indeed, E290 (Carbon dioxide) is the action of acid rain on limestone (calcium carbonate) rocks, which releases CO2, and creates holes in the rocks which eventually form caves and caverns.

E290 (Carbon dioxide) has the property that E290 (Carbon dioxide) is transparent to visible light, but blocks infra-red. 
This means that visible light from the sun penetrates through the atmosphere to reach the Earth's surface, which warms up. 
As E290 (Carbon dioxide) warms, E290 (Carbon dioxide) emits infra-red radiation (heat) which is emitted back into the atmosphere, but cannot escape back into space because the CO2 in the atmosphere blocks it. 
Thus CO2 has the effect of trapping heat, and thus keeping the Earth's surface warm. 
This is a similar process to that seen in greenhouses, so has been called the 'Greenhouse Effect'. 
So the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere is very important for controlling how hot the Earth becomes.

E290 (Carbon dioxide) is a colorless, odorless, faintly acidic-tasting, and non-flammable gas at room temperature. 
Solid E290 (Carbon dioxide), also known by the trade name Dry Ice, sublimes (converts directly from a solid to a gas) at -78 oC (-109 0F) or above.
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is a molecular solid with a molecular formula CO2. 
The linear molecule consists of a carbon atom that is doubly bonded to two oxygen atoms, O=C=O.
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is the fourth most-abundant gas in the Earth's atmosphere. 
Animals exhale E290 (Carbon dioxide) and plants use photosynthesis to convert E290 (Carbon dioxide) to sugars and other forms of energy.

E290 (Carbon dioxide) is a gas that is both colourless and odourless. 
Not only is CO2 produced naturally in the environment, but E290 (Carbon dioxide) can also be created. 
CO2 can be created through human activities like burning gasoline, oil, coal, and wood. 
Respiration increases the level of CO2 in air as an individual exhales.
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is a heavy, odorless, colorless, faintly acid-tasting, and non-flammable gas (at room temperature) that is released during respiration, combustion, and by the decomposition of organic substances, which is then mostly absorbed from the air by plants in the process called photosynthesis.

Sometimes called carbonic acid gas, E290 (Carbon dioxide)'s molecular makeup consists of one atom of carbon (C) attached to two atoms of oxygen (O): CO2. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) was the first gas to be distinguished from ordinary air, perhaps because E290 (Carbon dioxide) is so intimately connected with the cycles of plant and animal life. 
When humans breathe air or when wood and other fuels are burned, E290 (Carbon dioxide) is released; when plants store energy in the form of food, they use up E290 (Carbon dioxide). 

E290 (Carbon dioxide), also known as CO2, is a colorless continuously released through naturally occurring events as well as manmade activities.

Outdoor sources: 
The primary outdoor source of CO2 comes from burning fossil fuels, such as coal. 
Other events that contribute to CO2 emissions include forest fires, volcanic eruptions, and motor vehicle pollution. 
An indirect reason of increasing levels of CO2 is deforestation. 
When trees die and decompose, CO2 is released.

Indoor sources: 
CO2 levels are generally higher inside (compared to outdoors), as building occupants produce CO2 when they exhale. 
Indoor combustion appliances, in particular, gas stoves, generators, and other gasoline powered equipment contribute to CO2 levels.

USES and APPLICATIONS of E290 (Carbon dioxide):
-Small canisters containing pressurized CO2 are used to inflate bicycle tires and life jackets and to power paintball guns. -The "fizz" in soda pop is supplied by E290 (Carbon dioxide). 
-E290 (Carbon dioxide) is also released by yeast during fermentation, giving beer CO2's head and making champagne bubbly. 
Because E290 (Carbon dioxide) is not flammable, CO2 is used in some fire extinguishers.
-E290 (Carbon dioxide) is returned to water via the gills of fish and to the air via the lungs of air-breathing land animals, including humans. 

-E290 (Carbon dioxide) is produced during the processes of decay of organic materials and the fermentation of sugars in bread, beer and wine making. 
-E290 (Carbon dioxide) is produced by combustion of wood, peat and other organic materials and fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum and natural gas. 
-E290 (Carbon dioxide) is a versatile industrial material, used, for example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurizing gas in air guns and oil recovery, as a chemical feedstock and as a supercritical fluid solvent in decaffeination of coffee and supercritical drying. 

-E290 (Carbon dioxide) is added to drinking water and carbonated beverages including beer and sparkling wine to add effervescence. 
-The frozen solid form of CO2, known as dry ice, is used as a refrigerant and as an abrasive in dry-ice blasting. 
-E290 (Carbon dioxide) is a feedstock for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals.
-E290 (Carbon dioxide) also causes ocean acidification because E290 (Carbon dioxide) dissolves in water to form carbonic acid.
-Industrially, E290 (Carbon dioxide) is recovered for numerous diverse applications from flue gases, as a by-product of the preparation of hydrogen for synthesis of ammonia, from limekilns, and from other sources.

-E290 (Carbon dioxide) is used as a refrigerant, in fire extinguishers, for inflating life rafts and life jackets, blasting coal, foaming rubber and plastics, promoting the growth of plants in greenhouses, immobilizing animals before slaughter, and in carbonated beverages.
-E290 (Carbon dioxide) is used by the food industry, the oil industry, and the chemical industry. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) has varied commercial uses but one of E290 (Carbon dioxide)'s greatest uses as a chemical is in the production of carbonated beverages; E290 (Carbon dioxide) provides sparkle in carbonated beverages such as soda water, beer and sparkling wine.

-Precursor to chemicals:
In the chemical industry, E290 (Carbon dioxide) is mainly consumed as an ingredient in the production of urea, with a smaller fraction being used to produce methanol and a range of other products. 
Some carboxylic acid derivatives such as sodium salicylate are prepared using CO2 by the Kolbe-Schmitt reaction.

-In addition to conventional processes using CO2 for chemical production, electrochemical methods are also being explored at a research-level. 
In particular, the use of renewable energy for the production of fuels from CO2 (such as methanol) is attractive as this could result in fuels that could be easily transported and used within conventional combustion technologies but have no net CO2 emissions.

Plants require E290 (Carbon dioxide) to conduct photosynthesis. 
The atmospheres of greenhouses may (if of large size, must) be enriched with additional CO2 to sustain and increase the rate of plant growth. 

E290 (Carbon dioxide) is a food additive used as a propellant and acidity regulator in the food industry.
A candy called Pop Rocks is pressurized with E290 (Carbon dioxide) gas at about 4,000 kPa (40 bar; 580 psi). 
When placed in the mouth, CO2 dissolves (just like other hard candy) and releases the gas bubbles with an audible pop.
Leavening agents cause dough to rise by producing E290 (Carbon dioxide). 
Baker's yeast produces E290 (Carbon dioxide) by fermentation of sugars within the dough, while chemical leaveners such as baking powder and baking soda release E290 (Carbon dioxide) when heated or if exposed to acids.

E290 (Carbon dioxide) is used to produce carbonated soft drinks and soda water. 
Traditionally, the carbonation of beer and sparkling wine came about through natural fermentation, but many manufacturers carbonate these drinks with E290 (Carbon dioxide) recovered from the fermentation process. 
-In the case of bottled and kegged beer, the most common method used is carbonation with recycled E290 (Carbon dioxide). 
With the exception of British real ale, draught beer is usually transferred from kegs in a cold room or cellar to dispensing taps on the bar using pressurized E290 (Carbon dioxide), sometimes mixed with nitrogen.

Dry ice used to preserve grapes after harvest.
E290 (Carbon dioxide) in the form of dry ice is often used during the cold soak phase in winemaking to cool clusters of grapes quickly after picking to help prevent spontaneous fermentation by wild yeast. 
The main advantage of using dry ice over water ice is that it cools the grapes without adding any additional water that might decrease the sugar concentration in the grape must, and thus the alcohol concentration in the finished wine. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is also used to create a hypoxic environment for carbonic maceration, the process used to produce Beaujolais wine.

-E290 (Carbon dioxide) is sometimes used to top up wine bottles or other storage vessels such as barrels to prevent oxidation, though E290 (Carbon dioxide) has the problem that E290 (Carbon dioxide) can dissolve into the wine, making a previously still wine slightly fizzy. 
For this reason, other gases such as nitrogen or argon are preferred for this process by professional winemakers.
-Used as a refrigerant and in making carbonated beverages. 
-Used to freeze food, to control chemical reactions and as a fire extinguishing agent.
-Used as a refrigerant.

-E290 (Carbon dioxide) is a byproduct of the industrial production of hydrogen by steam reforming and the water gas shift reaction in ammonia production. 
These processes begin with the reaction of water and natural gas (mainly methane). 
This is a major source of food-grade E290 (Carbon dioxide) for use in carbonation of beer and soft drinks, and is also used for stunning animals such as poultry. 
In the summer of 2018 a shortage of E290 (Carbon dioxide) for these purposes arose in Europe due to the temporary shut-down of several ammonia plants for maintenance.

-E290 (Carbon dioxide) is one of the most commonly used compressed gases for pneumatic (pressurized gas) systems in portable pressure tools. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is also used as an atmosphere for welding, although in the welding arc, E290 (Carbon dioxide) reacts to oxidize most metals.
Use in the automotive industry is common despite significant evidence that welds made in E290 (Carbon dioxide) are more brittle than those made in more inert atmospheres.

-When used for MIG welding, CO2 use is sometimes referred to as MAG welding, for Metal Active Gas, as CO2 can react at these high temperatures. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) tends to produce a hotter puddle than truly inert atmospheres, improving the flow characteristics. 
This is usually the opposite of the desired effect when welding, as E290 (Carbon dioxide) tends to embrittle the site, but may not be a problem for general mild steel welding, where ultimate ductility is not a major concern.

-E290 (Carbon dioxide) is used in many consumer products that require pressurized gas because E290 (Carbon dioxide) is inexpensive and nonflammable, and because E290 (Carbon dioxide) undergoes a phase transition from gas to liquid at room temperature at an attainable pressure of approximately 60 bar (870 psi; 59 atm), allowing far more E290 (Carbon dioxide) to fit in a given container than otherwise would. 

-Life jackets often contain canisters of pressured E290 (Carbon dioxide) for quick inflation. 
-Aluminium capsules of CO2 are also sold as supplies of compressed gas for air guns, paintball markers/guns, inflating bicycle tires, and for making carbonated water. 
-High concentrations of E290 (Carbon dioxide) can also be used to kill pests. 
-Liquid E290 (Carbon dioxide) is used in supercritical drying of some food products and technological materials, in the preparation of specimens for scanning electron microscopy and in the decaffeination of coffee beans.

-E290 (Carbon dioxide) can be used to extinguish flames by flooding the environment around the flame with the gas. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) does not itself react to extinguish the flame, but starves the flame of oxygen by displacing it. 
Some fire extinguishers, especially those designed for electrical fires, contain liquid E290 (Carbon dioxide) under pressure. 
-E290 (Carbon dioxide) has also been widely used as an extinguishing agent in fixed fire-protection systems for local application of specific hazards and total flooding of a protected space. 

-International Maritime Organization standards recognize carbon-dioxide systems for fire protection of ship holds and engine rooms. 
-Liquid E290 (Carbon dioxide) is a good solvent for many lipophilic organic compounds and is used to remove caffeine from coffee. 
-E290 (Carbon dioxide) has attracted attention in the pharmaceutical and other chemical processing industries as a less toxic alternative to more traditional solvents such as organochlorides. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is also used by some dry cleaners for this reason. 

-E290 (Carbon dioxide) is used in the preparation of some aerogels because of the properties of supercritical E290 (Carbon dioxide).
-In medicine, up to 5% E290 (Carbon dioxide) (130 times atmospheric concentration) is added to oxygen for stimulation of breathing after apnea and to stabilize the O2/CO2 balance in blood.
-E290 (Carbon dioxide) can be mixed with up to 50% oxygen, forming an inhalable gas; this is known as Carbogen and has a variety of medical and research uses.
-Another medical use are the mofette, dry spas that use E290 (Carbon dioxide) from post-volcanic discharge for therapeutic purposes.

-E290 (Carbon dioxide) is used in enhanced oil recovery where E290 (Carbon dioxide) is injected into or adjacent to producing oil wells, usually under supercritical conditions, when E290 (Carbon dioxide) becomes miscible with the oil. 
This approach can increase original oil recovery by reducing residual oil saturation by between 7% to 23% additional to primary extraction. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) acts as both a pressurizing agent and, when dissolved into the underground crude oil, significantly reduces E290 (Carbon dioxide)'s viscosity, and changing surface chemistry enabling the oil to flow more rapidly through the reservoir to the removal well. 
In mature oil fields, extensive pipe networks are used to carry the E290 (Carbon dioxide) to the injection points.

-In enhanced coal bed methane recovery, E290 (Carbon dioxide) would be pumped into the coal seam to displace methane, as opposed to current methods which primarily rely on the removal of water (to reduce pressure) to make the coal seam release its trapped methane.
-E290 (Carbon dioxide) has been proposed that CO2 from power generation be bubbled into ponds to stimulate growth of algae that could then be converted into biodiesel fuel. 
A strain of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus has been genetically engineered to produce the fuels isobutyraldehyde and isobutanol from CO2 using photosynthesis.

-Liquid and solid E290 (Carbon dioxide) are important refrigerants, especially in the food industry, where they are employed during the transportation and storage of ice cream and other frozen foods. 
Solid E290 (Carbon dioxide) is called "dry ice" and is used for small shipments where refrigeration equipment is not practical. Solid E290 (Carbon dioxide) is always below −78.5 °C (−109.3 °F) at regular atmospheric pressure, regardless of the air temperature.
-Used to freeze food, to control chemical reactions, and as a fire extinguishing agent.

-E290 (Carbon dioxide) is the lasing medium in a carbon-dioxide laser, which is one of the earliest type of lasers.
-E290 (Carbon dioxide) can be used as a means of controlling the pH of swimming pools, by continuously adding gas to the water, thus keeping the pH from rising. 
Among the advantages of this is the avoidance of handling (more hazardous) acids. 
-Similarly, E290 (Carbon dioxide) is also used in the maintaining reef aquaria, where E290 (Carbon dioxide) is commonly used in calcium reactors to temporarily lower the pH of water being passed over calcium carbonate in order to allow the calcium carbonate to dissolve into the water more freely, where E290 (Carbon dioxide) is used by some corals to build their skeleton.

-Used as the primary coolant in the British advanced gas-cooled reactor for nuclear power generation.
-E290 (Carbon dioxide) is also used in several related cleaning and surface-preparation techniques.
-Humans use E290 (Carbon dioxide) in many different ways. 
The most familiar example is E290 (Carbon dioxide)'s use in soft drinks and beer, to make them fizzy. 
-E290 (Carbon dioxide) released by baking powder or yeast makes cake batter rise.

-Some fire extinguishers use E290 (Carbon dioxide) because E290 (Carbon dioxide) is denser than air. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) can blanket a fire, because of CO2's heaviness. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) prevents oxygen from getting to the fire and as a result, the burning material is deprived of the oxygen it needs to continue burning.
-E290 (Carbon dioxide) is also used in a technology called supercritical fluid extraction that is used to decaffeinate coffee. 
-The solid form of E290 (Carbon dioxide), commonly known as Dry Ice, is used in theatres to create stage fogs and make things like "magic potions" bubble.

-Manufacture of other chemicals
-Food processing
-Numerous other uses
-Used in oxygen masks. 
-Used in rejuvenating and anti-aging products. 
-Protective function.

-Used E290 (Carbon dioxide) to make drinks fizzy and keep foods fresh.
-Common products that use pressurized E290 (Carbon dioxide) include bicycle tires, life jackets, and paintball guns. 
-E290 (Carbon dioxide) is used to produce soda pop and is created by yeast during fermentation in the production of alcoholic beverages. 
Because E290 (Carbon dioxide) is inflammable, E290 (Carbon dioxide) is used in some fire extinguishers.
-E290 (Carbon dioxide) is used extensively in industry as dry ice, in carbonated beverages, etc. 

-E290 (Carbon dioxide) is used in carbonated beverages and to provide a nonreactive atmosphere. 
-E290 (Carbon dioxide) is also produced through industrial processes. 
Industrial plants that produce hydrogen or ammonia from natural gas, coal, or large-volume fermentation operations are some of the largest commercial producers of E290 (Carbon dioxide). 
-E290 (Carbon dioxide) has many applications in the food and beverage industry, including carbonating drinks. 

-Commercially, E290 (Carbon dioxide) has thousands of uses. 
The most familiar example is E290 (Carbon dioxide)'s use to carbonate soft drinks and beer. 
-E290 (Carbon dioxide) also finds use in a technology called supercritical fluid extraction that is used to decaffeinate coffee. 
-Dry Ice is used in theatrical productions to make stage fogs and make "magic potions" bubble as demonstrated on the right.

WHERE DOES E290 (Carbon dioxide) COME FROM?
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is the result of complete combustion. 
Complete combustion is a chemical reaction in which a hydrocarbon reacts with oxygen to produce E290 (Carbon dioxide) and water. Complete combustion often (but not always) involves a flame. 
You’re witnessing complete combustion when you watch a candle burn: candle wax is a hydrocarbon, which reacts with oxygen in the air and the heat from the lit wick. 
The E290 (Carbon dioxide) is released into the air as a colorless and odorless gas. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is a largely non-reactive gas, and once released, E290 (Carbon dioxide) quickly mixes throughout the atmosphere. 

Fermentation of carbohydrates also produces CO2, and this incomplete form of respiration produces alcohol as a by-product. The bubbles in champagne, or in the head of beer are CO2, since this gas comes out of solution when the bottle is opened and the pressure released. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is often deliberately added to various beverages to add the sparkle to fizzy drinks. 
In water, CO2 dissolves to form carbonic acid, which is a very weak acid with mild bactericide properties. 
Carbonic acid also has a number of other beneficial effects, such as enhancing taste, encouraging digestion, as well as giving a pleasant tingling sensation on the tongue.

E290 (Carbon dioxide) is also used in baking. 
Typical baking powders consist of a number of components, including sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). 
They also contain a mild acid, such as tartaric acid, an acidic salt (sodium aluminium sulphate) and starch. 
The real trick to baking is to create the correct chemistry such that CO2 is released at two separate times throughout the bake cycle. 

The first occurs at room temperature, when the moist acid slightly reacts with the carbonate to release CO2 and so produce many tiny cavities in the batter. 
The second occurs in the oven, and is due to the action of the aluminium salt, which being less acidic only reacts at higher temperatures. 
The CO2 released in this second process swells the cavities to give the bread its light, fluffy texture. 
In a similar way, CO2 is also used to make bread, but in this instance the CO2 comes from yeast, a culture which feeds on sugar and other small carbohydrates.

How is CO2 made?
Carbon is stored in oceans, soil, and living things and is released from this storage into the atmosphere in the form of CO2. CO2 is created when one carbon atom meets two oxygen atoms, which join together through a number of processes, including the decay of organic matter, the combustion of materials such as wood, coal and natural gas, through the breathing of humans and animals, and from events such as volcanic eruptions.

EMISSIONS of E290 (Carbon dioxide):
Carbon is the buzzword when talking about emissions, and because of this it is important to know the difference between carbon and E290 (Carbon dioxide). 
Carbon is an element present in all organic material and is not, in itself, a bad thing. 
In fact, carbon is necessary to all life. 

E290 (Carbon dioxide), on the other hand, is what most people use when referring to "carbon emissions." 
E290 (Carbon dioxide)'s a greenhouse gas and contributes to climate change because E290 (Carbon dioxide) helps to trap heat inside our atmosphere. 
Currently CO2 levels in the oceans and atmosphere are on the rise, and this increase can mostly be attributed to human activities. 
This is also referred to as anthropogenic CO2 emission.

E290 (Carbon dioxide) is one of the most abundant gasses in the atmosphere. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) plays an important part in vital plant and animal process, such as photosynthesis and respiration. 
Green plants convert E290 (Carbon dioxide) and water into food compounds, such as glucose, and oxygen. 
This process is called photosynthesis.
The reaction of photosynthesis is as follows:
6 CO2 + 6 H2O --> C6H12O6 + 6 O2

Plants and animals, in turn, convert the food compounds by combining CO2 with oxygen to release energy for growth and other life activities. 
This is the respiration process, the reverse of photosynthesis.

The respiration reaction is as follows:
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 --> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O

Photosynthesis and respiration play an important role in the carbon cycle and are at equilibrium with one another.
Photosynthesis dominates during the warmer part of the year and respiration dominates during the colder part of the year. However, both processes occur the entire year. 
Overall, then, E290 (Carbon dioxide) in the atmosphere decreases during the growing season and increases during the rest of the year.
Because the seasons in the northern and southern hemispheres are opposite, E290 (Carbon dioxide) in the atmosphere is increasing in the north while decreasing in the south, and vice versa. 
The cycle is more clearly present in the northern hemisphere; because it has relatively more land mass and terrestrial vegetation. Oceans dominate the southern hemisphere.

Influence of E290 (Carbon dioxide) on alkalinity.
E290 (Carbon dioxide) can change the pH of water. 
This is how it works:

E290 (Carbon dioxide) dissolves slightly in water to form a weak acid called carbonic acid, H2CO3, according to the following reaction:
CO2 + H2O --> H2CO3

After that, carbonic acid reacts slightly and reversibly in water to form a hydronium cation, H3O+, and the bicarbonate ion, HCO3-, according to the following reaction:
H2CO3 + H2O --> HCO3- + H3O+

This chemical behaviour explains why water, which normally has a neutral pH of 7 has an acidic pH of approximately 5.5 when it has been exposed to air.

The carbon cycle is the process through which carbon is cycled through the air, ground, plants, animals, and fossil fuels. People and animals inhale oxygen from the air and exhale E290 (Carbon dioxide) (CO2), while plants absorb CO2 for photosynthesis and emit oxygen back into the atmosphere. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is also exchanged between the atmosphere and the oceans. 
This natural system of processes keeps CO2 levels in the atmosphere stable over time. 

On land, carbon is contained within formations, the soil, plants, and animals. 
When these decompose, the carbon can be emitted to the atmosphere as CO2. 
Once in the atmosphere, the carbon can then be absorbed by the oceans or by a land/ocean-based plant or shell-bearing animal. E290 (Carbon dioxide) is important to note that only a small amount of the Earth’s carbon moves through the carbon cycle each year.
When the plant dies or is burned, the carbon recombines with O2 in the air and CO2 is formed again, completing the cycle. E290 (Carbon dioxide) is derived from both natural and anthropogenic sources, is essential to plant life, and is a key part of the Earth’s carbon lifecycle.

Carbon is the basis of all life on earth – it is a key ingredient in almost everything on the planet. 
As the earth has a closed atmosphere, there has always been the same amount of carbon on the earth, but it is in a constant state of change, transitioning from gas to solid to liquid and moving between the atmosphere and the earth. 
This process is called the carbon cycle, and it is key to ensuring the earth is capable of sustaining life. 
CO2 forms one part of this process and makes up the largest available source of carbon on earth.

The greenhouse effect is used to describe the phenomenon whereby the Earth's atmosphere traps solar radiation, caused by the presence of gases, such as E290 (Carbon dioxide) (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and water vapor (H2O). 
Collectively, these gases are referred to as greenhouse gases (GHGs). 
The greenhouse effect gets its name from the process that actually occurs in a greenhouse. 
In a greenhouse, short wavelength visible sunlight shines through the glass panes and warms the air and the plants inside. The radiation emitted from the heated objects inside the greenhouse are of longer wavelength and therefore are unable to pass through the glass barrier, maintaining a warm temperature in the greenhouse.

The Earth's natural greenhouse effect acts similarly. 
Sunlight that enters the atmosphere is either reflected, absorbed, or simply passes through. 
The sunlight that passes through the atmosphere is either absorbed by the Earth's surface or reflected back into space. 
The Earth's surface heats up after absorbing this sunlight, and emits long wavelength radiation back into the atmosphere. Some of this radiation passes through the atmosphere and into space, but the rest of it is either reflected back to the Earth’s surface or absorbed by atmospheric GHGs that re-radiate longer wavelengths back to Earth's surface. 
These GHGs trap the sun’s energy within the atmosphere, warming the planet.

GHGs can be compared to the glass panes in the greenhouse example, since they trap indirect heat from the sun. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) and other GHGs help create and maintain the natural greenhouse effect that keeps Earth hospitable to life. GHGs do not have a negative effect when present in natural amounts; in fact, the Earth’s average temperatures would be much cooler without them.
GHGs like CO2, within certain concentration ranges, help to maintain a global temperature hospitable to life.

There are both natural E290 (Carbon dioxide) (CO2) sources and man-made (anthropogenic) CO2 sources. 

Natural CO2 sources account for the majority of CO2 released into the atmosphere. 
Oceans provide the greatest annual amount of CO2 of any natural or anthropogenic source. 
Other sources of natural CO2 include animal and plant respiration, decomposition of organic matter, forest fires, and emissions from volcanic eruptions. 
There are also naturally occurring CO2 deposits found in formation layers within the Earth’s crust that could serve as CO2 sources.

Anthropogenic CO2 sources are part of our everyday activities and include those from power generation, transportation, industrial sources, chemical production, petroleum production, and agricultural practices. 
Many of these source types burn fossil fuels (coal, oil, and natural gas), with CO2 emissions as a byproduct. 
Of these CO2 sources, electric power generation contributes the greatest amount of anthropogenic CO2 to the atmosphere. 
E290 (Carbon dioxide) comes from both natural and anthropogenic sources; natural sources are predominant.

HISTORY of E290 (Carbon dioxide):
E290 (Carbon dioxide) was the first gas to be described as a discrete substance. 
In about 1640, the Flemish chemist Jan Baptist van Helmont observed that when he burned charcoal in a closed vessel, the mass of the resulting ash was much less than that of the original charcoal. 
His interpretation was that the rest of the charcoal had been transmuted into an invisible substance he termed a "gas" or "wild spirit" (spiritus sylvestris).

The properties of E290 (Carbon dioxide) were further studied in the 1750s by the Scottish physician Joseph Black. 
He found that limestone (calcium carbonate) could be heated or treated with acids to yield a gas he called "fixed air." 
He observed that the fixed air was denser than air and supported neither flame nor animal life. 
Black also found that when bubbled through limewater (a saturated aqueous solution of calcium hydroxide), it would precipitate calcium carbonate. 

He used this phenomenon to illustrate that E290 (Carbon dioxide) is produced by animal respiration and microbial fermentation. 
In 1772, English chemist Joseph Priestley published a paper entitled Impregnating Water with Fixed Air in which he described a process of dripping sulfuric acid (or oil of vitriol as Priestley knew it) on chalk in order to produce E290 (Carbon dioxide), and forcing the gas to dissolve by agitating a bowl of water in contact with the gas.

E290 (Carbon dioxide) was first liquefied (at elevated pressures) in 1823 by Humphry Davy and Michael Faraday. 
The earliest description of solid E290 (Carbon dioxide) (dry ice) was given by the French inventor Adrien-Jean-Pierre Thilorier, who in 1835 opened a pressurized container of liquid E290 (Carbon dioxide), only to find that the cooling produced by the rapid evaporation of the liquid yielded a "snow" of solid CO2.

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES of E290 (Carbon dioxide):
E290 (Carbon dioxide) is colorless. 
At low concentrations the gas is odorless; however, at sufficiently high concentrations, E290 (Carbon dioxide)  has a sharp, acidic odor. 
At standard temperature and pressure, the density of E290 (Carbon dioxide) is around 1.98 kg/m3, about 1.53 times that of air.

E290 (Carbon dioxide) has no liquid state at pressures below 0.51795(10) MPa (5.11177(99) atm). 
At a pressure of 1 atm (0.101325 MPa), the gas deposits directly to a solid at temperatures below 194.6855(30) K (−78.4645(30) °C) and the solid sublimes directly to a gas above this temperature. 
In its solid state, E290 (Carbon dioxide) is commonly called dry ice.
Liquid E290 (Carbon dioxide) forms only at pressures above 0.51795(10) MPa (5.11177(99) atm); the triple point of E290 (Carbon dioxide) is 216.592(3) K (−56.558(3) °C) at 0.51795(10) MPa (5.11177(99) atm). 

The critical point is 304.128(15) K (30.978(15) °C) at 7.3773(30) MPa (72.808(30) atm). 
Another form of solid E290 (Carbon dioxide) observed at high pressure is an amorphous glass-like solid. 
This form of glass, called carbonia, is produced by supercooling heated CO2 at extreme pressures (40–48 GPa, or about 400,000 atmospheres) in a diamond anvil. 

This discovery confirmed the theory that E290 (Carbon dioxide) could exist in a glass state similar to other members of its elemental family, like silicon (silica glass) and germanium dioxide. 
Unlike silica and germania glasses, however, carbonia glass is not stable at normal pressures and reverts to gas when pressure is released.
At temperatures and pressures above the critical point, E290 (Carbon dioxide) behaves as a supercritical fluid known as supercritical E290 (Carbon dioxide).

PHYSICAL and CHEMICAL PROPERTIES of E290 (Carbon dioxide):
Appearance Form: Liquefied gas
Physical State; Appearance: odourless, colourless, compressed liquefied gas.
Molecular Weight: 44.009
Specific gravity: 1.53 at 21 oC
Critical density: 468 kg/m3
Concentration in air: 370,3 * 107 ppm
Stability: High

Liquid: Pressure < 415.8 kPa
Solid: Temperature < -78 oC
Henry constant for solubility: 298.15 mol/ kg * bar
Water solubility: 0.9 vol/vol at 20 oC
Appearance: Colourless gas.
Odour: Odourless

Sublimation point: -79°C
Solubility in water, ml/100ml at 20°C: 88
Vapour pressure, kPa at 20°C: 5720
Relative vapour density (air = 1): 1.5
Octanol/water partition coefficient as log Pow: 0.83 
Odour: No data available
Odour Threshold: No data available
pH: No data available
Melting point/freezing point:

Melting point/range: -78,5 °C - lit.
Initial boiling point and boiling range: No data available
Flash point: Not applicable
Evaporation rate: No data available
Flammability (solid, gas): No data available

Upper/lower flammability or explosive limits: No data available
Vapour pressure: 57.249 hPa at 20 °C
Vapour density: 1,52 - (Air = 1.0)
Relative density: No data available
Water solubility: No data available
Partition coefficient: n-octanol/water: No data available

Auto-ignition temperature: No data available
Decomposition temperature: No data available
Viscosity: No data available
Explosive properties: No data available
Oxidizing properties: No data available
Relative vapour density: 1,52 - (Air = 1.0)

FIRST AID MEASURES of E290 (Carbon dioxide):
-Description of first aid measures:
*General advice:
Consult a physician. 
Show this safety data sheet to the doctor in attendance.

*If inhaled:
If breathed in, move person into fresh air. 
If not breathing, give artificial respiration.
Consult a physician.

*In case of skin contact:
Wash off with soap and plenty of water. 
Consult a physician.

*In case of eye contact:
Flush eyes with water as a precaution.
Liquefied gas: immediately and briefly flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water. 
DO NOT attempt to rewarm. 

*If swallowed:
Rinse mouth with water. 
Consult a physician.

-Personal Precautions: 
Increase ventilation to area or move leaking container to a well-ventilated and secure area.
-Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures:
Ensure adequate ventilation. 
Evacuate personnel to safe areas.
-Environmental precautions:
Do not let product enter drains.
-Methods and materials for containment and cleaning up:
Clean up promptly by sweeping or vacuum.

FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES of E290 (Carbon dioxide):
-Flammable Properties: 
Does not burn.
-Suitable Extinguishing Media: 
Not combustible. 
Use extinguishing agent suitable for surrounding fire.
In case of fire: 
Keep cylinder cool by spraying with water.

-Extinguishing media:
Suitable extinguishing media:
Use water spray, alcohol-resistant foam, dry chemical or E290 (Carbon dioxide)
-Advice for firefighters:
Wear self-contained breathing apparatus for firefighting if necessary.
-Further information:
Use water spray to cool unopened containers.

-Control parameters:
Components with workplace control parameters:
-Exposure controls:
*Appropriate engineering controls:
Handle in accordance with good industrial hygiene and safety practice. 
Wash hands before breaks and at the end of workday.
*Personal protective equipment:
**Eye/face protection
Use equipment for eye protection tested and approved under appropriate.

**Skin protection:
Handle with gloves. 
Gloves must be inspected prior to use. 
Dispose of contaminated gloves after use in accordance with applicable laws and good laboratory practices. 
Wash and dry hands.
Full contact:
Material: butyl-rubber
Minimum layer thickness: 0,3 mm
Break through time: 480 min
Splash contact:
Material: Chloroprene
Minimum layer thickness: 0,6 mm
Break through time: 30 min

**Body Protection:
Impervious clothing.
**Respiratory protection
If the respirator is the sole means of protection, use a full-face supplied air respirator. 
**Control of environmental exposure:
Do not let product enter drains.

HANDLING AND STORAGE of E290 (Carbon dioxide):
Use the pressure regulator appropriate for cylinder pressure and contents. 
Secure cylinder in an up-right position. 
Use a suitable hand truck to move cylinders.

Store in an area that is: cool, dry, well-ventilated, out of direct sunlight, temperature-controlled, secure and separate from work areas, on the ground floor or preferably, if storing in large volumes, in an isolated, detached building. 
Always secure (e.g. chain) cylinders in an upright position to a wall, rack or other solid structure.

-Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities:
Store in cool place. 
Keep container tightly closed in a dry and well-ventilated place.

Carbonic anhydride
Carbonic acid gas
Liquefied E290 (Carbon dioxide)
Refrigerated E290 (Carbon dioxide)
Greenhouse gas

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