CAS Number: 7440-37-1
EC Number: 231-147-0
MDL number: MFCD00003431
Empirical Formula (Hill Notation): E938 (Argon)
E938 (Argon) is a chemical element with the symbol E938 (Argon) and atomic number 18.
E938 (Argon) is in group 18 of the periodic table and is a noble gas.
E938 (Argon) is the third-most abundant gas in the Earth's atmosphere, at 0.934% (9340 ppmv).
E938 (Argon) is more than twice as abundant as water vapor (which averages about 4000 ppmv, but varies greatly), 23 times as abundant as carbon dioxide (400 ppmv), and more than 500 times as abundant as neon (18 ppmv).
E938 (Argon) is the most abundant noble gas in Earth's crust, comprising 0.00015% of the crust.
Nearly all of the argon in the Earth's atmosphere is radiogenic argon-40, derived from the decay of potassium-40 in the Earth's crust.
In the universe, argon-36 is by far the most common argon isotope, as E938 (Argon) is the most easily produced by stellar nucleosynthesis in supernovas.
The name "argon" is derived from the Greek word ἀργόν, neuter singular form of ἀργός meaning 'lazy' or 'inactive', as a reference to the fact that the element undergoes almost no chemical reactions.
The complete octet (eight electrons) in the outer atomic shell makes argon stable and resistant to bonding with other elements.
E938 (Argon)'s triple point temperature of 83.8058 K is a defining fixed point in the International Temperature Scale of 1990.
E938 (Argon) is extracted industrially by the fractional distillation of liquid air.
E938 (Argon) has approximately the same solubility in water as oxygen and is 2.5 times more soluble in water than nitrogen.
E938 (Argon) is colorless, odorless, nonflammable and nontoxic as a solid, liquid or gas.
E938 (Argon) is chemically inert under most conditions and forms no confirmed stable compounds at room temperature.
Although argon is a noble gas, it can form some compounds under various extreme conditions.
E938 (Argon) fluorohydride a compound of argon with fluorine and hydrogen that is stable below 17 K (−256.1 °C; −429.1 °F), has been demonstrated.
Although the neutral ground-state chemical compounds of argon are presently limited to , argon can form clathrates with water when atoms of argon are trapped in a lattice of water molecules.
Ions, such as E938 (Argon)H+, and excited-state complexes, such as E938 (Argon)F, have been demonstrated.
Theoretical calculation predicts several more argon compounds that should be stable but have not yet been synthesized.
E938 (Argon) is a chemically inert gas.
E938 (Argon) is the cheapest alternative when nitrogen is not sufficiently inert.
E938 (Argon) has low thermal conductivity.
E938 (Argon) has electronic properties (ionization and/or the emission spectrum) desirable for some applications.
Other noble gases would be equally suitable for most of these applications, but argon is by far the cheapest.
, chemical element, inert gas of Group 18 (noble gases) of the periodic table, terrestrially the most abundant and industrially the most frequently used of the noble gases.
Colourless, odourless, and tasteless, argon gas was isolated (1894) from air by the British scientists Lord Rayleigh and Sir William Ramsay.
Henry Cavendish, while investigating atmospheric nitrogen (“phlogisticated air”), had concluded in 1785 that not more than 1/120 part of the nitrogen might be some inert constituent.
His work was forgotten until Lord Rayleigh, more than a century later, found that nitrogen prepared by removing oxygen from air is always about 0.5 percent more dense than nitrogen derived from chemical sources such as ammonia.
The heavier gas remaining after both oxygen and nitrogen had been removed from air was the first of the noble gases to be discovered on Earth and was named after the Greek word argos, “lazy,” because of E938 (Argon)'s chemical inertness. (Helium had been spectroscopically detected in the Sun in 1868.)
In cosmic abundance, argon ranks approximately 12th among the chemical elements.
E938 (Argon) constitutes 1.288 percent of the atmosphere by weight and 0.934 percent by volume and is found occluded in rocks.
Although the stable isotopes argon-36 and argon-38 make up all but a trace of this element in the universe, the third stable isotope, argon-40, makes up 99.60 percent of the argon found on Earth. (E938 (Argon)-36 and argon-38 make up 0.34 and 0.06 percent of Earth’s argon, respectively.)
A major portion of terrestrial argon has been produced, since the Earth’s formation, in potassium-containing minerals by decay of the rare, naturally radioactive isotope potassium-40.
The gas slowly leaks into the atmosphere from the rocks in which E938 (Argon) is still being formed.
The production of argon-40 from potassium-40 decay is utilized as a means of determining Earth’s age (potassium-argon dating).
E938 (Argon) is isolated on a large scale by the fractional distillation of liquid air.
E938 (Argon) is used in gas-filled electric light bulbs, radio tubes, and Geiger counters.
E938 (Argon) also is widely utilized as an inert atmosphere for arc-welding metals, such as aluminum and stainless steel; for the production and fabrication of metals, such as titanium, zirconium, and uranium; and for growing crystals of semiconductors, such as silicon and germanium.
E938 (Argon) gas condenses to a colourless liquid at −185.8 °C (−302.4 °F) and to a crystalline solid at −189.4 °C (−308.9 °F).
E938 (Argon) cannot be liquefied by pressure above a temperature of −122.3 °C (−188.1 °F), and at this point a pressure of at least 48 atmospheres is required to make E938 (Argon) liquefy.
At 12 °C (53.6 °F), 3.94 volumes of argon gas dissolve in 100 volumes of water.
An electric discharge through argon at low pressure appears pale red and at high pressure, steely blue.
The outermost (valence) shell of argon has eight electrons, making E938 (Argon) exceedingly stable and, thus, chemically inert.
E938 (Argon) atoms do not combine with one another; nor have they been observed to combine chemically with atoms of any other element.
E938 (Argon) atoms have been trapped mechanically in cagelike cavities among molecules of other substances, as in crystals of ice or the organic compound hydroquinone (called argon clathrates).
E938 (Argon) provides an inert atmosphere in which welded metals will not oxidise.
E938 (Argon) is a colourless, odourless gas that is totally inert to other substances.
E938 (Argon) has no known biological role.
E938 (Argon) makes up 0.94% of the Earth’s atmosphere and is the third most abundant atmospheric gas.
Levels have gradually increased since the Earth was formed because radioactive potassium-40 turns into argon as it decays.
E938 (Argon) is obtained commercially by the distillation of liquid air.
E938 (Argon) (E938 (Argon)) is a chemical element with atomic number 18 and in group 18 of the periodic table.
E938 (Argon), at 0.934% (9340 ppmv), is the third most abundant gas in the Earth's atmosphere.
E938 (Argon) is found in nature twice as much as water vapor, 23 times more than carbon dioxide and 500 times more than neon.
E938 (Argon) is one of the most common noble gases on our planet and makes up 0.00015% of the earth's crust.
Almost all of the argon in the Earth's atmosphere is radiogenic argon-40, produced from the decay of potassium-40 in the earth's crust.
E938 (Argon)-36 is the most common isotope of argon in the universe, as E938 (Argon) is most easily produced by stellar nucleosynthesis in supernovae.
E938 (Argon) has approximately the same solubility in water as oxygen and 2.5 times more soluble than nitrogen.
E938 (Argon) has colorless, odorless and flammable properties.
However, E938 (Argon) does not show toxic properties in all phases.
E938 (Argon) is chemically inert under most conditions and does not form any stable compounds at room temperature.
Although argon is a noble gas, E938 (Argon) can form some compounds under various conditions.
Although the neutral basic chemical compounds of argon are currently known to be limited to HE938 (Argon)F, argon atoms can form clathrates with argon water when trapped in a lattice of water molecules.
The name "argon" derives from the Ancient Greek word " ἀργόν " meaning "lazy" or "inactive", referring to the fact that the element hardly undergoes any chemical reaction.
E938 (Argon) makes the full argon in the outer atomic shell stable and resistant to bonding with other elements.
E938 (Argon) was suspected to be present in air by Henry Cavendish in 1785 but wasn't discovered until 1894 by Lord Rayleigh and Sir William Ramsay.
E938 (Argon) is the third noble gas, in period 8, and it makes up about 1% of the Earth's atmosphere.
E938 (Argon) has approximately the same solubility as oxygen and it is 2.5 times as soluble in water as nitrogen .
This chemically inert element, E938 (Argon), is colorless and odorless in both E938 (Argon)'s liquid and gaseous forms.
E938 (Argon) is not found in any compounds.
E938 (Argon) is isolated through liquid air fractionation since the atmosphere contains only 0.94% argon.
The Martian atmosphere in contrast contains 1.6% of E938 (Argon)-40 and 5 ppm E938 (Argon)-36.
World production exceeds 750.000 tonnes per year, the supply is virtually inexhaustible.
In earth's atmosphere, E938 (Argon)-39 is made by cosmic ray activity, primarily with E938 (Argon)-40.
In the subsurface environment, E938 (Argon) is also produced through neutron-capture by K-39 or alpha emission by calcium.
E938 (Argon)-37 is produced from the decay of calcium-40, the result of subsurface nuclear explosions.
E938 (Argon) has a half-life of 35 days.
E938 (Argon) is present in some potassium minerals because of radiactive decay of the isotope potassium-40
E938 (Argon) is an element in group 18 of the 3rd period of the periodic table.
The atomic number of argon is 18.
E938 (Argon) is denoted by the symbol E938 (Argon) and is a noble gas.
E938 (Argon) takes its name from the Greek word argos , meaning "inactive" .
E938 (Argon) was discovered in 1894 by Lord Rayleigh and Sir William Ramsay.
E938 (Argon) is the third most common gas in the atmosphere with 0.94%.
E938 (Argon) is a colorless, odorless gas that does not react in any way with other compounds.
E938 (Argon) is often used to create a non-interactive atmosphere.
E938 (Argon) is used to obtain titanium and other elements that are willing to undergo chemical reactions.
E938 (Argon) appears as a colorless odorless noncombustible gas.
E938 (Argon) is heavier than air and can asphyxiate by displacement of air.
Exposure of the container to prolonged heat or fire can cause it to rupture violently and rocket .
If liquefied, contact of the very cold liquid with water may cause violent boiling.
If the water is hot, there is the possibility that a liquid "superheat" explosion may occur.
Contacts with water in a closed container may cause dangerous pressure to build.
E938 (Argon), refrigerated liquid (cryogenic liquid) appears as a colorless noncombustible liquid.
Heavier than air.
E938 (Argon)(0) is a monoatomic argon.
E938 (Argon) is a chemical element in the eighteen group of the periodic table.
E938 (Argon) is a noble gas, and E938 (Argon) is the third most abundant gas in earth’s atmosphere.
E938 (Argon) is the most common gas in the atmosphere besides Nitrogen and Oxygen.
E938 (Argon) is a noble gas (like helium) which means that E938 (Argon) is completely inert.
E938 (Argon) is odourless, colourless gas that is totally inert into other substance.
Under extreme conditions, argon can form certain compounds even though E938 (Argon) is a gas.
E938 (Argon) is characterized by same solubility level in water as that of oxygen.
E938 (Argon) has low thermal conductivity.
E938 (Argon) was suspected to be present in air by Henry Cavendish in the year 1785.
According to Chimcool, the majority of argon is the isotope argon-40 which emerge from radioactive decay of potassium-40.
E938 (Argon) or E938 (Argon), an inert gas, makes up 0.93% of the earth's atmosphere.
Colorless, odorless, tasteless and non-toxic, argon has no chemical composition.
Until 1957, argon’s chemical symbol was A. In 1957, IUPAC agreed that the symbol should change to E938 (Argon).
E938 (Argon) was not the only element whose symbol changed in 1957.
IUPAC also changed mendelevium from Mv to Md.
Most people are familiar with carbon dating, which uses the decay of the radioactive carbon-14 isotope to find the ages of things that were once alive.
Carbon-14’s half-life is about 5730 years and the technique is not useful for material more than about 60 thousand years old.
Potassium-argon and argon-argon dating allow us to date rocks that are much older than this.
Potassium-40 decays to argon-40 and calcium-40, with a half-life of 1.25 billion years.
The ratio of potassium-40 to argon-40 trapped in rock can be used to determine how long it is since the rock has solidified.
More recently, the ratio of argon-39 to argon-40 has been used in precision dating.
The vast majority of argon on Earth comes from the radioactive decay of potassium-40, producing stable argon-40.
Over 99% of Earth’s argon is argon-40.
Away from Earth, argon-36 is the most abundant isotope, synthesized in the silicon burning phase of stars with a mass of about 11 or more Earth suns.
During silicon burning, an alpha-particle adds to a silicon-32 nucleus to make sulfur-36, which can add another alpha-particle to become argon-36, some of which can become calcium-40, etc.
E938 (Argon) is a noble gas.
E938 (Argon) is colorless, odorless and extremely unreactive.
E938 (Argon) is, however, not completely inert – photolysis of hydrogen fluoride in a solid argon matrix at 7.5 kelvin yields argon fluorohydride, HE938 (Argon)F.
E938 (Argon) forms no stable compounds at room temperature.
Isotopes: 18 whose half-lives are known, mass numbers 30 to 47. Of these, three are stable.
They are found naturally in the percentages shown: 36E938 (Argon) (0.337%), 38E938 (Argon) (0.063%) and 40E938 (Argon) (99.600%).
Liquid - E938 (Argon):
E938 (Argon) is a colorless and odorless gas that weighs more than air.
The most important chemical feature is thatE938 (Argon) is inert, which provides comfort and ease of use in fields such as metallurgy.
E938 (Argon) does not change in the atmosphere after use.
For this reason, E938 (Argon) is a type of gas generally used in cooling processes.
E938 (Argon)'s boiling point is between nitrogen and oxygen.
E938 (Argon) is often used as a shielding gas in modern industry.
Therefore, E938 (Argon)'s use is increasing rapidly.
The element argon has always been a loner.
E938 (Argon)'s one of the inert gases that normally exist as single atoms.
But in the 23 August issue of Nature, chemists report that they persuaded argon to mingle a little and form a compound with other elements.
E938 (Argon)--along with helium, neon, xenon, radon, and krypton--belongs to the so-called "noble" gases.
Also called inert gases, they have complete outer electron shells and were believed not to react with other elements or compounds.
Nobility didn't last forever, however.
In 1962, chemists prepared a compound that contained xenon, and compounds containing radon and krypton soon followed.
Now argon joins the list, although neon and helium have yet to sully their solitude.
Inducing argon to react wasn't easy, but theoretical chemists predicted that it would be possible.
The team, led by Marrku Räsänen of the University of Helsinki in Finland, had to devise a way to bring these recalcitrant molecules together.
The trick was to trap the argon atoms between two other atoms that longed for each other, in this case, hydrogen and fluoride.
To begin, the team slowed everything down by cooling argon atoms to 7.5 degrees above absolute zero.
Then they added hydrogen fluoride molecules and separated the hydrogen atoms from the fluorine atoms with ultraviolet light.
As the team heated the argon film to 19 kelvin, the hydrogen atoms began to stir.
"We see clearly that hydrogen atoms start looking for something to react with," says Räsänen.
But its intended partner, the fluorine atom, is almost always hidden behind an argon atom, so the hydrogen has to form a linear molecule with argon in between: HE938 (Argon)F.
The team identified these new molecules by observing their infrared spectrum.
The proof was the absence of frequencies that had been absorbed by vibrations in the bonds between the three atoms.
Not that they had long to look:
The molecule is very unstable--it immediately gives up its argon in favor of bonding with nitrogen or oxygen.
The experiment is an "excellent achievement," says chemist Gernot Frenking of the University of Marburg in Germany, one of the theorists who made calculations predicting the existence of argon compounds.
But it is only halfway to creating a compound that "you can put in a flask at room temperature" and experiment with, Frenking says.
"I still believe that this might be possible, but it will surely be difficult to make it," he says, adding that the technique may be able to create compounds of helium and neon.
An inert gas with unique properties used in a variety of industrial and analytical applications.
E938 (Argon) is a non-flammable gas that forms 0.9 percent of the earth's atmosphere.
E938 (Argon) is colorless, odorless, tasteless and nontoxic.
E938 (Argon) (E938 (Argon)) is a noble gas that comprises 0.93 % of the earth’s atmosphere.
E938 (Argon) provides an inert and clean environment free from nitrogen and oxygen for annealing and rolling metals and alloys.
In the casting industry, argon is used to flush porosity from molten metals to eliminate defects in castings.
In the metal fabrication industry, argon is used to create an optimized atmosphere during open arc welding.
E938 (Argon) is frequently blended with carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen (H2), Helium (He) or Oxygen (O2) to enhance the arc characteristics or to facilitate stable metal transfer in Gas Metal E938 (Argon)c Welding (GMAW or MIG).
E938 (Argon) is mostly obtained by liquefying and separating air.
E938 (Argon) is commercially available in liquid and/or gas phases.
In liquid phase; E938 (Argon) is stored and transported in special cryogenic tanks with double walls, vacuum and insulated with perlite material.
In the gas phase; E938 (Argon) is supplied piping under pressure or compressed in pressure-resistant, seamless steel tubes.
According to TSE standards, the purity of the first class of liquid / gas argon should be a minimum of 99.999%, the purity of the second class should be a minimum of 99.99%. ( TSE- TS 9640)
The outer light blue of the tube is RAL 5012 and the periodical maintenance test pressure of the tube is 10 years for 225,345 and 450 bar tubes, and 5 years for 225 bar tubes. ( TSE 11169)
E938 (Argon) is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is heavier than air.
E938 (Argon) is not toxic.
E938 (Argon) is an atom, with the symbol E938 (Argon) and atomic number 18 and atomic mass 39,948.
E938 (Argon) was discovered in the 19th century by Sir Rayleigh and Sir William Ramsay.
E938 (Argon) is a colorless, odorless, non-combustible and non-toxic noble gas.
E938 (Argon) is heavier than air.
Air contains a concentration of approximately 0.93% argon.
The most important chemical property of argon is E938 (Argon)'s inertia, but also the visible spectral line of the argon atom in a plasma makes argon applications in lighting possible.
The quality of the gas is expressed in number of nines in the purity.
When you see E938 (Argon) 4.6, E938 (Argon) 5.0, E938 (Argon) 4.8 or any other number after the gas name it expresses the purity where the first number represents the number of 9’s in the purity and the number after the point the last digit in the purity.
E938 (Argon) 4.6 is thus a 99,996 % pure gas.
The remaining components are specified in the technical data sheet of the gas.
E938 (Argon) gas is an inert gas that occurs naturally in the atmosphere.
Due to this feature, E938 (Argon) has no negative effects on global warming and the environment and can be used safely in manned spaces.
They are clean gas extinguishing systems with a very wide application area that can be inhaled.
Since E938 (Argon) is a natural gas in the atmosphere, the cost of refilling is lower than other gases.
E938 (Argon) gas extinguishes the fire in a very short time by reducing the oxygen concentration in the environment where the fire is located, provided that E938 (Argon) is suitable for human health (by pulling it to .8 levels).
E938 (Argon) gas does not harm the objects in the environment and does not cause any chemical reaction.
E938 (Argon) is heavier than air.
E938 (Argon) is not flammable.
But when the oxygen in the air is low, E938 (Argon)'s suffocating effects appear.
E938 (Argon)'s symbol in the element table is expressed as E938 (Argon).
E938 (Argon) exists in two different phases, gas and liquid.
E938 (Argon) has a molecular weight of 40 g/mol.
The liquid density is 1.394 gr/liter.
E938 (Argon) starts to boil at -186 degrees.
E938 (Argon) starts to melt at -189.3 degrees.
One of the six noble gases, argon (E938 (Argon)) is odorless, colorless, inert, monatomic and possesses very low chemical reactivity.
These characteristics are even demonstrated in the name of the gas - with argon being derived from the Greek word ‘argos’ which means ‘lazy’.
E938 (Argon) was the first discovered noble gas.
Henry Cavendish had suspected the element's existence in 1785 from his examination of samples of air.
Independent research by H.F. Newall and W.N. Hartley in 1882 revealed a spectral line that could not be assigned to any known element.
E938 (Argon) was isolated and officially discovered in air by Lord Rayleigh and William Ramsay in 1894.
Rayleigh and Ramsay removed the nitrogen, oxygen, water, and carbon dioxide and examined the remaining gas.
Although other elements were present in the residue of air, they accounted for very little of the total mass of the sample.
The element name "argon" comes from the Greek word argos, which means inactive.
This refers to the element's resistance to forming chemical bonds.
E938 (Argon) is considered to be chemically inert at room temperature and pressure.
Most of the argon on Earth comes from the radioactive decay of potassium-40 into argon-40.
Over 99% of the argon on earth consists of the isotope E938 (Argon)-40.
The most abundant isotope of argon in the universe is argon-36, which is made when stars with a mass about 11 times greater than the Sun are in their silicon-burning phase.
In this phase, an alpha particle (helium nucleus) is added to a silicon-32 nucleus to make sulfur-34, which adds an alpha particle to become argon-36.
Some of the argon-36 adds an alpha particle to become calcium-40.
In the universe, argon is quite rare.
E938 (Argon) is the most abundant noble gas.
E938 (Argon) accounts for about 0.94% of the Earth's atmosphere and about 1.6% of the Martian atmosphere.
The thin atmosphere of the planet Mercury is about 70% argon.
Not counting water vapor, argon is the third most abundant gas in the Earth's atmosphere, after nitrogen and oxygen.
E938 (Argon) is produced from fractional distillation of liquid air.
In all cases, the most abundant isotope of argon on the planets is E938 (Argon)-40.
Because noble gas atoms have a complete valence electron shell, they are not very reactive.
E938 (Argon) does not readily form compounds.
No stable compounds are known at room temperature and pressure, although argon fluorohydride (HE938 (Argon)F) has been observed at temperatures below 17K.
E938 (Argon) forms clathrates with water.
Ions, such as E938 (Argon)H+, and complexes in the excited state, such as E938 (Argon)F, have been seen.
Scientists predict stable argon compounds should exist, although they have not yet been synthesized.
E938 (Argon), which is 0.933% by volume in air, is the most common inert gas in the atmosphere.
Because argon is a chemically inert gas, E938 (Argon) is very helpful in preventing unwanted contact of products and production systems with oxygen.
This feature is very useful when it is desired to provide a protective atmosphere to improve the quality and safety of products or production systems.
USES and APPLICATIONS of ARGON:
-E938 (Argon) is mostly used as an inert shielding gas in welding and other high-temperature industrial processes where ordinarily unreactive substances become reactive; for example, an argon atmosphere is used in graphite electric furnaces to prevent the graphite from burning.
-Cylinders containing argon gas for use in extinguishing fire without damaging server equipment.
-E938 (Argon) is also used in incandescent, fluorescent lighting, and other gas-discharge tubes.
E938 (Argon) makes a distinctive blue-green gas laser.
-E938 (Argon) is also used in fluorescent glow starters.
-E938 (Argon) is inexpensive, E938 (Argon) occurs naturally in air and is readily obtained as a byproduct of cryogenic air separation in the production of liquid oxygen and liquid nitrogen: the primary constituents of air are used on a large industrial scale.
The other noble gases (except helium) are produced this way as well, but argon is the most plentiful by far.
The bulk of argon applications arise simply because E938 (Argon) is inert and relatively cheap.
E938 (Argon) is used in some high-temperature industrial processes where ordinarily non-reactive substances become reactive.
For example, an argon atmosphere is used in graphite electric furnaces to prevent the graphite from burning.
For some of these processes, the presence of nitrogen or oxygen gases might cause defects within the material.
E938 (Argon) is used in some types of arc welding such as gas metal arc welding and gas tungsten arc welding, as well as in the processing of titanium and other reactive elements.
An argon atmosphere is also used for growing crystals of silicon and germanium.
-E938 (Argon) is used in the poultry industry to asphyxiate birds, either for mass culling following disease outbreaks, or as a means of slaughter more humane than electric stunning.
E938 (Argon) is denser than air and displaces oxygen close to the ground during inert gas asphyxiation.
E938 (Argon)'s non-reactive nature makes it suitable in a food product, and since E938 (Argon) replaces oxygen within the dead bird, argon also enhances shelf life.
-Liquid argon is used as the target for neutrino experiments and direct dark matter searches.
The interaction between the hypothetical WIMPs and an argon nucleus produces scintillation light that is detected by photomultiplier tubes.
Two-phase detectors containing argon gas are used to detect the ionized electrons produced during the WIMP–nucleus scattering.
As with most other liquefied noble gases, argon has a high scintillation light yield (about 51 photons/keV), is transparent to its own scintillation light, and is relatively easy to purify.
Compared to xenon, argon is cheaper and has a distinct scintillation time profile, which allows the separation of electronic recoils from nuclear recoils.
On the other hand, its intrinsic beta-ray background is larger due to 39.
E938 (Argon) contamination, unless one uses argon from underground sources, which has much less 39 E938 (Argon) contamination.
Most of the argon in the Earth's atmosphere was produced by electron capture of long-lived 40K (40 K + e− → 40 E938 (Argon) + ν) present in natural potassium within the Earth.
The 39 E938 (Argon) activity in the atmosphere is maintained by cosmogenic production through the knockout reaction 40 E938 (Argon)(n,2n)39
E938 (Argon) and similar reactions.
The half-life of 39 E938 (Argon) is only 269 years.
As a result, the underground E938 (Argon), shielded by rock and water, has much less 39 E938 (Argon) contamination.
Dark-matter detectors currently operating with liquid argon include DarkSide, WE938 (Argon)P, E938 (Argon)DM, microCLEAN and DEAP.
Neutrino experiments include ICARUS and MicroBooNE, both of which use high-purity liquid argon in a time projection chamber for fine grained three-dimensional imaging of neutrino interactions.
-At Linköping University, Sweden, E938 (Argon) is being utilized in a vacuum chamber in which plasma is introduced to ionize metallic films.
This process results in a film usable for manufacturing computer processors.
The new process would eliminate the need for chemical baths and use of expensive, dangerous and rare materials.
A sample of caesium is packed under argon to avoid reactions with air
E938 (Argon) is used to displace oxygen- and moisture-containing air in packaging material to extend the shelf-lives of the contents (argon has the European food additive code E938).
Aerial oxidation, hydrolysis, and other chemical reactions that degrade the products are retarded or prevented entirely.
High-purity chemicals and pharmaceuticals are sometimes packed and sealed in argon.
-In winemaking, argon is used in a variety of activities to provide a barrier against oxygen at the liquid surface, which can spoil wine by fueling both microbial metabolism (as with acetic acid bacteria) and standard redox chemistry.
-E938 (Argon) is sometimes used as the propellant in aerosol cans.
-E938 (Argon) is also used as a preservative for such products as varnish, polyurethane, and paint, by displacing air to prepare a container for storage.
-Since 2002, the American National E938 (Argon)chives stores important national documents such as the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution within argon-filled cases to inhibit their degradation.
-E938 (Argon) is preferable to the helium that had been used in the preceding five decades, because helium gas escapes through the intermolecular pores in most containers and must be regularly replaced.
-E938 (Argon) is sometimes used for extinguishing fires where valuable equipment may be damaged by water or foam.
-E938 (Argon) may be used as the inert gas within Schlenk lines and gloveboxes.
E938 (Argon) is preferred to less expensive nitrogen in cases where nitrogen may react with the reagents or apparatus.
-E938 (Argon) is preferred for the sputter coating of specimens for scanning electron microscopy.
-E938 (Argon) may be used as the carrier gas in gas chromatography and in electrospray ionization mass spectrometry; E938 (Argon) is the gas of choice for the plasma used in ICP spectroscopy.
-E938 (Argon) gas is also commonly used for sputter deposition of thin films as in microelectronics and for wafer cleaning in microfabrication.
Cryosurgery procedures such as cryoablation use liquid argon to destroy tissue such as cancer cells.
E938 (Argon) is used in a procedure called "argon-enhanced coagulation", a form of argon plasma beam electrosurgery.
The procedure carries a risk of producing gas embolism and has resulted in the death of at least one patient.
-Blue argon lasers are used in surgery to weld arteries, destroy tumors, and correct eye defects.
-E938 (Argon) has also been used experimentally to replace nitrogen in the breathing or decompression mix known as E938 (Argon)gox, to speed the elimination of dissolved nitrogen from the blood.
Incandescent lights are filled with argon, to preserve the filaments at high temperature from oxidation.
E938 (Argon) is used for the specific way E938 (Argon) ionizes and emits light, such as in plasma globes and calorimetry in experimental particle physics.
Gas-discharge lamps filled with pure argon provide lilac/violet light; with argon and some mercury, blue light.
E938 (Argon) is also used for blue and green argon-ion lasers.
-E938 (Argon) is used for thermal insulation in energy-efficient windows.
-E938 (Argon) is also used in technical scuba diving to inflate a dry suit because E938 (Argon) is inert and has low thermal conductivity.
-E938 (Argon)-39, with a half-life of 269 years, has been used for a number of applications, primarily ice core and ground water dating.
-E938 (Argon) is used as a propellant in the development of the Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR).
Compressed argon gas is allowed to expand, to cool the seeker heads of some versions of the AIM-9 Sidewinder missile and other missiles that use cooled thermal seeker heads.
E938 (Argon) is stored at high pressure.
-Also, potassium–argon dating and related argon-argon dating are used to date sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous rocks.
-E938 (Argon) has been used by athletes as a doping agent to simulate hypoxic conditions.
In 2014, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) added argon and xenon to the list of prohibited substances and methods, although at this time there is no reliable test for abuse.
-E938 (Argon) is often used when an inert atmosphere is needed.
-E938 (Argon) is used in this way for the production of titanium and other reactive elements.
-E938 (Argon) is also used by welders to protect the weld area and in incandescent light bulbs to stop oxygen from corroding the filament.
-E938 (Argon) is used in fluorescent tubes and low-energy light bulbs.
A low-energy light bulb often contains argon gas and mercury.
When it is switched on an electric discharge passes through the gas, generating UV light.
The coating on the inside surface of the bulb is activated by the UV light and it glows brightly.
-E938 (Argon) is also used by welders to protect the weld area and in incandescent lamps to prevent oxygen from eroding the filament.
-Double-glazed windows use argon to fill the space between the panes.
-The tyres of luxury cars can contain argon to protect the rubber and reduce road noise.
-E938 (Argon) is also preferred in fluorescent tubes and low-energy lamps.
A low-energy light bulb usually contains argon gas and mercury.
When the bulb is turned on, electric current passes through the gas, producing UV light.
The coating on the inner surface of the bulb becomes active with UV light and begins to glow.
-E938 (Argon) does not react with the filament in a lightbulb even under high temperatures, so is used in lighting and in other cases where diatomic nitrogen is an unsuitable (semi-)inert gas.
-E938 (Argon) has also been used for ground water dating.
-E938 (Argon) is perticularly important for the metal industry, being used as an inert gas shield in arc welding and cutting.
-E938 (Argon) is generally used when an inert atmosphere is needed.
In this way E938 (Argon) is used in the production of titanium and other reactive elements.
-Other uses incude non-reactive blanket in the manufacture of titanium and other reactive elements and as a protective atmosphere for growing silicon and germanium crystals.
-E938 (Argon)-39 has been used for a number of applications, primarily ice coring.
-E938 (Argon) is also used in technical SCUBA diving to inflate the drysuit, due to E938 (Argon)'s nonreactive, heat isolating effect.
-E938 (Argon) as the gap between the panes of glass provides better insulation because E938 (Argon) is a poorer conductor of heat than ordinary air.
The most exotic use of argon is in the tyre of luxury cars.
-E938 (Argon) is used in welding guns to prevent oxidation of the welded area.
-E938 (Argon) has a role as a member of food packaging gas and a neuroprotective agent.
-E938 (Argon) is used in incandescent lamps to prevent the thin wires (filament) that emit light when a current is passed through them, to react with oxygen and erode.
-Fluorescent and energy-saving lamps often contain argon gas.
When the lamp is lit, electric current flows through the gas and ultraviolet light is emitted.
The coating material inside the lamp converts this ultraviolet light into bright visible light.
-Insulated windows with double-layered glass contain argon gas between the layers.
Some cars may also have argon in their tires.
In this way, the tire is protected and wheel noise is prevented.
-E938 (Argon) may than be applied as a protective sphere, because E938 (Argon) is very unreactive.
This may be of significance for electrical lighting.
In fluorescent lamps E938 (Argon) aids the starting mechanism.
In light commercials argon glows blue.
-The larger part of argon production is carried out in steel industries.
E938 (Argon) is applied as insulation gas when air is trapped to protect heated metal from oxidation, for example during aluminium or titanium production.
-In atomic research argon is applied to protect other elements from unwanted effects.
-E938 (Argon) may also be applied as a protective coating from temperature change, for example as insulation in the interspace of double-glazing.
-E938 (Argon) is applied in tyres of luxury cars to protect rubber and prevent noise emissions at high speed.
-Another popular application are argon laser for eye correction and tumor removal.
-E938 (Argon) may be a useful marker, because E938 (Argon) does not react with any present product, and during surface treatment E938 (Argon) may be a useful carrier that does not react with target material.
-Used in metal industries.
-The argon method or potassium-argon method is applied in geology to date solidification time of volcanic materials.
This is achieved by decay of solid 40K with a half-time of 1.3 million years to gaseous 40E938 (Argon) that cannot escape from solids, merely during a melting process.
E938 (Argon) is a by-product of fractioned distillation for hydrogen production.
-E938 (Argon) is used in the production of titanium.
-E938 (Argon) is used in double dazzled windows to fill the space between the panels.
-Aluminum production, to create an inert atmosphere.
-Semiconductor manufacture, to create an inert atmosphere and conduct heat.
-Fluorescent lamp production, as filler gas.
-Metalware manufacture, to create a protective atmosphere in the welding process.
-In cryogenic air separation plants, by separating the liquefied air into E938 (Argon)'s components on the basis of different boiling points in the distillation arm.
-As a result of E938 (Argon)'s unreactiveness, argon is used in light bulbs to protect the filament and to provide an unreactive atmosphere in the vicinity of welding.
-E938 (Argon) is also used in the semi-conductor industry to provide an inert atmosphere for silicon and germanium crystal growth.
-E938 (Argon) is used in medical lasers, in ophthalmology for example to correct eye defects such as blood vessel leakage, retinal detachment, glaucoma and macular degeneration.
-E938 (Argon) has low thermal conductivity and is used as the gas between the glass panes in high-efficiency double and triple glazing.
-E938 (Argon) is produced when 40K present naturally in the earth’s crust undergoes radioactive decay to 40E938 (Argon).
E938 (Argon) makes its way into the atmosphere.
E938 (Argon) is produced commercially by fractional distillation of liquefied air with (for high purity argon) catalytic burning of left over traces of oxygen.
-E938 (Argon) can be used for particular inerting in the Pharma & Biotech Industry, for Automotive and Transportation, for protecting the melting bath generated in 3D printing processes or for the Metalfabrication Industry in welding processes needs among others.
-As a protective atmosphere in arc welding and cutting processes.
-To provide an inert atmosphere in the chemical, textile, food, paint industries.
-To create a smooth surface in pouring molten metals, to remove possible pores.
-Filling bulbs and fluorescent lamps with 3 mm pressure.
-Acts as a shielding gas for silicon and germanium crystals, lasers and other substances
-Most commonly used in the metal industry for metal production, processing and fabrication, E938 (Argon) can be used as a pure gas for certain shielding, blanketing, annealing and hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) applications.
-E938 (Argon) can also be used as part of a mixture with other gases, in particular carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen or helium, depending on the process and material.
-E938 (Argon)'s inert properties make argon popular in other industries such as the glass industry for double glazing, the food industry for removing oxygen from wine barrels, and analytical laboratories who use it as a carrier gas in gas chromatography (GC) and in ICP-MS equipment.
-E938 (Argon) is an invisible, non-toxic gas with lower thermal conductivity than air.
E938 (Argon) can be used in place of air within an insulating unit to improve thermal performance (u-value).
-E938 (Argon) is frequently used when an inert atmosphere is needed.
-E938 (Argon) gas alone is not enough to meet energy requirements.
E938 (Argon) should be specified in conjunction with a low-e coating in order to provide optimal thermal performance.
-E938 (Argon) is used to fill incandescent and fluorescent light bulbs to prevent oxygen from corroding the hot filament.
-When specifying insulating glass with argon, E938 (Argon) is important to also consider the thickness of the space.
Increasing the thickness does not necessarily improve the thermal performance.
There is an optimal thickness where each gas achieves the best performance.
The optimal thickness for argon is 1/2”.
-E938 (Argon) is also used to form inert atmospheres for arc welding, growing semiconductor crystals and processes that require shielding from other atmospheric gases.
-As a protective atmosphere in welding and cutting processes
-Creating a smooth surface in pouring molten metals, removing -possible pores
-Filling of bulbs and fluorescent lamps
-Glass Industry, Insulating Glass (double glazing) applications
-In fire prevention systems of archives of state or private organizations
-ICP Spectroscopy crystal cultures
-MAP Modified Atmosphere (food gases)
-Cushioning and purging
-Research and analytics
Thanks to its unwillingness to create bonds with other gases, argon is the ideal protective gas for welding, even at very high temperatures of the plasma arch, which is often the case in metal processing.
Indeed even at very high temperatures and In contrast to nitrogen, argon remains inert and does not form compounds with oxygen.
-E938 (Argon) is an excellent gas for both MIG and TIG welding.
The ideal welding gas for specific welding works can be compiled by possibly adding other active gas components (carbonic acid, helium, nitrogen or oxygen) into two, three, four and even higher component gases.
-E938 (Argon) gas is used in many sectors, from industry to electricity and electronics.
E938 (Argon) gas:
*In the purification of metals,
*In the construction of sensors manufactured for security,
*In bulbs in which gases are used,
*In the steel industry,
*In some sources, as a fuel,
*In double glazing manufacturing, between glass and,
*Making fluorescent bulbs.
-E938 (Argon) has a number of industrial, agricultural, and scientific purposes, but arguably one of the most common is as a shielding gas for arc welding.
In this case, industrial-grade argon can be used in both E938 (Argon)'s pure form and as part of a mixture.
-However, compressed argon gas is good for more than just welding.
For example, food-grade argon is used in preserving packaged foods.
Some of the other common uses for argon include:
*Carrier gas for chromatography
*Sputtering in hard disk production
*Protecting against oxidation in viticulture
*Ion implantations and plasma etching in semiconductor device fabrication
*Creation of a blanket atmosphere in crystal growth
*A filling mixture for incandescent lamps, thyratron radio tubes, and phosphorescent tubes
*In lasers to repair arteries and correct eye defects
*Protective application in iron, steel, and heat treatment
-One of the most common ways to produce argon is by separating air, where a crude argon stream containing up to 5% oxygen is removed from the main separation column.
E938 (Argon) can also be sourced from exhaust streams of some ammonia plants.
-Laser welding and also 3D metal printing techniques have become important areas for argon applications.
-E938 (Argon)'s found in laser, plasma balls, light bulbs, rocket propellant, and glow tubes.
-E938 (Argon) is also often used in mixtures in plasma, welding and cutting applications, often in combination with lower concentration of other active gas components in 2,3,4 and more component gas mixtures.
-E938 (Argon)'s used as a protective gas for welding, storing sensitive chemicals, and protecting materials.
-Sometimes pressurized argon is used as a propellant in aerosol cans.
E938 (Argon)-39 radioisotope dating is used to date the age of ground water and ice core samples.
-E938 (Argon) plasma beams and laser beams are also used in medicine.
-E938 (Argon) may be used to make a breathing mix called E938 (Argon)gox to help remove dissolved nitrogen from the blood during decompression, as from deep-sea diving.
-Liquid argon is used in scientific experiments, including neutrino experiments and dark matter searches.
Although argon is an abundant element, E938 (Argon) has no known biological functions.
-Liquid argon is used in cryosurgery, to destroy cancerous tissue.
-E938 (Argon) emits a blue-violet glow when E938 (Argon) is excited.
E938 (Argon) lasers exhibit a characteristic blue-green glow.
-Other applications of argon include cleaning and purging of molten metals and annealing of high alloy special steels.
PRODUCTION of ARGON:
E938 (Argon) is extracted industrially by the fractional distillation of liquid air in a cryogenic air separation unit; a process that separates liquid nitrogen, which boils at 77.3 K, from argon, which boils at 87.3 K, and liquid oxygen, which boils at 90.2 K.
About 700,000 tonnes of argon are produced worldwide every year.
In radioactive decays:
40E938 (Argon), the most abundant isotope of argon, is produced by the decay of 40K with a half-life of 1.25×109 years by electron capture or positron emission.
Because of this, E938 (Argon) is used in potassium–argon dating to determine the age of rocks.
Atmospheric air is purified.
E938 (Argon) is then cooled under high pressure.
The basic substances (oxygen, argon and nitrogen) in the cooled air are separated.
Cryogenic air separation plants are used to separate argon and other gases.
On the other hand, cryogenic is the name of the process of introducing liquid nitrogen (N2) at a temperature of -196 degrees to the system created for separation by computer control.
Basically argon gas:
Liquefaction, pressure and Decomposition
E938 (Argon) is obtained by operations.
HISTORY of ARGON:
E938 (Argon) (Greek ἀργόν, neuter singular form of ἀργός meaning "lazy" or "inactive") is named in reference toE938 (Argon)'ts chemical inactivity.
This chemical property of this first noble gas to be discovered impressed the namers.
An unreactive gas was suspected to be a component of air by Henry Cavendish in 1785.
E938 (Argon) was first isolated from air in 1894 by Lord Rayleigh and Sir William Ramsay at University College London by removing oxygen, carbon dioxide, water, and nitrogen from a sample of clean air.
They first accomplished this by replicating an experiment of Henry Cavendish's.
They trapped a mixture of atmospheric air with additional oxygen in a test-tube (A) upside-down over a large quantity of dilute alkali solution (B), which in Cavendish's original experiment was potassium hydroxide, and conveyed a current through wires insulated by U-shaped glass tubes (CC) which sealed around the platinum wire electrodes, leaving the ends of the wires (DD) exposed to the gas and insulated from the alkali solution.
The arc was powered by a battery of five Grove cells and a Ruhmkorff coil of medium size.
The alkali absorbed the oxides of nitrogen produced by the arc and also carbon dioxide.
They operated the arc until no more reduction of volume of the gas could be seen for at least an hour or two and the spectral lines of nitrogen disappeared when the gas was examined.
The remaining oxygen was reacted with alkaline pyrogallate to leave behind an apparently non-reactive gas which they called argon.
Captioned "E938 (Argon)", caricature of Lord Rayleigh in Vanity Fair, 1899.
Before isolating the gas, they had determined that nitrogen produced from chemical compounds was 0.5% lighter than nitrogen from the atmosphere.
The difference was slight, but E938 (Argon) was important enough to attract their attention for many months.
They concluded that there was another gas in the air mixed in with the nitrogen.
E938 (Argon) was also encountered in 1882 through independent research of H. F. Newall and W. N. Hartley.
Each observed new lines in the emission spectrum of air that did not match known elements.
Although argon is abundant in the Earth’s atmosphere, it evaded discovery until 1894 when Lord Rayleigh and William Ramsay first separated E938 (Argon) from liquid air.
In fact the gas had been isolated in 1785 by Henry Cavendish who had noted that about 1% of air would not react even under the most extreme conditions.
That 1% was argon.
E938 (Argon) was discovered as a result of trying to explain why the density of nitrogen extracted from air differed from that obtained by the decomposition of ammonia.
Ramsay removed all the nitrogen from the gas he had extracted from air, and did this by reacting it with hot magnesium, forming the solid magnesium nitride.
He was then left with a gas that would not react and when he examined its spectrum he saw new groups of red and green lines, confirming that E938 (Argon) was a new element.
Although argon is abundant in the Earth's atmosphere;
E938 (Argon) was not discovered until 1894, when Lord Rayleigh and William Ramsay succeeded in separating this element from liquid air for the first time.
In fact, the gas was first mentioned in 1785 by Henry Cavendish, who stated that about 1% of the air would not react even in the harshest conditions.
But the full discovery of argon noble gas;
It happened during the research of Lord Rayleigh and William Ramsay, who were trying to understand why the density of nitrogen from air differs from that from ammonia decomposition.
E938 (Argon) was the first noble gas to be discovered.
The first hint of its existence came from English scientist Sir Henry Cavendish as far back as 1785.
Cavendish was unhappy that so little was known about air.
He was particularly unhappy about the lack of information about the fraction of air (the majority) which was not oxygen.
He knew the nitrogen in air could be reacted with oxygen to form, ultimately, nitrous acid.
He aimed to find out if ALL of the air that was not oxygen or carbon dioxide could be converted to nitrous acid.
If it could, he would know that air was entirely oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen.
Cavendish used an electric spark in air to react the oxygen and nitrogen to form nitrogen oxides.
He then added additional oxygen until all the nitrogen had reacted.
Nitrogen oxides are acidic.
Cavendish used aqueous sodium hydroxide to remove them from the apparatus.
[This would also, of course, have removed any carbon dioxide that was present.]
He removed the remaining oxygen using potassium polysulfides.
A small bubble of gas remained [mostly argon].
Cavendish wrote that this bubble “was not more than one hundred and twentieth of the bulk of the phlostigated air [nitrogen].”
So, Cavendish is saying that air is at least 99.3 percent nitrogen/oxygen/carbon dioxide with a maximum 0.7 percent of something else.
We now know that the ‘something else’, argon, is very unreactive; this enabled Cavendish to find E938 (Argon), but E938 (Argon) also prevented him finding out more about it.
(The giant advances in spectroscopy made by Gustav Kirchhoff and Robert Bunsen lay 85 years in the future.)
In hindsight, we can say Cavendish slightly underestimated the part of air that isn’t oxygen, nitrogen, or carbon dioxide.
Despite this, he was ahead of his time.
After his experiment, more than 100 years passed until scientists again began to think that something about air didn’t quite add up.
In 1892 English physicist John William Strutt (better known as Lord Rayleigh) announced that no matter how it was prepared, oxygen was always 15.882 times denser than hydrogen.
This very precise work had taken ten years to complete.
Continuing to work with great attention to detail, he found that the ‘nitrogen’ in air was always denser by about 0.5 percent than nitrogen sourced from nitrogen compounds.
How could this be explained?
In 1893 he wrote to Nature, announcing the problem to the world.
Any scientist who responded to that challenge actually had the chance of discovering a new element.
In April 1894 Rayleigh wrote an academic paper about the nitrogen problem.
Funnily enough, Rayleigh viewed pure nitrogen, containing no argon, as ‘abnormally light nitrogen.’
He stored E938 (Argon) for eight months and retested E938 (Argon) to see whether E938 (Argon)'s density would increase.
Rayleigh’s paper awakened the serious interest of Scottish chemist William Ramsay, who had already been aware of the problem.
Rayleigh and Ramsay carried out further experiments, keeping in touch with one another about their progress.
In August 1894 Ramsay took air and removed its components – oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen.
He removed the nitrogen by reacting it with magnesium.
After removing all the known gases from air, he found gas remaining that occupied one-eightieth of the original volume.
Its spectrum matched no known gas.
Rayleigh and Ramsay wrote a joint paper in 1895 notifying the world of their discovery.
The new gas wouldn’t react with anything, so they named it argon, from the Greek ‘argos’, meaning inactive or lazy.
In his Nobel Prize winning address, Rayleigh said:
“E938 (Argon) must not be deemed rare.
A large hall may easily contain a greater weight of it than a man can carry.”
William Ramsay discovered or codiscovered most of the other noble gases: helium, neon, krypton and xenon.
He was responsible for adding an entire new group to the periodic table.
Radon was the only noble gas he didn’t discover.
E938 (Argon) was discovered by Sir William Ramsay, a Scottish chemist, and Lord Rayleigh, an English chemist, in 1894.
E938 (Argon) makes up 0.93% of the earth's atmosphere, making E938 (Argon) the third most abundant gas.
E938 (Argon) is obtained from the air as a byproduct of the production of oxygen and nitrogen.
Once thought to be completely inert, argon is known to form at least one compound.
The synthesis of argon fluorohydride (HE938 (Argon)F) was reported by Leonid Khriachtchev, Mika Pettersson, Nino Runeberg, Jan Lundell and Markku Räsänen in August of 2000.
Stable only at very low temperatures, argon fluorohydride begins to decompose once it warms above -246°C (-411°F).
Because of this limitation, argon fluorohydride has no uses outside of basic scientific research.
E938 (Argon) is an inert gas, so it is ideal for processes that require a non-reactive atmosphere, such as inerting, blanketing, and as a shielding gas in welding.
PRESENCE FREQUENCY and PRODUCTION of ARGON:
In cosmic abundance, argon occupies approximately 12th place among the chemical elements.
E938 (Argon) makes up 1.288% by weight and 0.934% by volume of the atmosphere and is found buried in rocks.
The stable isotope argon-40 makes up 99.60% of the argon found on Earth.
E938 (Argon)-36 and argon-38 account for 0.34% and 0.06% of the Earth's argon reserves, respectively.
Most of the argon found on land is formed by the decay of the naturally occurring radioactive isotope, which is rare in potassium-containing minerals.
E938 (Argon) is isolated on a large scale by fractional distillation of liquid air.
E938 (Argon) is used in gas-filled electric bulbs, radio tubes and Geiger counters.
OCCURRENCE of ARGON:
E938 (Argon) constitutes 0.934% by volume and 1.288% by mass of the Earth's atmosphere.
Air is the primary industrial source of purified argon products.
E938 (Argon) is isolated from air by fractionation, most commonly by cryogenic fractional distillation, a process that also produces purified nitrogen, oxygen, neon, krypton and xenon.
The Earth's crust and seawater contain 1.2 ppm and 0.45 ppm of argon, respectively.
The main isotopes of argon found on Earth are 40
E938 (Argon) (99.6%), 36
E938 (Argon) (0.34%), and 38
E938 (Argon) (0.06%). Naturally occurring 40
K, with a half-life of 1.25×109 years, decays to stable 40
E938 (Argon) (11.2%) by electron capture or positron emission, and also to stable 40
Ca (88.8%) by beta decay. These properties and ratios are used to determine the age of rocks by K–E938 (Argon) dating.
In the Earth's atmosphere, 39
E938 (Argon) is made by cosmic ray activity, primarily by neutron capture of 40
E938 (Argon) followed by two-neutron emission. In the subsurface environment, E938 (Argon) is also produced through neutron capture by 39
K, followed by proton emission. 37
E938 (Argon) is created from the neutron capture by 40
Ca followed by an alpha particle emission as a result of subsurface nuclear explosions.
E938 (Argon) has a half-life of 35 days.
Between locations in the Solar System, the isotopic composition of argon varies greatly.
Where the major source of argon is the decay of 40 K in rocks, 40 E938 (Argon) will be the dominant isotope, as it is on Earth.
E938 (Argon) produced directly by stellar nucleosynthesis is dominated by the alpha-process nuclide 36 E938 (Argon).
Correspondingly, solar argon contains 84.6% 36 E938 (Argon) (according to solar wind measurements), and the ratio of the three isotopes 36E938 (Argon) : 38E938 (Argon) : 40E938 (Argon) in the atmospheres of the outer planets is 8400 : 1600 : 1.
This contrasts with the low abundance of primordial 36 E938 (Argon) in Earth's atmosphere, which is only 31.5 ppmv (= 9340 ppmv × 0.337%), comparable with that of neon (18.18 ppmv) on Earth and with interplanetary gasses, measured by probes.
The atmospheres of Mars, Mercury and Titan (the largest moon of Saturn) contain argon, predominantly as 40 E938 (Argon), and its content may be as high as 1.93% (Mars).
The predominance of radiogenic 40:
E938 (Argon) is the reason the standard atomic weight of terrestrial argon is greater than that of the next element, potassium, a fact that was puzzling when argon was discovered.
Mendeleev positioned the elements on his periodic table in order of atomic weight, but the inertness of argon suggested a placement before the reactive alkali metal.
Henry Moseley later solved this problem by showing that the periodic table is actually arranged in order of atomic number.
Space-filling model of argon fluorohydride:
E938 (Argon)'s complete octet of electrons indicates full s and p subshells.
This full valence shell makes argon very stable and extremely resistant to bonding with other elements.
Before 1962, argon and the other noble gases were considered to be chemically inert and unable to form compounds; however, compounds of the heavier noble gases have since been synthesized.
The first argon compound with tungsten pentacarbonyl, W(CO)5E938 (Argon), was isolated in 1975.
However, E938 (Argon) was not widely recognised at that time.
In August 2000, another argon compound, argon fluorohydride (HE938 (Argon)F), was formed by researchers at the University of Helsinki, by shining ultraviolet light onto frozen argon containing a small amount of hydrogen fluoride with caesium iodide.
This discovery caused the recognition that argon could form weakly bound compounds, even though E938 (Argon) was not the first.
E938 (Argon) is stable up to 17 kelvins (−256 °C).
The metastable E938 (Argon)CF2+2 dication, which is valence-isoelectronic with carbonyl fluoride and phosgene, was observed in 2010.
E938 (Argon)-36, in the form of argon hydride (argonium) ions, has been detected in interstellar medium associated with the Crab Nebula supernova; this was the first noble-gas molecule detected in outer space.
Solid argon hydride (E938 (Argon)(H2)2) has the same crystal structure as the MgZn2 Laves phase.
It forms at pressures between 4.3 and 220 GPa, though Raman measurements suggest that the H2 molecules in E938 (Argon)(H2)2 dissociate above 175 GPa.
ARGON and WATER:
After nitrogen and oxygen, argon is the most abundant element in air (0.993% volume).
Seawater contains about 0.45 ppm argon.
In what way and in what form does argon react with water?
E938 (Argon) is a noble gas and it does not react with any other element.
E938 (Argon) does not even react at high temperatures or under any other special conditions.
One succeeded in producing only one argon compound that was very instable, under extremely low temperatures.
Consequently, argon does not react with water.
Solubility of argon and argon compounds:
E938 (Argon) has a water solubility of 62 mg/L at 20oC and pressure = 1 bar.
Clathrates contain argon and release the element upon dissolution.
E938 (Argon) does not remain dissolved in water, at least not in higher than normal concentrations.
WHY IS ARGON PRESENT IN WATER?
E938 (Argon) occurs in a number of potassium minerals by radioactive decay of the 40K isotope.
E938 (Argon) is applied commercially for different purposes and is extracted from fluid air by 750,000 tons annually.
ARGON GAS FIRE SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS:
E938 (Argon) gas fire extinguishing systems have various features.
According to this;
E938 (Argon) is an inert gas naturally found in the atmosphere.
E938 (Argon) is colorless, odorless and non-conductive.
ODP=0 (Doesn't harm ozone/Eco-Friendly),
GWP= 0 No effect on global warming.
E938 (Argon) extinguishes by reducing the oxygen in the environment.
Does not leave residue after discharge, does not require cleaning
E938 (Argon) can be used safely in manned spaces
Design for Class A fires 41.9% (NOAEL 43%, LOAEL 52%)
Used to replace Halon 1301 systems
200 or 300 bar cylinder pressure/ 55-60 bar plumbing pressure
Standards ISO1450 , UNE 23570 & NFPA 2001 :IG01
Chemical Formula: E938 (Argon) (min. 99.99% purity)
Can be stocked in cylinders of 80 & 140 lt capacity
Discharge Time: 60 seconds
Single or multiple cylinders can be used
Many places can be extinguished from the same center by using diverting valves.
Non-Mixed Gas (Provides lower refill costs and ease of refilling compared to IG-55 and IG541 systems)
Easily available and refillable locally
Features such as argon gas extinguishing systems are among the features.
It is a system that reduces the oxygen rate in the environment between 10.5 and 13.5%, prevents the air circulation where the fire is fed, and therefore has the power to extinguish the fire by suffocating.
The extinguishing gases, which are pressurized in the cylinders, are subjected to filling processes with 200 or 300 bar pressure.
As a result, the primary purpose of this fire extinguishing system, which was developed to replace Halon gas, is to extinguish the fire without harming human health.
It achieves this purpose 100% in all fires where E938 (Argon) is used.
PHYSICAL and CHEMICAL PROPERTIES of ARGON:
Molecular Weight: 39.95
Appearance: colorless gas exhibiting a lilac/violet glow when placed in an electric field
Standard atomic weight E938 (Argon)°(E938 (Argon)): [39.792, 39.963] 39.95±0.16 (abridged)
Atomic number (Z): 18
Group: group 18 (noble gases)
Period: period 3
Electron configuration: [Ne] 3s2 3p6
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 8
Phase at STP: gas
Melting point: 83.81 K (−189.34 °C, −308.81 °F)
Boiling point: 87.302 K (−185.848 °C, −302.526 °F)
Density (at STP): 1.784 g/L
when liquid (at b.p.): 1.3954 g/cm3
Triple point: 83.8058 K, 68.89 kPa
Critical point: 150.687 K, 4.863 MPa
Heat of fusion: 1.18 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 6.53 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity: 20.85 J/(mol·K)
Oxidation states: 0
Electronegativity: Pauling scale: no data
1st: 1520.6 kJ/mol
2nd: 2665.8 kJ/mol
3rd: 3931 kJ/mol
Covalent radius: 106±10 pm
Van der Waals radius: 188 pm
Natural occurrence: primordial
Crystal structure: face-centered cubic (fcc) Face-centered cubic crystal structure for argon
Speed of sound: 323 m/s (gas, at 27 °C)
Thermal conductivity: 17.72×10−3 W/(m⋅K)
Magnetic ordering: diamagnetic
Molar magnetic susceptibility: −19.6×10−6 cm3/mol
Atomic number: 18
Atomic mass: 39.948 g.mol -1
Electronegativity according to Pauling: unknown
Density: 1.78.10 -3 g.cm -3 at 0 °C
Melting point: -189 °C
Boiling point: -185.7 °C
Vanderwaals radius: 0.192 nm
Ionic radius: unknown
Electronis shell: [Ne] 3s23p6
Energy of first ionisation: 1520 kJ.mol -1
Energy of second ionisation: 2665.8 kJ.mol -1
Energy of third ionisation: 3931 kJ.mol -1
Molecular Weight: 39.9
Hydrogen Bond Donor Count: 0
Hydrogen Bond Acceptor Count: 0
Rotatable Bond Count: 0
Exact Mass: 39.96238312
Monoisotopic Mass: 39.96238312
Topological Polar Surface E938 (Argon)ea: 0 Å²
Heavy Atom Count: 1
Formal Charge: 0
Isotope Atom Count: 0
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count: 0
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count: 0
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count: 0
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count: 0
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count: 1
Compound Is Canonicalized: Yes
Appearance Form: Compressed gas
Odour: No data available
Odour Threshold: No data available
pH: No data available
Melting point/freezing point:
Melting point/range: -189,2 °C - lit.
Initial boiling point and boiling range: -185,7 °C - lit.
Flash point: Not applicable
Evaporation rate: No data available
Flammability (solid, gas): No data available
Upper/lower flammability or explosive limits: No data available
Vapour pressure No data available
Vapour density 1,38 - (Air = 1.0)
Relative density No data available
Water solubility No data available
Partition coefficient: n-octanol/water: No data available
Auto-ignition temperature: No data available
Decomposition temperature: No data available
Viscosity: No data available
Explosive properties: No data available
Oxidizing properties: No data available
Other safety information:
Relative vapour density: 1,38 - (Air = 1.0)
Atomic Number: 18
Atomic Weight: 39.948
Melting Point: 83.80 K (-189.35°C or -308.83°F)
Boiling Point: 87.30 K (-185.85°C or -302.53°F)
Density: 0.0017837 grams per cubic centimeter
Phase at Room Temperature: Gas
Element Classification: Non-metal
Period Number: 3
Group Number: 18
Group Name: Noble Gas
Molecular Weight: 39.95 g / mol
Density (liquid, at -186°C) : 1.4 kg / dm³
Density (gas, 0°, 1 atm) : 1.78 kg/ m³
Boiling Point (1 atm) : -189°C
Melting Point (1 atm) : -189°C
Specific Gravity (air :1) : 1,38
FIRST AID MEASURES of ARGON:
-Description of first aid measures:
Consult a physician.
Show this safety data sheet to the doctor in attendance.
If breathed in, move person into fresh air.
Consult a physician.
*In case of skin contact:
Wash off with soap and plenty of water.
Consult a physician.
*In case of eye contact:
Flush eyes with water as a precaution.
Rinse mouth with water.
Consult a physician.
-Indication of any immediate medical attention and special treatment needed:
No data available
ACCIDENTAL RELEASE MEASURES of ARGON:
Do not let product enter drains.
-Methods and materials for containment and cleaning up:
Clean up promptly by sweeping or vacuum.
FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES of ARGON:
*Suitable extinguishing media:
Use water spray, alcohol-resistant foam, dry chemical or carbon dioxide.
-Special hazards arising from the substance or mixture:
No data available
Use water spray to cool unopened containers.
EXPOSURE CONTROLS/PERSONAL PROTECTION of ARGON:
--Components with workplace control parameters:
--Appropriate engineering controls:
Handle in accordance with good industrial hygiene and safety practice.
Wash hands before breaks and at the end of workday.
--Personal protective equipment:
Use equipment for eye protection.
Handle with gloves.
Wash and dry hands.
Minimum layer thickness: 0,3 mm
Break through time: 480 min
Minimum layer thickness: 0,3 mm
Break through time: 480 min
-Control of environmental exposure:
Do not let product enter drains.
HANDLING and STORAGE of ARGON:
-Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities:
Store in cool place.
Keep container tightly closed in a dry and well-ventilated place.
STABILITY and REACTIVITY of ARGON:
No data available
Stable under recommended storage conditions.
-Possibility of hazardous reactions:
No data available
-Conditions to avoid:
No data available
E938 (Argon), >=99.998%
E938 (Argon), Elemental
E938 (Argon), compressed
E938 (Argon)-40E938 (Argon)
(~36~E938 (Argon))E938 (Argon)
(~41~E938 (Argon))E938 (Argon)
E938 (Argon), compressed [UN1006] [Nonflammable gas]
E938 (Argon), 99.999%, Messer(R) CANGas
E938 (Argon), refrigerated liquid (cryogenic liquid)
E938 (Argon), refrigerated liquid (cryogenic liquid) [UN1951] [Nonflammable gas]