E942 (Nitrous oxide)=Hyponitrous acid anhydride=Laughing gas=Dinitrogen oxide=Dinitrogen monoxide
CAS #: 10024-97-2
EC Number: 233-032-0
Molar mass:44.013 g/mol
IUPAC name: E942 (Nitrous oxide)
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is a colourless gas that is commonly used for sedation and pain relief, but is also used by people to feel intoxicated or high.
NOS is a colourless gas sold in canisters, usually inhaled using a balloon.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is a colourless gas that’s most commonly found in pressurised metal canisters.
You may have seen these metal canisters lying around in streets outside bars and nightclubs.
Some people say that E942 (Nitrous oxide) has a slightly sweet smell and taste.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is commonly used by dentists and medical professionals to sedate patients undergoing minor medical procedures.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is also a food additive when used as a propellant for whipped cream, and is used in the automotive industry to enhance engine performance.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is also increasingly being used to treat people withdrawing from alcohol dependence.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is classified as a dissociative anaesthetic and has been found to produce dissociation of the mind from the body (a sense of floating), distorted perceptions and in rare cases, visual hallucinations.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is more soluble than nitrogen, and its use in large concentrations is associated with the second-gas effect, diffusion hypoxia and the expansion of air-filled spaces in the body.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) has analgesic effects, probably through central opioid receptor stimulation and spinal cord α2 stimulation.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is non-flammable, but does support combustion.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) has minimal effects on most organ systems in the acute setting.
Repeated use of E942 (Nitrous oxide), particularly during lengthy procedures, may precipitate megaloblastic anaemia and spinal cord degeneration.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is an inhalatory gas used as an adjunct to improve oxygenation and reduce the need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in certain neonates with hypoxic respiratory failure.
E942 (Nitrous oxide), commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O.
At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, with a slight metallic scent and taste.
At elevated temperatures, E942 (Nitrous oxide) is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain reducing effects.
E942 (Nitrous oxide)’s colloquial name, "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling E942 (Nitrous oxide), a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines.
E942 (Nitrous oxide)'s atmospheric concentration reached 333 parts per billion (ppb) in 2020, increasing at a rate of about 1 ppb annually.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs.
Global accounting of N2O sources and sinks over the decade ending 2016 indicates that about 40% of the average 17 TgN/yr (Teragrams of Nitrogen per year) of emissions originated from human activity, and shows that emissions growth chiefly came from expanding agriculture and industry sources within emerging economies.
Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, E942 (Nitrous oxide) also substantially contributes to global warming.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) (N2O), also called dinitrogen monoxide, laughing gas, or nitrous, one of several oxides of nitrogen, a colourless gas with pleasant, sweetish odour and taste, which when inhaled produces insensibility to pain preceded by mild hysteria, sometimes laughter.
(Because inhalation of small amounts provides a brief euphoric effect and E942 (Nitrous oxide) is not illegal to possess, the substance has been used as a recreational drug.)
E942 (Nitrous oxide) was discovered by the English chemist Joseph Priestley in 1772; another English chemist, Humphry Davy, later named it and showed its physiological effect.
A principal use of E942 (Nitrous oxide) is as an anesthetic in surgical operations of short duration; prolonged inhalation causes death.
The gas is also used as a propellant in food aerosols.
In automobile racing, E942 (Nitrous oxide) is injected into an engine’s air intake; the extra oxygen allows the engine to burn more fuel per stroke.
It is prepared by the action of zinc on dilute nitric acid, by the action of hydroxylamine hydrochloride (NH2OH•HCl) on sodium nitrite (NaNO2), and, most commonly, by the decomposition of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3).
CAS #: 10024-97-2
E942 (Nitrous oxide), refrigerated liquid appears as a colorless liquid.
Density 1.22 g / cm3 at E942 (Nitrous oxide)’s boiling point of -89°C.
Boils to give a colorless gas that is sweet-smelling and moderately toxic.
The gas has narcotic effects when inhaled (laughing gas).
Shipped under refrigeration.
Vapor pressure is at about 745 psig at 70°F.
Used to freeze foods and to manufacture other chemicals.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is an odorless, colorless, non-flammable gas.
While E942 (Nitrous oxide) is not flammable, E942 (Nitrous oxide) will support combustion to the same extent as oxygen does.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) leads to a state of euphoria, explaining its nickname ‘laughing gas.’
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is the least potent inhalational anesthetic.
Compared to other anesthetic agents, E942 (Nitrous oxide) causes minimal effects on respiration and hemodynamics.
This activity outlines the indications, mechanism of action, methods of administration, significant adverse effects, contraindications, monitoring, and toxicity of E942 (Nitrous oxide), so providers can direct patient therapy to optimal outcomes in anesthesia and other conditions where E942 (Nitrous oxide) has therapeutic benefit.
Review the importance of improving care coordination among the interprofessional team to enhance the delivery of care for patients who can benefit from the administration of E942 (Nitrous oxide).
The combination of inhaled E942 (Nitrous oxide) and oxygen is a safe and effective means of managing pain and anxiety in dentistry, when used appropriately.
There is an inherent safety margin for the proper administration of E942 (Nitrous oxide)-oxygen sedation.
At least 12 delivery system audio and visual safety features have been developed to help avoid adverse events during E942 (Nitrous oxide)-oxygen administration.
Adopting appropriate work practices and following recommendations from the ADA Council on Scientific Affairs and Council on Practice may help dental offices safely use E942 (Nitrous oxide)-oxygen.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) research indicates that controls such as system maintenance, proper ventilation and good work practices can effectively reduce E942 (Nitrous oxide) concentrations in dental operatories to approximately 25 ppm (i.e., 45 milligrams per cubic meter) during analgesia administration (i.e., the exposure limit recommended by NIOSH).
Mechanism of action:
Findings to date indicate that E942 (Nitrous oxide) induces opioid peptide release in the brain stem leading to the activation of descending noradrenergic neurones, which results in modulation of the nociceptive process in the spinal cord.
Several receptor–effector mechanisms including dopamine receptors, α2 adrenoceptors, benzodiazepine receptors and -methyl- -aspartate (NMDA) receptors have been implicated although the relationship of one with the other is not known.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) (N20) is a colorless gas stored as a liquid.
Breathing E942 (Nitrous oxide) can cause dizziness, unconsciousness, and even death.
Long-term exposure can lead to infertility.
Contact with liquid E942 (Nitrous oxide) can cause severe frostbite.
Workers may be harmed from exposure to E942 (Nitrous oxide).
The level of exposure depends on the dose, duration, and type of work being done.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is used in many industries.
It can come from anesthetic equipment, surgical patients, and storage cylinders.
Some examples of workers at risk of E942 (Nitrous oxide) exposure include the following:
-Medical personnel who work in surgical rooms in hospitals, surgery centers, or medical offices
-Dental workers where E942 (Nitrous oxide) gas is used as an anesthetic
-Recovery room personnel who are exposed to outgassing patients who emit fumes after surgery
-Workers in laboratories and facilities where compressed gas cylinders are moved and stored
-Service workers who clean and maintain surgical rooms before or after surgery
NIOSH recommends that employers use the Hierarchy of Controls to prevent worker exposures.
If you work in an industry that uses E942 (Nitrous oxide), read chemical labels and the accompanying Safety Data Sheet for hazard information.
Visit NIOSH’s page on Managing Chemical Safety in the Workplace to learn more about controlling chemical workplace exposures.
The following resources provide information about occupational exposure to E942 (Nitrous oxide).
Useful search terms for E942 (Nitrous oxide) include “dinitrogen monoxide,” “hyponitrous acid anhydride,” and “laughing gas.”
Application of E942 (Nitrous oxide):
E942 (Nitrous oxide) allows selective oxygen atom transfer reactions while minimizing the risk of over-oxidation.
Therefore, E942 (Nitrous oxide) is used to oxidize disilenes, silanimines, silaethenes and silylenes.
Along with Ru-porphyrin catalyst, E942 (Nitrous oxide) can be used in the epoxidation of olefins and steroids.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) can be used as an oxidant in for the metal-catalyzed oxidative homo- and cross-coupling of Grignard reagents.
N2O can also be used as a nitrogen-dopant source to synthesize p-type zinc oxide nanowires (ZnO NWs) via vapor-liquid-solid growth.
CAS #: 10024-97-2
Otherwise known as laughing gas, E942 (Nitrous oxide) – N2O – has been used as an anaesthetic since the 19th century.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is commonly used during childbirth, after trauma and in end-of-life care, usually in a 50-50 mixture with oxygen, sometimes called “gas and air”.
E942 (Nitrous oxide)’s use as a recreational drug also has a long history, dating back to “laughing gas parties” held by chemist Humphry Davy in 1799. He described effects including giddiness, flushed cheeks, intense pleasure, and “sublime emotion connected with highly vivid ideas”.
These days, people seeking a high from the gas usually obtain E942 (Nitrous oxide) in small steel cartridges sold to the catering industry for making whipped cream.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is then dispensed into a balloon, which users breathe from until they achieve the desired effect. Supplying E942 (Nitrous oxide) for recreational purposes is illegal in the UK under the Psychoactive Substances Act 2016.
The effects come on very rapidly when the drug is inhaled and subside just as quickly.
E942 (Nitrous oxide)’s precise actions in the brain aren’t well understood, but many of E942 (Nitrous oxide)’s effects may result from blocking NMDA receptors, stopping them from being activated by the brain chemical glutamate.
Breathing E942 (Nitrous oxide) from a balloon is usually quite safe, but some users have died after trying other methods to inhale the gas for longer, such as putting a bag over their heads, that result in oxygen deprivation.
Inhaling E942 (Nitrous oxide) directly from a pressurised container is also very dangerous.
Chronic use of E942 (Nitrous oxide) can deplete vitamin B12 reserves in the body, causing damage to the nervous system.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is also a potent greenhouse gas and ozone-depleting chemical.
Although E942 (Nitrous oxide) is present in the atmosphere at much lower concentrations than carbon dioxide – just 330 parts per billion – E942 (Nitrous oxide) has 300 times the heat-trapping capability.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) gets into the atmosphere from soil fertilisers, fuel combustion, industrial emissions and peat circles in the Arctic.
A pulse of E942 (Nitrous oxide) released from plants may have hastened the end of the last ice age 14,500 years ago.
Further from home, E942 (Nitrous oxide) may provide a clue for scientists looking for life on Mars.
CAS #: 10024-97-2
Legitimate uses of E942 (Nitrous oxide):
E942 (Nitrous oxide) (N2O) is a colourless gas discovered by Joseph Priestly in 1772.
In human and veterinary medicine, E942 (Nitrous oxide) is used with oxygen as an anaesthesia due to its pain-relieving effects.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is often referred to as ‘laughing gas’ because E942 (Nitrous oxide) can give those who inhale E942 (Nitrous oxide) a euphoric mood.
Other legitimate uses of E942 (Nitrous oxide) include as a fuel additive and as an approved food additive when used as a propellant for whipped cream.
Uses of E942 (Nitrous oxide):
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is used rocket motor as an oxidizer
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is used as a food additive as an aerosol spray propellant
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is used in the manufacturing of semiconductors
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is used in the medical field as an analgesic and anaesthetic
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is used as a flavouring ingredient
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is used in car racing as a fuel additive
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is used in dentistry
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is used to manufacture chemicals
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is used in surgery
Laughing gas is an anesthetic used by medical professionals to help you remain calm before a procedure.
It’s not meant to put you fully to sleep.
Before your procedure, your doctor will ask you for your consent to use E942 (Nitrous oxide).
After that, a plastic mask will be placed over your mouth and nose.
The laughing gas flows through the mask and you breathe it in.
Children may be given laughing gas through a nasal hood, which covers their nose but not their mouth.
Sometimes, a familiar scent will be added in to help them get used to having the mask or nasal hood on.
You’ll start to feel the effects of the laughing gas within a few minutes.
As laughing gas doesn’t put you fully to sleep, you’ll still be able to hear what’s going on around you. You may still be able to respond to questions that your doctor asks you and follow the instructions that they give you throughout the procedure.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is a depressant, so it slows your body down.
Once E942 (Nitrous oxide) kicks in, you may feel:
E942 (Nitrous oxide) gets the name “laughing gas” because of these effects.
Some people may also experience mild hallucinations while under the use of laughing gas.
Physically, you might feel like your arms and legs are heavy.
You may also experience a tingling sensation in your limbs.
Once your procedure is over, your doctor will remove the mask that’s providing the E942 (Nitrous oxide). The effects of laughing gas typically wear off within a few minutes.
Children might be given 100% oxygen following the removal of the E942 (Nitrous oxide) mask.
The oxygen helps them to fully recover within minutes.
The gas is inhaled, typically by discharging nitrous gas cartridges (bulbs or whippets) into another object, such as a balloon, or directly into the mouth.
Inhaling E942 (Nitrous oxide) produces a rapid rush of euphoria and feeling of floating or excitement for a short period of time.
Other Names: Laughing gas, nitro, N2O, NOS, nangs, whippet, hippy crack, buzz bomb, balloons, sweet air, protoxide of nitrogen, hypoE942 (Nitrous oxide), dinitrogen oxide, dinitrogen monoxide
CAS #: 10024-97-2
Regulating access to and labelling of E942 (Nitrous oxide) in food containers:
While regulations on medicines and narcotics apply when E942 (Nitrous oxide) is used medically, its food use as a compression gas in whipped cream dispensers is permitted, as E942 (Nitrous oxide) is then considered a processing aid and food additive.
Such regulations take no account of how these products are misused.
ANSES thus stresses the need to regulate access to and labelling of E942 (Nitrous oxide) for use in food.
A discussion should follow on from the bill adopted in December 2019 by the Senate, which aims to protect minors from the harmful uses of E942 (Nitrous oxide) by limiting the quantities for sale, banning its sale to under eighteens and implementing special labelling.
In France, municipal by-laws have been passed to prohibit the sale of E942 (Nitrous oxide) to minors and its consumption in public places.
Because N2O is a gas, effects depend on its partial pressure in the administered gas mixture, and the partial pressure is directly proportional to the percentage of N2O in the mixture.
Concentrations are therefore expressed in percentages.
Clinical responses to different concentrations of N2O are as follows:
-40% behavioral disinhibition
The analgesic effect of 20 percent N2O is comparable to that of 15 mg subcutaneous morphine (2).
In 1991, the gas was used in more than half (2) of U.S. dental offices in concentrations of less than 50 percent in combination with oxygen to provide conscious sedation.
The average concentration of N2O used for dental procedures is 40 percent .
In higher concentrations, N2O f unctions as an anesthetic.
Because of its low potency (high MAC value), it is not used as a sole general anesthetic.
However, it is often combined with more potent anesthetics to provide general anesthesia with analgesia, rapid recovery, and a limited complication incidence.
To distinguish between analgesic and anesthetic use of N2O, the former is also called psychotropic analgesic E942 (Nitrous oxide) (PAN).
PAN has been used successfully to reduce craving in people who are withdrawing from alcohol, cannabis, and nicotine and may therefore be able to prevent relapses in these patients.
Other contraindications for the use of N2O include respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD).
Patients with respiratory infections contaminate tubing and the breathing apparatus and place other patients at risk.
N2O with oxygen should not be used in patients with COPD because these patients depend partly on a low blood oxygen concentration to initiate a breathing stimulus.
Pregnancy is not a contraindication if sedation is required; N2O with oxygen may even be recommended.
CAS #: 10024-97-2
Effects of E942 (Nitrous oxide):
There is no safe level of drug use.
Use of any drug always carries risk.
It’s important to be careful when taking any type of drug.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) affects everyone differently, based on:
-the amount of E942 (Nitrous oxide) taken
-the user’s size, weight and health
-whether the person is used to taking E942 (Nitrous oxide)
-whether other drugs are taken around the same time
Mixing with other drugs:
There is no current evidence demonstrating that mixing E942 (Nitrous oxide) with other substances increases health risks.
Health and safety
When inhaling directly from tanks or whippets (bulbs), the gas is intensely cold (-40C degrees) and can cause frostbite to the nose, lips and throat (including vocal cords).
As the gas is also under constant pressure, it can cause ruptures in lung tissue when inhaled directly from these containers.
Releasing the E942 (Nitrous oxide) into a balloon helps to warm the gas and normalise the pressure before inhaling.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is inhaled.
People open the canister, transfer the gas into a container (usually a balloon), then inhale from the balloon.
Inhaling E942 (Nitrous oxide) directly from the canister is very dangerous because E942 (Nitrous oxide) is under such high pressure.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) can cause a spasm of the throat muscle and stop a person breathing.
People can also harm themselves if they use faulty gas dispensers, which may explode.
Dispensing several gas canisters consecutively with one cracker (a handheld device used to ‘crack’ a E942 (Nitrous oxide) bulb/whippet) can also cause cold burns to the hands.
How long the effects last and the drug stays in your system depends on how much you’ve taken, your size and what other drugs you may have also taken.
How long the effects last and the drug stays in your system depends on how much you’ve taken, your size, whether you’ve eaten and what other drugs you may have also taken.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is often taken in combination with other drugs.
So E942 (Nitrous oxide)’s effects can be unpredictable, as it depends on what other drugs are being taken with it.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is a short acting drug which can lead to people to frequently re-dose and end up using more than they intended.
It is dangerous to mix with other drugs
Every time you mix drugs you take on new risks.
Mixing E942 (Nitrous oxide) with alcohol is especially dangerous as it can increase the risks associated with both substances and can lead to an increased risk of accidents.
It is possible to reduce the risks associated with using E942 (Nitrous oxide) by not:
-using E942 (Nitrous oxide) alone or in dangerous or isolated places
-putting plastic bags over the head or impeding breathing in any way
-spraying near flammable substances, such as naked flames or cigarettes
-drinking alcohol or taking other drugs
-standing or dancing while inhaling, as the user may pass out.
There are no significant withdrawal symptoms apart from cravings to use more nitrous.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) may be used as an oxidiser in a rocket motor.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) has advantages over other oxidisers in that E942 (Nitrous oxide) is much less toxic, and because of E942 (Nitrous oxide) ‘s stability at room temperature, E942 (Nitrous oxide) is also easier to store and relatively safe to carry on a flight.
As a secondary benefit, E942 (Nitrous oxide) may be decomposed readily to form breathing air.
E942 (Nitrous oxide)’s high density and low storage pressure (when maintained at low temperature) enable E942 (Nitrous oxide) to be highly competitive with stored high-pressure gas systems.
In a 1914 patent, American rocket pioneer Robert Goddard suggested E942 (Nitrous oxide) and gasoline as possible propellants for a liquid-fuelled rocket.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) has been the oxidiser of choice in several hybrid rocket designs (using solid fuel with a liquid or gaseous oxidiser).
The combination of E942 (Nitrous oxide) with hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene fuel has been used by SpaceShipOne and others.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) also is notably used in amateur and high power rocketry with various plastics as the fuel.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) also may be used in a monopropellant rocket.
In the presence of a heated catalyst, N2O will decompose exothermically into nitrogen and oxygen, at a temperature of approximately 1,070 °F (577 °C).
Because of the large heat release, the catalytic action rapidly becomes secondary, as thermal autodecomposition becomes dominant.
In a vacuum thruster, this may provide a monopropellant specific impulse (Isp) of as much as 180 s. While noticeably less than the Isp available from hydrazine thrusters (monopropellant or bipropellant with dinitrogen tetroxide), the decreased toxicity makes E942 (Nitrous oxide) an option worth investigating.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is said to deflagrate at approximately 600 °C (1,112 °F) at a pressure of 309 psi (21 atmospheres).
At 600 psi, for example, the required ignition energy is only 6 joules, whereas N2O at 130 psi a 2,500-joule ignition energy input is insufficient.
Internal combustion engine:
In vehicle racing, E942 (Nitrous oxide) (often referred to as just "nitrous") allows the engine to burn more fuel by providing more oxygen during combustion.
The increase in oxygen allows for an increase in the injection of fuel, allowing the engine to produce more engine power.
The gas is not flammable at a low pressure/temperature, but E942 (Nitrous oxide) delivers more oxygen than atmospheric air by breaking down at elevated temperatures, about 570 degrees F (~300C). Therefore, E942 (Nitrous oxide) often is mixed with another fuel that is easier to deflagrate.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is a strong oxidising agent, roughly equivalent to hydrogen peroxide, and much stronger than oxygen gas.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is stored as a compressed liquid; the evaporation and expansion of liquid E942 (Nitrous oxide) in the intake manifold causes a large drop in intake charge temperature, resulting in a denser charge, further allowing more air/fuel mixture to enter the cylinder.
Sometimes E942 (Nitrous oxide) is injected into (or prior to) the intake manifold, whereas other systems directly inject, right before the cylinder (direct port injection) to increase power.
The technique was used during World War II by Luftwaffe aircraft with the GM-1 system to boost the power output of aircraft engines.
Originally meant to provide the Luftwaffe standard aircraft with superior high-altitude performance, technological considerations limited its use to extremely high altitudes.
Accordingly, it was only used by specialised planes such as high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft, high-speed bombers and high-altitude interceptor aircraft.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) sometimes could be found on Luftwaffe aircraft also fitted with another engine-boost system, MW 50, a form of water injection for aviation engines that used methanol for E942 (Nitrous oxide)’s boost capabilities.
One of the major problems of using E942 (Nitrous oxide) in a reciprocating engine is that E942 (Nitrous oxide) can produce enough power to damage or destroy the engine.
Very large power increases are possible, and if the mechanical structure of the engine is not properly reinforced, the engine may be severely damaged, or destroyed, during this kind of operation.
It is very important with E942 (Nitrous oxide) augmentation of petrol engines to maintain proper operating temperatures and fuel levels to prevent "pre-ignition", or "detonation" (sometimes referred to as "knock").
Most problems that are associated with E942 (Nitrous oxide) do not come from mechanical failure due to the power increases. Since E942 (Nitrous oxide) allows a much denser charge into the cylinder, E942 (Nitrous oxide) dramatically increases cylinder pressures.
The increased pressure and temperature can cause problems such as melting the piston or valves.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) also may crack or warp the piston or head and cause pre-ignition due to uneven heating.
Automotive-grade liquid E942 (Nitrous oxide) differs slightly from medical-grade E942 (Nitrous oxide).
A small amount of sulfur dioxide (SO2) is added to prevent substance abuse.
Multiple washes through a base (such as sodium hydroxide) can remove this, decreasing the corrosive properties observed when SO2 is further oxidised during combustion into sulfuric acid, making emissions cleaner.
The gas is approved for use as a food additive (E number: E942), specifically as an aerosol spray propellant.
E942 (Nitrous oxide)’s most common uses in this context are in aerosol whipped cream canisters and cooking sprays.
The gas is extremely soluble in fatty compounds.
In aerosol whipped cream, E942 (Nitrous oxide) is dissolved in the fatty cream until E942 (Nitrous oxide) leaves the can, when E942 (Nitrous oxide) becomes gaseous and thus creates foam.
Used in this way, E942 (Nitrous oxide) produces whipped cream which is four times the volume of the liquid, whereas whipping air into cream only produces twice the volume.
If air were used as a propellant, oxygen would accelerate rancidification of the butterfat, but E942 (Nitrous oxide) inhibits such degradation.
Carbon dioxide cannot be used for whipped cream because it is acidic in water, which would curdle the cream and give it a seltzer-like "sparkling" sensation.
The whipped cream produced with E942 (Nitrous oxide) is unstable, however, and will return to a more liquid state within half an hour to one hour.
Thus, the method is not suitable for decorating food that will not be served immediately.
During December 2016, some manufacturers reported a shortage of aerosol whipped creams in the United States due to an explosion at the Air Liquide E942 (Nitrous oxide) facility in Florida in late August. With a major facility offline, the disruption caused a shortage resulting in the company diverting the supply of E942 (Nitrous oxide) to medical clients rather than to food manufacturing.
The shortage came during the Christmas and holiday season when canned whipped cream use is normally at its highest.
Similarly, cooking spray, which is made from various types of oils combined with lecithin (an emulsifier), may use E942 (Nitrous oxide) as a propellant.
Other propellants used in cooking spray include food-grade alcohol and propane.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) has been used in dentistry and surgery, as an anaesthetic and analgesic, since 1844.
In the early days, the gas was administered through simple inhalers consisting of a breathing bag made of rubber cloth.
Today, the gas is administered in hospitals by means of an automated relative analgesia machine, with an anaesthetic vaporiser and a medical ventilator, that delivers a precisely dosed and breath-actuated flow of E942 (Nitrous oxide) mixed with oxygen in a 2:1 ratio.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is a weak general anaesthetic, and so is generally not used alone in general anaesthesia, but used as a carrier gas (mixed with oxygen) for more powerful general anaesthetic drugs such as sevoflurane or desflurane.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) has a minimum alveolar concentration of 105% and a blood/gas partition coefficient of 0.46.
The use of E942 (Nitrous oxide) in anaesthesia, however, can increase the risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting.
Dentists use a simpler machine which only delivers an N2O/O2 mixture for the patient to inhale while conscious.
The patient is kept conscious throughout the procedure, and retains adequate mental faculties to respond to questions and instructions from the dentist.
Inhalation of E942 (Nitrous oxide) is used frequently to relieve pain associated with childbirth, trauma, oral surgery and acute coronary syndrome (includes heart attacks).
E942 (Nitrous oxide) ‘s use during labour has been shown to be a safe and effective aid for birthing women.
E942 (Nitrous oxide)’s use for acute coronary syndrome is of unknown benefit.
In Britain and Canada, Entonox and Nitronox are used commonly by ambulance crews (including unregistered practitioners) as rapid and highly effective analgesic gas.
Fifty percent E942 (Nitrous oxide) can be considered for use by trained non-professional first aid responders in prehospital settings, given the relative ease and safety of administering 50% E942 (Nitrous oxide) as an analgesic.
The rapid reversibility of E942 (Nitrous oxide)’s effect would also prevent it from precluding diagnosis.
Recreational inhalation of E942 (Nitrous oxide), with the purpose of causing euphoria and/or slight hallucinations, began as a phenomenon for the British upper class in 1799, known as "laughing gas parties".
Starting in the nineteenth century, widespread availability of the gas for medical and culinary purposes allowed the recreational use to expand greatly throughout the world.
In the United Kingdom, as of 2014, E942 (Nitrous oxide) was estimated to be used by almost half a million young people at nightspots, festivals and parties.
The legality of that use varies greatly from country to country, and even from city to city in some countries.
Widespread recreational use of the drug throughout the UK was featured in the 2017 Vice documentary Inside The Laughing Gas Black Market, in which journalist Matt Shea met with dealers of the drug who stole it from hospitals, although with E942 (Nitrous oxide) canisters being readily available online, the incidents of hospital theft are expected to be extremely rare.
A significant issue cited in London's press is the effect of E942 (Nitrous oxide) canister littering, which is highly visible and causes significant complaint from communities.
No specific monitoring is necessary for E942 (Nitrous oxide) use.
An in-line oxygen analyzer with an alarm should be used to prevent the delivery of a hypoxic gas mixture.
Modern anesthetic machines have fail-safe mechanisms to prevent this from occurring (E942 (Nitrous oxide)-oxygen proportioning systems).
Standard ASA monitoring is necessary when administering E942 (Nitrous oxide) for any indication.
Production and storage of E942 (Nitrous oxide):
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is produced commercially by heating ammonium nitrate to 240°C.
Water vapour and impurities, including higher oxides of nitrogen, ammonia and nitric acid, are subsequently removed by passage through a series of washers and scrubbers.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is stored in French-blue cylinders (pin-index 3, 5) pressurized to ∼4400 kPa at room temperature.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is usually stored below its critical temperature, and thus exists simultaneously in liquid and vapour phases.
The cylinders have a filling ratio of 0.75 in temperate countries and 0.67 in tropical countries.
Unlike cylinders containing pressurized gas, the cylinder pressure remains effectively constant until all the liquid E942 (Nitrous oxide) vaporizes.
A slight fall in pressure may occur during continued venting from a cylinder, and ice may form on the outside of cylinders owing to the cooling consequent upon E942 (Nitrous oxide)'s latent heat of vaporization. Large institutions often use pipeline supply of E942 (Nitrous oxide).
This is achieved through a large central bank of cylinders, including reserve banks.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is a colorless, odorless to sweet-smelling inorganic gas that was first used in surgical and dental anesthesia in the mid-1800s.
Today, the combination of inhaled E942 (Nitrous oxide) and oxygen, when used appropriately, can be a safe and effective means of managing pain and anxiety in dentistry.
Referred to as “conscious sedation,” “relative analgesia,” or “E942 (Nitrous oxide)-oxygen sedation,”inhaled E942 (Nitrous oxide)-oxygen is the most used gaseous anesthetic in the world and a 2007 survey by the ADA estimated that 70% of dental practices using any form of sedation employed E942 (Nitrous oxide)-oxygen sedation.
CAS #: 10024-97-2
E942 (Nitrous oxide)-Oxygen Sedation:
Inhalational anesthetics, including E942 (Nitrous oxide)-oxygen, are absorbed and distributed as the result of pressure gradients in the lungs and equilibrate when the tension of inspired gas equals that in alveoli, blood, and tissues.
Gases that have low solubility in blood and adipose tissue, such as E942 (Nitrous oxide), will achieve blood tension and equilibrate more rapidly; this provides the driving force for inhalation agents to enter the brain, where anesthetic action occurs.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) has the fastest onset among inhalation agents and is transported in blood as free gas; E942 (Nitrous oxide) does not combine with hemoglobin, and E942 (Nitrous oxide) does not undergo biotransformation.
Systemic elimination occurs with pulmonary exhalation; E942 (Nitrous oxide)’s low solubility allows E942 (Nitrous oxide) to be removed rapidly from the body.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) irreversibly oxidizes vitamin B12, reducing the activity of B12-dependent enzymes such as methionine and thymidylate synthetases.
This is the likely mechanism for adverse health effects reported in those individuals who are chronically exposed to trace amounts of the drug, such as infertility, spontaneous abortion, blood dyscrasias, and neurologic deficits.
According to the ADA sedation and anesthesia guidelines (adopted in October 2016), inhaled E942 (Nitrous oxide)-oxygen, when used in combination with sedative agent(s) may produce minimal, moderate, or deep sedation, or general anesthesia.
Characteristics and Properties of E942 (Nitrous oxide):
The characteristics and properties of E942 (Nitrous oxide) are as follows:
E942 (Nitrous oxide) reduces or eliminates anxiety.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) cannot produce profound surgical anesthesia.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) can be used as a substitute to local anesthesia in minor procedures (small restorations and a supplement to local anesthesia) but not in extensive procedures (extractions).
E942 (Nitrous oxide) reduces the gag reflex but not the cough reflex.
There is minimal or nonexistent toxicity when used on healthy patients for a reasonable length of time.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is highly insoluble in blood and water (resulting in quick absorption and elimination by the patient).
Ninety-nine percent of its elimination from the body is through the lungs without significant biotransformation (has minimal effect on other organ systems).
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is not metabolized through the liver (little interaction with other drugs except for enhancing the effects of sedative and anti-anxiety drugs).
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is heavier than air with a specific gravity of 1.53.
This property is helpful when introducing E942 (Nitrous oxide)/oxygen to an extremely anxious patient by placing the nasal hood a few inches above an anxious patient with the E942 (Nitrous oxide) to descending into the patient’s nose, enabling gradual desensitization to the experience.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) Is gas at room temperature, but when compressed into a cylinder becomes a liquid.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) Is non-flammable, however, E942 (Nitrous oxide) can support combustion.
(If placed near an open flame, will burn brighter.)
At extreme altitudes (above 10,000 feet), there is a need for an increase in concentration (~5%) to obtain the same effect.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is a colorless and virtually odorless gas with a faint, sweet smell.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) causes central nervous system (CNS) depression and euphoria with little effect on the respiratory system.
The analgesic effect appears to be initiated by neuronal release of endogenous opioid peptides with subsequent activation of opioid receptors and descending Gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors and noradrenergic pathways that modulate nociceptive processing at the spinal level.
The anxiolytic effect involves activation of the GABAA receptor either directly or indirectly through the benzodiazepine binding site.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) has rapid uptake, being absorbed quickly from the alveoli and in a simple solution in the serum.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is relatively insoluble, passing down a gradient into other tissues and cells in the body, such as the CNS.
As E942 (Nitrous oxide) is 34 times more soluble than nitrogen in blood, diffusion hypoxia may occur and administering 100% oxygen to the patient for 3-5 minutes once the E942 (Nitrous oxide) has been terminated is important.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) causes minor depression in cardiac output while peripheral resistance is slightly decreased, thereby maintaining blood pressure.
The objectives of E942 (Nitrous oxide)/oxygen inhalation include:
E942 (Nitrous oxide) reduces or eliminate anxiety.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) reduces untoward movement and reaction to dental treatment.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) enhances communication and patient cooperation.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) raises the patient’s pain reaction threshold.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) increases tolerance for longer appointments.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) aids in the treatment of the mentally/physically disabled or medically compromised patient.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) reduces gagging.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) potentiates the effects of sedatives.
FIRE & EXPLOSION:
Not combustible but enhances combustion of other substances.
Gives off irritating or toxic fumes (or gases) in a fire.
Risk of fire and explosion.
See Chemical Dangers.
NO contact with combustible substances. Closed system, ventilation, explosion-proof electrical equipment and lighting.
In case of fire in the surroundings, use appropriate extinguishing media.
In case of fire: keep cylinder cool by spraying with water.
Combat fire from a sheltered position.
STRICT HYGIENE! :
Use local exhaust or breathing protection.
Fresh air, rest. Refer for medical attention.
SYMPTOMS: ON CONTACT WITH LIQUID: FROSTBITE.
ON FROSTBITE: rinse with plenty of water, do NOT remove clothes. Refer for medical attention .
SYMPTOMS: ON CONTACT WITH LIQUID: FROSTBITE.
Wear safety goggles or eye protection in combination with breathing protection.
First rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible), then refer for medical attention.
Evacuate danger area!
Consult an expert! Personal protection: self-contained breathing apparatus.
NEVER direct water jet on liquid.
If liquid: do NOT absorb in saw-dust or other combustible components.
Fireproof if in building.
Separated from reducing agents and combustible substances.
PHYSICAL & CHEMICAL INFORMATION:
Physical State; Appearance
COLOURLESS COMPRESSED LIQUEFIED GAS WITH CHARACTERISTIC ODOUR.
The gas is heavier than air and may accumulate in lowered spaces causing a deficiency of oxygen.
The substance is a strong oxidant above 300°C.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) reacts violently with reducing agents and some combustible substances.
This generates fire and explosion hazard.
OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE LIMITS:
TLV: 50 ppm as TWA; A4 (not classifiable as a human carcinogen).
MAK: 180 mg/m3, 100 ppm; peak limitation category: II(2); pregnancy risk group: C
The major safety hazards of E942 (Nitrous oxide) come from the fact that E942 (Nitrous oxide) is a compressed liquefied gas, an asphyxiation risk and a dissociative anaesthetic.
While relatively non-toxic, E942 (Nitrous oxide) has a number of recognised ill effects on human health, whether through breathing E942 (Nitrous oxide) in or by contact of the liquid with skin or eyes.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is a significant occupational hazard for surgeons, dentists and nurses.
Because E942 (Nitrous oxide) is minimally metabolised in humans (with a rate of 0.004%), E942 (Nitrous oxide) retains its potency when exhaled into the room by the patient, and can pose an intoxicating and prolonged exposure hazard to the clinic staff if the room is poorly ventilated.
Where E942 (Nitrous oxide) is administered, a continuous-flow fresh-air ventilation system or N2O scavenger system is used to prevent a waste-gas buildup.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health recommends that workers' exposure to E942 (Nitrous oxide) should be controlled during the administration of anaesthetic gas in medical, dental and veterinary operators.
It set a recommended exposure limit (REL) of 25 ppm (46 mg/m3) to escaped anaesthetic.
Mental and manual impairment:
Exposure to E942 (Nitrous oxide) causes short-term decreases in mental performance, audiovisual ability and manual dexterity.
These effects coupled with the induced spatial and temporal disorientation could result in physical harm to the user from environmental hazards.
Properties and reactions:
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is a colourless, non-toxic gas with a faint, sweet odour.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) supports combustion by releasing the dipolar bonded oxygen radical, and can thus relight a glowing splint.
N2O is inert at room temperature and has few reactions. At elevated temperatures, its reactivity increases. For example, E942 (Nitrous oxide) reacts with NaNH:
2 at 460 K (187 °C) to give NaN3:
2 NaNH2 + N2O → NaN3 + NaOH + NH3
The above reaction is the route adopted by the commercial chemical industry to produce azide salts, which are used as detonators.
As a patent medicine:
Colton's popularisation of E942 (Nitrous oxide) led to its adoption by a number of less than reputable quacksalvers, who touted it as a cure for consumption, scrofula, catarrh and other diseases of the blood, throat and lungs.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) treatment was administered and licensed as a patent medicine by the likes of C. L. Blood and Jerome Harris in Boston and Charles E. Barney of Chicago.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is prepared on an industrial scale by careful heating of ammonium nitrate at about 250 C, which decomposes into E942 (Nitrous oxide) and water vapour.
NH4NO3 → 2 H2O + N2O
The addition of various phosphate salts favours formation of a purer gas at slightly lower temperatures.
This reaction may be difficult to control, resulting in detonation.
The decomposition of ammonium nitrate is also a common laboratory method for preparing the gas. Equivalently, it can be obtained by heating a mixture of sodium nitrate and ammonium sulfate:
2 NaNO3 + (NH4)2SO4 → Na2SO4 + 2 N2O + 4 H2O
Another method involves the reaction of urea, nitric acid and sulfuric acid:
2 (NH2)2CO + 2 HNO3 + H2SO4 → 2 N2O + 2 CO2 + (NH4)2SO4 + 2 H2O
Direct oxidation of ammonia with a manganese dioxide-bismuth oxide catalyst has been reported: cf. Ostwald process.
2 NH3 + 2 O2 → N2O + 3 H2O
Hydroxylammonium chloride reacts with sodium nitrite to give E942 (Nitrous oxide).
If the nitrite is added to the hydroxylamine solution, the only remaining by-product is salt water.
If the hydroxylamine solution is added to the nitrite solution (nitrite is in excess), however, then toxic higher oxides of nitrogen also are formed:
NH3OHCl + NaNO2 → N2O + NaCl + 2 H2O
Treating HNO3 with SnCl2 and HCl also has been demonstrated:
2 HNO3 + 8 HCl + 4 SnCl2 → 5 H2O + 4 SnCl4 + N2O
Hyponitrous acid decomposes to N2O and water with a half-life of 16 days at 25 °C at pH 1–3.
H2N2O2→ H2O + N2O
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is a minor component of Earth's atmosphere and is an active part of the planetary nitrogen cycle.
Based on analysis of air samples gathered from sites around the world, E942 (Nitrous oxide)’s concentration surpassed 330 ppb in 2017.
The growth rate of about 1 ppb per year has also accelerated during recent decades.
E942 (Nitrous oxide)'s atmospheric abundance has grown more than 20% from a base level of about 270 ppb in year 1750.
Important atmospheric properties of N2O :
Ozone depletion potential (ODP):0.17 (CCl3F = 1)
Global warming potential (GWP: 100-year):265 (CO2 = 1)
Atmospheric lifetime:121 years
In October 2020 scientists published a comprehensive quantification of global N2O sources and sinks. They report that human-induced emissions increased by 30% over the past four decades and are the main cause of the increase in atmospheric concentration.
The recent growth has exceeded some of the highest projected emission scenarios.
Emissions by source:
As of 2010, it was estimated that about 29.5 million tonnes of N2O (containing 18.8 million tonnes of nitrogen) were entering the atmosphere each year; of which 64% were natural, and 36% due to human activity.
Most of the N2O emitted into the atmosphere, from natural and anthropogenic sources, is produced by microorganisms such as denitrifying bacteria and fungi in soils and oceans.
Soils under natural vegetation are an important source of E942 (Nitrous oxide), accounting for 60% of all naturally produced emissions.
Other natural sources include the oceans (35%) and atmospheric chemical reactions (5%).
A 2019 study showed that emissions from thawing permafrost are 12 times higher than previously assumed.
The main components of anthropogenic emissions are fertilised agricultural soils and livestock manure (42%), runoff and leaching of fertilisers (25%), biomass burning (10%), fossil fuel combustion and industrial processes (10%), biological degradation of other nitrogen-containing atmospheric emissions (9%) and human sewage (5%).
Agriculture enhances E942 (Nitrous oxide) production through soil cultivation, the use of nitrogen fertilisers and animal waste handling.
These activities stimulate naturally occurring bacteria to produce more E942 (Nitrous oxide).
E942 (Nitrous oxide) emissions from soil can be challenging to measure as they vary markedly over time and space, and the majority of a year's emissions may occur when conditions are favorable during "hot moments" and/or at favorable locations known as "hotspots”.
Among industrial emissions, the production of nitric acid and adipic acid are the largest sources of E942 (Nitrous oxide) emissions.
The adipic acid emissions specifically arise from the degradation of the nitrolic acid intermediate derived from nitration of cyclohexanone.
Natural processes that generate E942 (Nitrous oxide) may be classified as nitrification and denitrification. Specifically, they include:
-aerobic autotrophic nitrification, the stepwise oxidation of ammonia (NH3) to nitrite (NO−2) and to nitrate (NO−3).
-anaerobic heterotrophic denitrification, the stepwise reduction of NO−3 to NO−2, nitric oxide (NO), N2O and ultimately N2, where facultative anaerobe bacteria use NO−3 as an electron acceptor in the respiration of organic material in the condition of insufficient oxygen (O2)
-nitrifier denitrification, which is carried out by autotrophic NH3-oxidising bacteria and the pathway whereby ammonia (NH3) is oxidised to nitrite (NO−2), followed by the reduction of NO−2 to nitric oxide (NO), N2O and molecular nitrogen (N2)
-aerobic denitrification by the same heterotrophic nitrifiers
These processes are affected by soil chemical and physical properties such as the availability of mineral nitrogen and organic matter, acidity and soil type, as well as climate-related factors such as soil temperature and water content.
The emission of the gas to the atmosphere is limited greatly by its consumption inside the cells, by a process catalysed by the enzyme E942 (Nitrous oxide) reductase.
Density :1.977 g/L (gas)
Melting point :−90.86 °C (−131.55 °F; 182.29 K)
Boiling point: −88.48 °C (−127.26 °F; 184.67 K)
Solubility in water: 1.5 g/L (15 °C)
Solubility: soluble in alcohol, ether, sulfuric acid
log P: 0.35
Vapor pressure :5150 kPa (20 °C)
Magnetic susceptibility (χ): −18.9•10−6 cm3/mol
Refractive index (nD): 1.000516 (0 °C, 101,325 kPa)
Viscosity: 14.90 μPa•s
Molecular shape: linear, C∞v
Dipole moment: 0.166 D
Std molar entropy (So298): 219.96 J/(K•mol)
Std enthalpy of formation (ΔfH⦵298): +82.05 kJ/mol
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS:
1)What Does Laughing Gas Do?
E942 (Nitrous oxide) (N2O), more commonly referred to as laughing gas, is a mild sedative agent that safely and effectively manages pain and anxiety during dental treatment.
The colorless and odorless E942 (Nitrous oxide) is mixed with oxygen and inhaled through a small mask that fits over your nose.
Patients are asked to breathe normally and should feel the effects of the laughing gas within minutes.
Contrary to its name, laughing gas does not necessarily make you laugh.
The E942 (Nitrous oxide) slows down your nervous system to make you feel less inhibited.
You may feel light-headed, tingly, or even heaviness in your arms or legs.
Ultimately, you should be calm and comfortable throughout the procedure.
You might even giggle a time or two.
2)What are the Benefits of Laughing Gas:
Dentists choose E942 (Nitrous oxide) because Laughing Gas is a safe and effective method for sedation.
The laughing gas works quickly to relax patients, and the effects wear off quickly by breathing pure oxygen through a mask.
Plus, the E942 (Nitrous oxide) does not put you to sleep, so you can hear and respond to any of the dentist's questions or instructions.
3)What is Laughing Gas Used For?
The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD) recommends the use of E942 (Nitrous oxide) for these indications:
-Patients who are fearful, anxious, or uncooperative
-Patients with special health care needs
-Patients with gag reflexes that interfere with dental care
-Patients who do not respond adequately to local anesthesia
-Younger patients who must undergo lengthy dental procedures
E942 (Nitrous oxide) for Children:
4) Is E942 (Nitrous oxide) equally safe for children?
The AAPD states that laughing gas is considered generally acceptable to children and tan be titrated easily.
Many children show enthusiasm for using the gas and report feeling a tingling or warming sensation. The laughing gas can help expedite procedures that are not particularly uncomfortable but require the child not to move for extended periods.
5. Why are more women turning to laughing gas for managing childbirth pain?
Women want more options for managing pain during labor and delivery.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is self-administered, so you feel more control over pain relief.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) does not limit mobility, slow labor or cause significant risk to the baby.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) has a quick onset after E942 (Nitrous oxide) is inhaled and leaves the system quickly once its use is discontinued.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) will not eliminate pain, but E942 (Nitrous oxide) can dull pain and lessen anxiety.
It's a good option for women who are prone to anxiety or want the ability to move around during labor.
6. Does laughing gas make you laugh like crazy?
Contrary to its name, laughing gas does not make you laugh like crazy.
The gas slows the nervous system, which makes you feel less inhibited.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) also can create a sense of well-being or euphoria.
This combination can make you feel gigglier than usually, but most don't laugh hysterically.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) may make you feel groggy or nauseous, but those potential side effects usually go away within a few minutes.
7. What are some of the benefits of using laughing gas over other pain relief methods?
Laughing gas is the least expensive pain relief option available and has little effect on the baby.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) can be used continuously, and E942 (Nitrous oxide) allows you to walk during labor.
Laughing gas also is less invasive than an epidural.
If you choose a different pain management option, E942 (Nitrous oxide) can be stopped at any time.
You can safely breastfeed after delivery even if you used laughing gas.
8. Who benefits from using laughing gas?
Laughing gas is a good option if you tend to feel anxious.
If you have been diagnosed with anxiety, are nervous around needles, scared of being in hospitals or have a hard time relaxing and releasing tension, E942 (Nitrous oxide) may be for you.
It also is an option to consider if you wanted to avoid an epidural and narcotic pain medication, or it's too early or late for an epidural.
9. How is laughing gas administered?
You give yourself laughing gas by holding a small mask to your mouth to inhale the gas.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) takes effect within a minute.
Once the mask is removed, the effects of E942 (Nitrous oxide) quickly wear off.
Some women prefer to use E942 (Nitrous oxide) during contractions, and others prefer to use E942 (Nitrous oxide) to help relax between contractions.
Your health care team will teach you how to use E942 (Nitrous oxide).
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is a good option if you are looking for a noninvasive pain reliever that you can control. Knowing the available options will help you choose an effective pain relief method for labor and delivery.
10.What E942 (Nitrous oxide) is used for?
E942 (Nitrous oxide) has significant medical uses for its anaesthetic and pain-reducing effects, particularly in surgery and dentistry.
The colloquial name, invented by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects of inhaling E942 (Nitrous oxide), a quality that has contributed to its therapeutic use as a dissociative anaesthetic.
11.How is E942 (Nitrous oxide) used in everyday life?
Colourless gas (N2O) used in medical or dental surgery as an anaesthetic or analgesic.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is known as ‘ laughing gas because it gives rise to the excitement.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is also used in the production of foods under pressure.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) is also used in the processing of foods under strain.
12.What elements makeup E942 (Nitrous oxide)?
Oxide with nitrous.
E942 (Nitrous oxide) (N2O), also known as dinitrogen monoxide, laughing gas or nitrous, is one of several nitrogen oxides, a colourless gas with a fun, sweet smell and taste that, when inhaled, induces insensitivity to pain accompanied by mild hysteria, often laughter.
13.How long does E942 (Nitrous oxide) last?
The sedation effect of E942 (Nitrous oxide) is experienced in minutes, and the effect wears off within minutes of stopping the gas.
The effect of sedation takes from 30 seconds to three or four minutes to start anywhere.
14.What type of bond is E942 (Nitrous oxide)?
All gases are nitrogen and oxygen.
Therefore, the most common type of bonding will be covalent.
Electrons are exchanged in a covalent bond between two molecules.
An ionic bond is when one molecule picks up an electron from the other, closer to the other molecule.
E942 (Nitrous oxide)
Nitrogen oxide (N2O)
Hyponitrous acid anhydride
E942 (Nitrous oxide), compressed
E942 (Nitrous oxide), refrigerated liquid
E942 (Nitrous oxide) (TN)
FEMA No. 2779
E942 (Nitrous oxide) [Anaesthetics, volatile]
E942 (Nitrous oxide) [JAN]
Oxido nitroso [Spanish]
Protoxyde d'azote [French]
E942 (Nitrous oxide) [USP:JAN]
E942 (Nitrous oxide) (JP15/USP)
E942 (Nitrous oxide) [UN1070] [Nonflammable gas]
Diazyne 1-oxide #
E942 (Nitrous oxide), JAN, USAN
E942 (Nitrous oxide) (JP17/USP)
E942 (Nitrous oxide) [UN1070] [Nonflammable gas]
E942 (Nitrous oxide), refrigerated liquid [UN2201] [Nonflammable gas]