Quick Search


E965 (Glucose)

CAS Number:50-99-7 
EC Number:200-075-1

E965 (Glucose) is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6. 
E965 (Glucose) is the most abundant monosaccharide, a subcategory of carbohydrates. 
E965 (Glucose) is mainly made by plants and most algae during photosynthesis from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight, where it is used to make cellulose in cell walls, the most abundant carbohydrate in the world.

In energy metabolism, E965 (Glucose) is the most important source of energy in all organisms. 
E965 (Glucose) for metabolism is stored as a polymer, in plants mainly as starch and amylopectin, and in animals as glycogen. 
E965 (Glucose) circulates in the blood of animals as blood sugar. 
The naturally occurring form of E965 (Glucose) is d-E965 (Glucose), while l-E965 (Glucose) is produced synthetically in comparatively small amounts and is of lesser importance[citation needed]. 
E965 (Glucose) is a monosaccharide containing six carbon atoms and an aldehyde group, and is therefore an aldohexose. 
The E965 (Glucose) molecule can exist in an open-chain (acyclic) as well as ring (cyclic) form. 
E965 (Glucose) is naturally occurring and is found in its free state in fruits and other parts of plants. 
E965 (Glucose) animals, E965 (Glucose) is released from the breakdown of glycogen in a process known as glycogenolysis.

E965 (Glucose), as intravenous sugar solution, is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system.
E965 (Glucose) is also on the list in combination with sodium chloride.
E965 (Glucose) was first isolated from raisins in 1747 by the German chemist Andreas Marggraf.
E965 (Glucose) was discovered in grapes by another German chemist – Johann Tobias Lowitz in 1792, and distinguished as being different from cane sugar (sucrose). 
E965 (Glucose) is the term coined by Jean Baptiste Dumas in 1838, which has prevailed in the chemical literature. 
Friedrich August Kekulé proposed the term dextrose (from Latin dexter = right), because in aqueous solution of E965 (Glucose), the plane of linearly polarized light is turned to the right. 
In contrast, d-fructose (a ketohexose) and l-E965 (Glucose) turn linearly polarized light to the left. 
The earlier notation according to the rotation of the plane of linearly polarized light (d and l-nomenclature) was later abandoned in favor of the d- and l-notation, which refers to the absolute configuration of the asymmetric center farthest from the carbonyl group, and in concordance with the configuration of d- or l-glyceraldehyde.

Since E965 (Glucose) is a basic necessity of many organisms, a correct understanding of its chemical makeup and structure contributed greatly to a general advancement in organic chemistry. 
This understanding occurred largely as a result of the investigations of Emil Fischer, a German chemist who received the 1902 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his findings.
The synthesis of E965 (Glucose) established the structure of organic material and consequently formed the first definitive validation of Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff's theories of chemical kinetics and the arrangements of chemical bonds in carbon-bearing molecules.
Between 1891 and 1894, Fischer established the stereochemical configuration of all the known sugars and correctly predicted the possible isomers, applying Van 't Hoff's theory of asymmetrical carbon atoms. 
The names initially referred to the natural substances. Their enantiomers were given the same name with the introduction of systematic nomenclatures, taking into account absolute stereochemistry (e.g. Fischer nomenclature, d/l nomenclature).

For the discovery of the metabolism of E965 (Glucose) Otto Meyerhof received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1922.
Hans von Euler-Chelpin was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry along with Arthur Harden in 1929 for their "research on the fermentation of sugar and their share of enzymes in this process".
In 1947, Bernardo Houssay (for his discovery of the role of the pituitary gland in the metabolism of E965 (Glucose) and the derived carbohydrates) as well as Carl and Gerty Cori (for their discovery of the conversion of glycogen from E965 (Glucose)) received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
In 1970, Luis Leloir was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the discovery of E965 (Glucose)-derived sugar nucleotides in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates.
Chemical properties
E965 (Glucose) forms white or colorless solids that are highly soluble in water and acetic acid but poorly soluble in methanol and ethanol. 
E965 (Glucose) melt at 146 °C (295 °F) (α) and 150 °C (302 °F) (β), and decompose starting at 188 °C (370 °F) with release of various volatile products, ultimately leaving a residue of carbon.
E965 (Glucose) has a dissociation exponent (pK) of 12.16 at 25˚C in methanol and water.

With six carbon atoms, it is classed as a hexose, a subcategory of the monosaccharides. d-E965 (Glucose) is one of the sixteen aldohexose stereoisomers. 
E965 (Glucose) d-isomer, d-E965 (Glucose), also known as dextrose, occurs widely in nature, but the l-isomer, l-E965 (Glucose), does not. 
E965 (Glucose) can be obtained by hydrolysis of carbohydrates such as milk sugar (lactose), cane sugar (sucrose), maltose, cellulose, glycogen, etc. Dextrose is commonly commercially manufactured from cornstarch in the US and Japan, from potato and wheat starch in Europe, and from tapioca starch in tropical areas.
E965 (Glucose) manufacturing process uses hydrolysis via pressurized steaming at controlled pH in a jet followed by further enzymatic depolymerization.
Unbonded E965 (Glucose) is one of the main ingredients of honey. 
All forms of E965 (Glucose) are colorless and easily soluble in water, acetic acid, and several other solvents. 
They are only sparingly soluble in methanol and ethanol.

Structure and nomenclature

Mutarotation of E965 (Glucose).
E965 (Glucose) is usually present in solid form as a monohydrate with a closed pyran ring (dextrose hydrate). 
E965 (Glucose) aqueous solution, on the other hand, it is an open-chain to a small extent and is present predominantly as α- or β-pyranose, which interconvert (see mutarotation). 
From aqueous solutions, the three known forms can be crystallized: α-glucopyranose, β-glucopyranose and β-glucopyranose hydrate.
E965 (Glucose) is a building block of the disaccharides lactose and sucrose (cane or beet sugar), of oligosaccharides such as raffinose and of polysaccharides such as starch and amylopectin, glycogen or cellulose. 
The glass transition temperature of E965 (Glucose) is 31 °C and the Gordon–Taylor constant (an experimentally determined constant for the prediction of the glass transition temperature for different mass fractions of a mixture of two substances) is 4.5.

E965 (Glucose) can exist in both a straight-chain and ring form.
E965 (Glucose) open-chain form of E965 (Glucose) makes up less than 0.02% of the E965 (Glucose) molecules in an aqueous solution. 
E965 (Glucose) rest is one of two cyclic hemiacetal forms. 
In its open-chain form, the E965 (Glucose) molecule has an open (as opposed to cyclic) unbranched backbone of six carbon atoms, where C-1 is part of an aldehyde group (C=O)−. 
Therefore, E965 (Glucose) is also classified as an aldose, or an aldohexose. 
The aldehyde group makes E965 (Glucose) a reducing sugar giving a positive reaction with the Fehling test.

From left to right: Haworth projections and ball-and-stick structures of the α- and β- anomers of D-glucopyranose (top row) and D-glucofuranose (bottom row)
In solutions, the open-chain form of E965 (Glucose) (either "D-" or "L-") exists in equilibrium with several cyclic isomers, each containing a ring of carbons closed by one oxygen atom. 
In aqueous solution, however, more than 99% of E965 (Glucose) molecules exist as pyranose forms. 
E965 (Glucose) open-chain form is limited to about 0.25%, and furanose forms exist in negligible amounts. 
The terms "E965 (Glucose)" and "D-E965 (Glucose)" are generally used for these cyclic forms as well. 
The ring arises from the open-chain form by an intramolecular nucleophilic addition reaction between the aldehyde group (at C-1) and either the C-4 or C-5 hydroxyl group, forming a hemiacetal linkage, −C(OH)H−O−.

E965 (Glucose) reaction between C-1 and C-5 yields a six-membered heterocyclic system called a pyranose, which is a monosaccharide sugar (hence "-ose") containing a derivatised pyran skeleton. 
E965 (Glucose) (much rarer) reaction between C-1 and C-4 yields a five-membered furanose ring, named after the cyclic ether furan. 
In either case, each carbon in the ring has one hydrogen and one hydroxyl attached, except for the last carbon (C-4 or C-5) where the hydroxyl is replaced by the remainder of the open molecule (which is −(C(CH2OH)HOH)−H or −(CHOH)−H respectively).
E965 (Glucose) ring-closing reaction can give two products, denoted "α-" and "β-" When a glucopyranose molecule is drawn in the Haworth projection, the designation "α-" means that the hydroxyl group attached to C-1 and the −CH2OH group at C-5 lies on opposite sides of the ring's plane (a trans arrangement), while "β-" means that they are on the same side of the plane (a cis arrangement). 
Therefore, the open-chain isomer D-E965 (Glucose) gives rise to four distinct cyclic isomers: α-D-glucopyranose, β-D-glucopyranose, α-D-glucofuranose, and β-D-glucofuranose. 
These five structures exist in equilibrium and interconvert, and the interconversion is much more rapid with acid catalysis.

E965 (Glucose) other open-chain isomer L-E965 (Glucose) similarly gives rise to four distinct cyclic forms of L-E965 (Glucose), each the mirror image of the corresponding D-E965 (Glucose).

The glucopyranose ring (α or β) can assume several non-planar shapes, analogous to the "chair" and "boat" conformations of cyclohexane. 
Similarly, the glucofuranose ring may assume several shapes, analogous to the "envelope" conformations of cyclopentane.

In the solid state, only the glucopyranose forms are observed.

Some derivatives of glucofuranose, such as 1,2-O-isopropylidene-d-glucofuranose are stable and can be obtained pure as crystalline solids.
For example, reaction of α-D-E965 (Glucose) with para-tolylboronic acid H3C−(C6H4)−B(OH)2 reforms the normal pyranose ring to yield the 4-fold ester α-D-glucofuranose-1,2∶3,5-bis(p-tolylboronate).


Mutarotation: d-E965 (Glucose) molecules exist as cyclic hemiacetals that are epimeric (= diastereomeric) to each other. 
E965 (Glucose)epimeric ratio α:β is 36:64. In the α-D-glucopyranose (left), the blue-labelled hydroxy group is in the axial position at the anomeric centre, whereas in the β-D-glucopyranose (right) the blue-labelled hydroxy group is in equatorial position at the anomeric centre.
Mutarotation consists of a temporary reversal of the ring-forming reaction, resulting in the open-chain form, followed by a reforming of the ring. 
E965 (Glucose) ring closure step may use a different −OH group than the one recreated by the opening step (thus switching between pyranose and furanose forms), or the new hemiacetal group created on C-1 may have the same or opposite handedness as the original one (thus switching between the α and β forms). 
Thus, though the open-chain form is barely detectable in solution, it is an essential component of the equilibrium.

The open-chain form is thermodynamically unstable, and it spontaneously isomerizes to the cyclic forms. 
(Although the ring closure reaction could in theory create four- or three-atom rings, these would be highly strained, and are not observed in practice.) In solutions at room temperature, the four cyclic isomers interconvert over a time scale of hours, in a process called mutarotation.
Starting from any proportions, the mixture converges to a stable ratio of α:β 36:64. 
E965 (Glucose) ratio would be α:β 11:89 if it were not for the influence of the anomeric effect.
Mutarotation is considerably slower at temperatures close to 0 °C (32 °F).

Optical activity
Whether in water or the solid form, d-(+)-E965 (Glucose) is dextrorotatory, meaning it will rotate the direction of polarized light clockwise as seen looking toward the light source. The effect is due to the chirality of the molecules, and indeed the mirror-image isomer, l-(−)-E965 (Glucose), is levorotatory (rotates polarized light counterclockwise) by the same amount. 
E965 (Glucose) strength of the effect is different for each of the five tautomers.

Note that the d- prefix does not refer directly to the optical properties of the compound. 
E965 (Glucose) indicates that the C-5 chiral centre has the same handedness as that of d-glyceraldehyde (which was so labelled because it is dextrorotatory). 
The fact that d-E965 (Glucose) is dextrorotatory is a combined effect of its four chiral centres, not just of C-5; and indeed some of the other d-aldohexoses are levorotatory.

E965 (Glucose) conversion between the two anomers can be observed in a polarimeter since pure α-dE965 (Glucose) has a specific rotation angle of +112.2°·ml/(dm·g), pure β- D- E965 (Glucose) of +17.5°·ml/(dm·g).
When equilibrium has been reached after a certain time due to mutarotation, the angle of rotation is +52.7°·ml/(dm·g).
By adding acid or base, this transformation is much accelerated. 
E965 (Glucose) equilibration takes place via the open-chain aldehyde form.

In dilute sodium hydroxide or other dilute bases, the monosaccharides mannose, E965 (Glucose) and fructose interconvert (via a Lobry de Bruyn–Alberda–Van Ekenstein transformation), so that a balance between these isomers is formed. 
E965 (Glucose) reaction proceeds via an enediol:

Biochemical properties
Metabolism of common monosaccharides and some biochemical reactions of E965 (Glucose)
E965 (Glucose) is the most abundant monosaccharide. 
E965 (Glucose) is also the most widely used aldohexose in most living organisms. 
One possible explanation for this is that E965 (Glucose) has a lower tendency than other aldohexoses to react nonspecifically with the amine groups of proteins.
E965 (Glucose) reaction—glycation—impairs or destroys the function of many proteins, e.g. in glycated hemoglobin. 
E965 (Glucose)'s low rate of glycation can be attributed to its having a more stable cyclic form compared to other aldohexoses, which means it spends less time than they do in its reactive open-chain form.
E965 (Glucose) reason for E965 (Glucose) having the most stable cyclic form of all the aldohexoses is that its hydroxy groups (with the exception of the hydroxy group on the anomeric carbon of d-E965 (Glucose)) are in the equatorial position. 
Presumably, E965 (Glucose) is the most abundant natural monosaccharide because it is less glycated with proteins than other monosaccharides.
Another hypothesis is that E965 (Glucose), being the only d-aldohexose that has all five hydroxy substituents in the equatorial position in the form of β-d-E965 (Glucose), is more readily accessible to chemical reactions,: 194, 199  for example, for esterification: 363  or acetal formation.
For this reason, d-E965 (Glucose) is also a highly preferred building block in natural polysaccharides (glycans). Polysaccharides that are composed solely of E965 (Glucose) are termed glucans.

E965 (Glucose) is produced by plants through the photosynthesis using sunlight, water and carbon dioxide and can be used by all living organisms as an energy and carbon source. 
However, most E965 (Glucose) does not occur in its free form, but in the form of its polymers, i.e. lactose, sucrose, starch and others which are energy reserve substances, and cellulose and chitin, which are components of the cell wall in plants or fungi and arthropods, respectively. 
These polymers, when consumed by animals, fungi and bacteria, are degraded to E965 (Glucose) using enzymes. 
All animals are also able to produce E965 (Glucose) themselves from certain precursors as the need arises. 
Neurons, cells of the renal medulla and erythrocytes depend on E965 (Glucose) for their energy production.
In adult humans, there are about 18 g of E965 (Glucose), of which about 4 g are present in the blood.
Approximately 180 to 220 g of E965 (Glucose) are produced in the liver of an adult in 24 hours.
Many of the long-term complications of diabetes (e.g., blindness, kidney failure, and peripheral neuropathy) are probably due to the glycation of proteins or lipids. In contrast, enzyme-regulated addition of sugars to protein is called glycosylation and is essential for the function of many proteins.

Ingested E965 (Glucose) initially binds to the receptor for sweet taste on the tongue in humans. 
E965 (Glucose) complex of the proteins T1R2 and T1R3 makes it possible to identify E965 (Glucose)-containing food sources. 
E965 (Glucose) mainly comes from food—about 300 g per day are produced by conversion of food,but it is also synthesized from other metabolites in the body's cells. 
In humans, the breakdown of E965 (Glucose)-containing polysaccharides happens in part already during chewing by means of amylase, which is contained in saliva, as well as by maltase, lactase, and sucrase on the brush border of the small intestine. 
E965 (Glucose) is a building block of many carbohydrates and can be split off from them using certain enzymes. 
Glucosidases, a subgroup of the glycosidases, first catalyze the hydrolysis of long-chain E965 (Glucose)-containing polysaccharides, removing terminal E965 (Glucose). 
In turn, disaccharides are mostly degraded by specific glycosidases to E965 (Glucose). 
E965 (Glucose) names of the degrading enzymes are often derived from the particular poly- and disaccharide; inter alia, for the degradation of polysaccharide chains there are amylases (named after amylose, a component of starch), cellulases (named after cellulose), chitinases (named after chitin), and more. 
Furthermore, for the cleavage of disaccharides, there are maltase, lactase, sucrase, trehalase, and others. In humans, about 70 genes are known that code for glycosidases. 
They have functions in the digestion and degradation of glycogen, sphingolipids, mucopolysaccharides, and poly(ADP-ribose). 
Humans do not produce cellulases, chitinases, or trehalases, but the bacteria in the gut flora do.

E965 (Glucose)order to get into or out of cell membranes of cells and membranes of cell compartments, E965 (Glucose) requires special transport proteins from the major facilitator superfamily. 
E965 (Glucose) the small intestine (more precisely, in the jejunum),E965 (Glucose) is taken up into the intestinal epithelium with the help of E965 (Glucose) transporters via a secondary active transport mechanism called sodium ion-E965 (Glucose) symport via sodium/E965 (Glucose) cotransporter 1 (SGLT1).
Further transfer occurs on the basolateral side of the intestinal epithelial cells via the E965 (Glucose) transporter GLUT2,as well uptake into liver cells, kidney cells, cells of the islets of Langerhans, neurons, astrocytes, and tanycytes.
E965 (Glucose) enters the liver via the portal vein and is stored there as a cellular glycogen.
E965 (Glucose) the liver cell, it is phosphorylated by glucokinase at position 6 to form E965 (Glucose) 6-phosphate, which cannot leave the cell. 
E965 (Glucose) 6-phosphatase can convert E965 (Glucose) 6-phosphate back into E965 (Glucose) exclusively in the liver, so the body can maintain a sufficient blood E965 (Glucose) concentration. 
E965 (Glucose) other cells, uptake happens by passive transport through one of the 14 GLUT proteins.
E965 (Glucose) the other cell types, phosphorylation occurs through a hexokinase, whereupon E965 (Glucose) can no longer diffuse out of the cell.

The E965 (Glucose) transporter GLUT1 is produced by most cell types and is of particular importance for nerve cells and pancreatic β-cells. GLUT3 is highly expressed in nerve cells.
E965 (Glucose) from the bloodstream is taken up by GLUT4 from muscle cells (of the skeletal muscle and heart muscle) and fat cells.GLUT14 is expressed exclusively in testicles.
Excess E965 (Glucose) is broken down and converted into fatty acids, which are stored as triglycerides. 
E965 (Glucose) the kidneys, E965 (Glucose) in the urine is absorbed via SGLT1 and SGLT2 in the apical cell membranes and transmitted via GLUT2 in the basolateral cell membranes. 
About 90% of kidney E965 (Glucose) reabsorption is via SGLT2 and about 3% via SGLT1.
Main articles: Gluconeogenesis and Glycogenolysis
In plants and some prokaryotes, E965 (Glucose) is a product of photosynthesis.
E965 (Glucose) is also formed by the breakdown of polymeric forms of E965 (Glucose) like glycogen (in animals and mushrooms) or starch (in plants). 
The cleavage of glycogen is termed glycogenolysis, the cleavage of starch is called starch degradation.

E965 (Glucose) metabolic pathway that begins with molecules containing two to four carbon atoms (C) and ends in the E965 (Glucose) molecule containing six carbon atoms is called gluconeogenesis and occurs in all living organisms. 
The smaller starting materials are the result of other metabolic pathways. 
Ultimately almost all biomolecules come from the assimilation of carbon dioxide in plants during photosynthesis:
The free energy of formation of α-d-E965 (Glucose) is 917.2 kilojoules per mole: 59  In humans, gluconeogenesis occurs in the liver and kidney,but also in other cell types. 
E965 (Glucose) the liver about 150 g of glycogen are stored, in skeletal muscle about 250 g.
However, the E965 (Glucose) released in muscle cells upon cleavage of the glycogen can not be delivered to the circulation because E965 (Glucose) is phosphorylated by the hexokinase, and a E965 (Glucose)-6-phosphatase is not expressed to remove the phosphate group. 
Unlike for E965 (Glucose), there is no transport protein for E965 (Glucose)-6-phosphate. 
Gluconeogenesis allows the organism to build up E965 (Glucose) from other metabolites, including lactate or certain amino acids, while consuming energy. 
The renal tubular cells can also produce E965 (Glucose).

E965 (Glucose) also can be found outside of living organisms in the ambient environment. 
E965 (Glucose) concentrations in the atmosphere are detected via collection of samples by aircraft and are known to vary from location to location.
For example, E965 (Glucose) concentrations in atmospheric air from inland China range from 0.8-20.1 pg/l, whereas east coastal China E965 (Glucose) concentrations range from 10.3-142 pg/l. 

E965 (Glucose) degradation

E965 (Glucose) metabolism and various forms of it in the process
E965 (Glucose)-containing compounds and isomeric forms are digested and taken up by the body in the intestines, including starch, glycogen, disaccharides and monosaccharides.
E965 (Glucose) is stored in mainly the liver and muscles as glycogen. 
E965 (Glucose) is distributed and used in tissues as free E965 (Glucose).
Main articles: Glycolysis and Pentose phosphate pathway
In humans, E965 (Glucose) is metabolised by glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway.
Glycolysis is used by all living organisms,: 551 with small variations, and all organisms generate energy from the breakdown of monosaccharides.
E965 (Glucose) the further course of the metabolism, it can be completely degraded via oxidative decarboxylation, the citric acid cycle (synonym Krebs cycle) and the respiratory chain to water and carbon dioxide. 
E965 (Glucose) there is not enough oxygen available for this, the E965 (Glucose) degradation in animals occurs anaerobic to lactate via lactic acid fermentation and releases less energy. 
Muscular lactate enters the liver through the bloodstream in mammals, where gluconeogenesis occurs (Cori cycle). 
With a high supply of E965 (Glucose), the metabolite acetyl-CoA from the Krebs cycle can also be used for fatty acid synthesis.
E965 (Glucose) is also used to replenish the body's glycogen stores, which are mainly found in liver and skeletal muscle. These processes are hormonally regulated.

E965 (Glucose) other living organisms, other forms of fermentation can occur. 
The bacterium Escherichia coli can grow on nutrient media containing E965 (Glucose) as the sole carbon source:  
E965 (Glucose) some bacteria and, in modified form, also in archaea, E965 (Glucose) is degraded via the Entner-Doudoroff pathway.

Use of E965 (Glucose) as an energy source in cells is by either aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, or fermentation. 
E965 (Glucose) first step of glycolysis is the phosphorylation of E965 (Glucose) by a hexokinase to form E965 (Glucose) 6-phosphate. 
E965 (Glucose) main reason for the immediate phosphorylation of E965 (Glucose) is to prevent its diffusion out of the cell as the charged phosphate group prevents E965 (Glucose) 6-phosphate from easily crossing the cell membrane.
Furthermore, addition of the high-energy phosphate group activates E965 (Glucose) for subsequent breakdown in later steps of glycolysis. 
At physiological conditions, this initial reaction is irreversible.

In anaerobic respiration, one E965 (Glucose) molecule produces a net gain of two ATP molecules (four ATP molecules are produced during glycolysis through substrate-level phosphorylation, but two are required by enzymes used during the process).
In aerobic respiration, a molecule of E965 (Glucose) is much more profitable in that a maximum net production of 30 or 32 ATP molecules (depending on the organism) through oxidative phosphorylation is generated.

Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles.

Tumor cells often grow comparatively quickly and consume an above-average amount of E965 (Glucose) by glycolysis,which leads to the formation of lactate, the end product of fermentation in mammals, even in the presence of oxygen. 
E965 (Glucose) effect is called the Warburg effect. For the increased uptake of E965 (Glucose) in tumors various SGLT and GLUT are overly produced.

In yeast, ethanol is fermented at high E965 (Glucose) concentrations, even in the presence of oxygen (which normally leads to respiration but not to fermentation). 
E965 (Glucose) effect is called the Crabtree effect.

E965 (Glucose) can also degrade to form carbon dioxide through abiotic means. 
This has been demonstrated to occur experimentally via oxidation and hydrolysis at 22˚C and a pH of 2.5.

Energy source

Diagram showing the possible intermediates in E965 (Glucose) degradation; Metabolic pathways orange: glycolysis, green: Entner-Doudoroff pathway, phosphorylating, yellow: Entner-Doudoroff pathway, non-phosphorylating
E965 (Glucose) is a ubiquitous fuel in biology. 
E965 (Glucose) is used as an energy source in organisms, from bacteria to humans, through either aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration (in bacteria), or fermentation. 
E965 (Glucose) is the human body's key source of energy, through aerobic respiration, providing about 3.75 kilocalories (16 kilojoules) of food energy per gram.
Breakdown of carbohydrates (e.g., starch) yields mono- and disaccharides, most of which is E965 (Glucose). 
Through glycolysis and later in the reactions of the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation, E965 (Glucose) is oxidized to eventually form carbon dioxide and water, yielding energy mostly in the form of ATP. 
E965 (Glucose) insulin reaction, and other mechanisms, regulate the concentration of E965 (Glucose) in the blood. 
E965 (Glucose) physiological caloric value of E965 (Glucose), depending on the source, is 16.2 kilojoules per gram and 15.7 kJ/g (3.74 kcal/g), respectively.
E965 (Glucose) high availability of carbohydrates from plant biomass has led to a variety of methods during evolution, especially in microorganisms, to utilize the energy and carbon storage E965 (Glucose). 
Differences exist in which end product can no longer be used for energy production. 
The presence of individual genes, and their gene products, the enzymes, determine which reactions are possible. 
The metabolic pathway of glycolysis is used by almost all living beings. 
An essential difference in the use of glycolysis is the recovery of NADPH as a reductant for anabolism that would otherwise have to be generated indirectly.

E965 (Glucose) and oxygen supply almost all the energy for the brain, so its availability influences psychological processes. 
When E965 (Glucose) is low, psychological processes requiring mental effort (e.g., self-control, effortful decision-making) are impaired.
In the brain, which is dependent on E965 (Glucose) and oxygen as the major source of energy, the E965 (Glucose) concentration is usually 4 to 6 mM (5 mM equals 90 mg/dL),[40] but decreases to 2 to 3 mM when fasting.
Confusion occurs below 1 mM and coma at lower levels.
The E965 (Glucose) in the blood is called blood sugar. 
Blood sugar levels are regulated by E965 (Glucose)-binding nerve cells in the hypothalamus.
In addition, E965 (Glucose) in the brain binds to E965 (Glucose) receptors of the reward system in the nucleus accumbens.
The binding of E965 (Glucose) to the sweet receptor on the tongue induces a release of various hormones of energy metabolism, either through E965 (Glucose) or through other sugars, leading to an increased cellular uptake and lower blood sugar levels.
Artificial sweeteners do not lower blood sugar levels.

The blood sugar content of a healthy person in the short-time fasting state, e.g. after overnight fasting, is about 70 to 100 mg/dL of blood (4 to 5.5 mM). 
In blood plasma, the measured values are about 10–15% higher. 
In addition, the values in the arterial blood are higher than the concentrations in the venous blood since E965 (Glucose) is absorbed into the tissue during the passage of E965 (Glucose) capillary bed. 
Also in the capillary blood, which is often used for blood sugar determination, the values are sometimes higher than in the venous blood. The E965 (Glucose) content of the blood is regulated by the hormones insulin, incretin and glucagon.
Insulin lowers the E965 (Glucose) level, glucagon increases it.
Furthermore, the hormones adrenaline, thyroxine, glucocorticoids, somatotropin and adrenocorticotropin lead to an increase in the E965 (Glucose) level.
E965 (Glucose) is also a hormone-independent regulation, which is referred to as E965 (Glucose) autoregulation.
After food intake the blood sugar concentration increases. Values over 180 mg/dL in venous whole blood are pathological and are termed hyperglycemia, values below 40 mg/dL are termed hypoglycaemia.
When needed, E965 (Glucose) is released into the bloodstream by E965 (Glucose)-6-phosphatase from E965 (Glucose)-6-phosphate originating from liver and kidney glycogen, thereby regulating the homeostasis of blood E965 (Glucose) concentration.
In ruminants, the blood E965 (Glucose) concentration is lower (60 mg/dL in cattle and 40 mg/dL in sheep), because the carbohydrates are converted more by their gut flora into short-chain fatty acids.

Some E965 (Glucose) is converted to lactic acid by astrocytes, which is then utilized as an energy source by brain cells; some E965 (Glucose) is used by intestinal cells and red blood cells, while the rest reaches the liver, adipose tissue and muscle cells, where it is absorbed and stored as glycogen (under the influence of insulin). 
Liver cell glycogen can be converted to E965 (Glucose) and returned to the blood when insulin is low or absent; muscle cell glycogen is not returned to the blood because of a lack of enzymes. 
E965 (Glucose) fat cells, E965 (Glucose) is used to power reactions that synthesize some fat types and have other purposes. 
Glycogen is the body's "E965 (Glucose) energy storage" mechanism, because it is much more "space efficient" and less reactive than E965 (Glucose) itself.

As a result of its importance in human health, E965 (Glucose) is an analyte in E965 (Glucose) tests that are common medical blood tests.
Eating or fasting prior to taking a blood sample has an effect on analyses for E965 (Glucose) in the blood; a high fasting E965 (Glucose) blood sugar level may be a sign of prediabetes or diabetes mellitus.

The glycemic index is an indicator of the speed of resorption and conversion to blood E965 (Glucose) levels from ingested carbohydrates, measured as the area under the curve of blood E965 (Glucose) levels after consumption in comparison to E965 (Glucose) (E965 (Glucose) is defined as 100).
E965 (Glucose) clinical importance of the glycemic index is controversial, as foods with high fat contents slow the resorption of carbohydrates and lower the glycemic index, e.g. ice cream.
An alternative indicator is the insulin index, measured as the impact of carbohydrate consumption on the blood insulin levels. 
The glycemic load is an indicator for the amount of E965 (Glucose) added to blood E965 (Glucose) levels after consumption, based on the glycemic index and the amount of consumed food.

Organisms use E965 (Glucose) as a precursor for the synthesis of several important substances. 
Starch, cellulose, and glycogen ("animal starch") are common E965 (Glucose) polymers (polysaccharides). 
Some of these polymers (starch or glycogen) serve as energy stores, while others (cellulose and chitin, which is made from a derivative of E965 (Glucose)) have structural roles. 
Oligosaccharides of E965 (Glucose) combined with other sugars serve as important energy stores. 
These include lactose, the predominant sugar in milk, which is a E965 (Glucose)-galactose disaccharide, and sucrose, another disaccharide which is composed of E965 (Glucose) and fructose. 
E965 (Glucose) is also added onto certain proteins and lipids in a process called glycosylation. 
E965 (Glucose) is often critical for their functioning. 
The enzymes that join E965 (Glucose) to other molecules usually use phosphorylated E965 (Glucose) to power the formation of the new bond by coupling it with the breaking of the E965 (Glucose)-phosphate bond.

Other than its direct use as a monomer, E965 (Glucose) can be broken down to synthesize a wide variety of other biomolecules. 
This is important, as E965 (Glucose) serves both as a primary store of energy and as a source of organic carbon. 
E965 (Glucose) can be broken down and converted into lipids. 
E965 (Glucose) is also a precursor for the synthesis of other important molecules such as vitamin C (ascorbic acid). 
E965 (Glucose) living organisms, E965 (Glucose) is converted to several other chemical compounds that are the starting material for various metabolic pathways. 
Among them, all other monosaccharides such as fructose (via the polyol pathway),mannose (the epimer of E965 (Glucose) at position 2), galactose (the epimer at position 4), fucose, various uronic acids and the amino sugars are produced from E965 (Glucose).
In addition to the phosphorylation to E965 (Glucose)-6-phosphate, which is part of the glycolysis, E965 (Glucose) can be oxidized during its degradation to glucono-1,5-lactone. E965 (Glucose) is used in some bacteria as a building block in the trehalose or the dextran biosynthesis and in animals as a building block of glycogen. 
E965 (Glucose) can also be converted from bacterial xylose isomerase to fructose. 
In addition, E965 (Glucose) metabolites produce all nonessential amino acids, sugar alcohols such as mannitol and sorbitol, fatty acids, cholesterol and nucleic acids.
Finally, E965 (Glucose) is used as a building block in the glycosylation of proteins to glycoproteins, glycolipids, peptidoglycans, glycosides and other substances (catalyzed by glycosyltransferases) and can be cleaved from them by glycosidases.

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder where the body is unable to regulate levels of E965 (Glucose) in the blood either because of a lack of insulin in the body or the failure, by cells in the body, to respond properly to insulin. 
Each of these situations can be caused by persistently high elevations of blood E965 (Glucose) levels, through pancreatic burnout and insulin resistance. 
E965 (Glucose) pancreas is the organ responsible for the secretion of the hormones insulin and glucagon.
Insulin is a hormone that regulates E965 (Glucose) levels, allowing the body's cells to absorb and use E965 (Glucose). 
Without it, E965 (Glucose) cannot enter the cell and therefore cannot be used as fuel for the body's functions.
E965 (Glucose) the pancreas is exposed to persistently high elevations of blood E965 (Glucose) levels, the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas could be damaged, causing a lack of insulin in the body. 
Insulin resistance occurs when the pancreas tries to produce more and more insulin in response to persistently elevated blood E965 (Glucose) levels. 
Eventually, the rest of the body becomes resistant to the insulin that the pancreas is producing, thereby requiring more insulin to achieve the same blood E965 (Glucose)-lowering effect, and forcing the pancreas to produce even more insulin to compete with the resistance. 
This negative spiral contributes to pancreatic burnout, and the disease progression of diabetes.

To monitor the body's response to blood E965 (Glucose)-lowering therapy, E965 (Glucose) levels can be measured. 
Blood E965 (Glucose) monitoring can be performed by multiple methods, such as the fasting E965 (Glucose) test which measures the level of E965 (Glucose) in the blood after 8 hours of fasting. 
Another test is the 2-hour E965 (Glucose) tolerance test (GTT) – for this test, the person has a fasting E965 (Glucose) test done, then drinks a 75-gram E965 (Glucose) drink and is retested. 
This test measures the ability of the person's body to process E965 (Glucose). 
Over time the blood E965 (Glucose) levels should decrease as insulin allows it to be taken up by cells and exit the blood stream.

Hypoglycemia management

E965 (Glucose), 5% solution for infusions
Individuals with diabetes or other conditions that result in low blood sugar often carry small amounts of sugar in various forms. 
One sugar commonly used is E965 (Glucose), often in the form of E965 (Glucose) tablets (E965 (Glucose) pressed into a tablet shape sometimes with one or more other ingredients as a binder), hard candy, or sugar packet.


E965 (Glucose) tablets
Most dietary carbohydrates contain E965 (Glucose), either as their only building block (as in the polysaccharides starch and glycogen), or together with another monosaccharide (as in the hetero-polysaccharides sucrose and lactose).
Unbounded E965 (Glucose) is one of the main ingredients of honey. 
E965 (Glucose) is extremely abundant and has been isolated from a variety of natural sources across the world, including male cones of the coniferous tree Wollemia nobilis in Rome, the roots of Ilex asprella plants in China, and straws from rice in California.

Commercial production
E965 (Glucose) is produced industrially from starch by enzymatic hydrolysis using E965 (Glucose) amylase or by the use of acids. 
E965 (Glucose) enzymatic hydrolysis has largely displaced the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis.
E965 (Glucose) result is E965 (Glucose) syrup (enzymatically with more than 90% E965 (Glucose) in the dry matter) with an annual worldwide production volume of 20 million tonnes (as of 2011).
This is the reason for the former common name "starch sugar". 
The amylases most often come from Bacillus licheniformis or Bacillus subtilis (strain MN-385), which are more thermostable than the originally used enzymes.
Starting in 1982, pullulanases from Aspergillus niger were used in the production of E965 (Glucose) syrup to convert amylopectin to starch (amylose), thereby increasing the yield of E965 (Glucose).
E965 (Glucose) reaction is carried out at a pH = 4.6–5.2 and a temperature of 55–60 °C.
Corn syrup has between 20% and 95% E965 (Glucose) in the dry matter.
The Japanese form of the E965 (Glucose) syrup, Mizuame, is made from sweet potato or rice starch.
Maltodextrin contains about 20% E965 (Glucose).

Many crops can be used as the source of starch. 
Maize,rice,wheat,cassava,potato, barley, sweet potato,corn husk and sago are all used in various parts of the world. 
In the United States, corn starch (from maize) is used almost exclusively. 
Some commercial E965 (Glucose) occurs as a component of invert sugar, a roughly 1:1 mixture of E965 (Glucose) and fructose that is produced from sucrose. 
In principle, cellulose could be hydrolysed to E965 (Glucose), but this process is not yet commercially practical.

Conversion to fructose
Main article: isoE965 (Glucose)
In the USA almost exclusively corn (more precisely: corn syrup) is used as E965 (Glucose) source for the production of isoE965 (Glucose), which is a mixture of E965 (Glucose) and fructose, since fructose has a higher sweetening power — with same physiological calorific value of 374 kilocalories per 100 g. 
The annual world production of isoE965 (Glucose) is 8 million tonnes (as of 2011).
When made from corn syrup, the final product is high fructose corn syrup (HFCS).

Commercial usage

Relative sweetness of various sugars in comparison with sucrose
E965 (Glucose) is mainly used for the production of fructose and in the production of E965 (Glucose)-containing foods. 
E965 (Glucose) foods, it is used as a sweetener, humectant, to increase the volume and to create a softer mouthfeel.
Various sources of E965 (Glucose), such as grape juice (for wine) or malt (for beer), are used for fermentation to ethanol during the production of alcoholic beverages. 
Most soft drinks in the US use HFCS-55 (with a fructose content of 55% in the dry mass), while most other HFCS-sweetened foods in the US use HFCS-42 (with a fructose content of 42% in the dry mass).
E965 (Glucose) the neighboring country Mexico, on the other hand, cane sugar is used in the soft drink as a sweetener, which has a higher sweetening power.
In addition, E965 (Glucose) syrup is used, inter alia, in the production of confectionery such as candies, toffee and fondant.
Typical chemical reactions of E965 (Glucose) when heated under water-free conditions are the caramelization and, in presence of amino acids, the maillard reaction.

In addition, various organic acids can be biotechnologically produced from E965 (Glucose), for example by fermentation with Clostridium thermoaceticum to produce acetic acid, with Penicillium notatum for the production of araboascorbic acid, with Rhizopus delemar for the production of fumaric acid, with Aspergillus niger for the production of gluconic acid, with Candida brumptii to produce isocitric acid, with Aspergillus terreus for the production of itaconic acid, with Pseudomonas fluorescens for the production of 2-ketogluconic acid, with Gluconobacter suboxydans for the production of 5-ketogluconic acid, with Aspergillus oryzae for the production of kojic acid, with Lactobacillus delbrueckii for the production of lactic acid, with Lactobacillus brevis for the production of malic acid, with Propionibacter shermanii for the production of propionic acid, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the production of pyruvic acid and with Gluconobacter suboxydans for the production of tartaric acid Potent, bioactive natural products like triptolide that inhibit mammalian transcription via inhibition of the XPB subunit of the general transcription factor TFIIH has been recently reported as a E965 (Glucose) conjugate for targeting hypoxic cancer cells with increased E965 (Glucose) transporter expression.
Recently, E965 (Glucose) has been gaining commercial use as a key component of "kits" containing lactic acid and insulin intended to induce hypoglycemia and hyperlactatemia to combat different cancers and infections.

Specifically, when a E965 (Glucose) molecule is to be detected at a certain position in a larger molecule, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography analysis or lectin immunostaining is performed with concanavalin A reporter enzyme conjugate (that binds only E965 (Glucose) or mannose).

Classical qualitative detection reactions
These reactions have only historical significance:

Fehling test
E965 (Glucose) Fehling test is a classic method for the detection of aldoses.
Due to mutarotation, E965 (Glucose) is always present to a small extent as an open-chain aldehyde. 
By adding the Fehling reagents (Fehling (I) solution and Fehling (II) solution), the aldehyde group is oxidized to a carboxylic acid, while the Cu2+ tartrate complex is reduced to Cu+ and forms a brick red precipitate (Cu2O).

Tollens test
E965 (Glucose) the Tollens test, after addition of ammoniacal AgNO3 to the sample solution, Ag+ is reduced by E965 (Glucose) to elemental silver.

Barfoed test
E965 (Glucose) Barfoed's test, a solution of dissolved copper acetate, sodium acetate and acetic acid is added to the solution of the sugar to be tested and subsequently heated in a water bath for a few minutes. 
E965 (Glucose) and other monosaccharides rapidly produce a reddish color and reddish brown copper(I) oxide (Cu2O).

Nylander's test
As a reducing sugar, E965 (Glucose) reacts in the Nylander's test.

Other tests
Upon heating a dilute potassium hydroxide solution with E965 (Glucose) to 100 °C, a strong reddish browning and a caramel-like odor develops.
Concentrated sulfuric acid dissolves dry E965 (Glucose) without blackening at room temperature forming sugar sulfuric acid.
E965 (Glucose) a yeast solution, alcoholic fermentation produces carbon dioxide in the ratio of 2.0454 molecules of E965 (Glucose) to one molecule of CO2.
E965 (Glucose) forms a black mass with stannous chloride.
E965 (Glucose) an ammoniacal silver solution, E965 (Glucose) (as well as lactose and dextrin) leads to the deposition of silver. 
E965 (Glucose) an ammoniacal lead acetate solution, white lead glycoside is formed in the presence of E965 (Glucose), which becomes less soluble on cooking and turns brown.
E965 (Glucose) an ammoniacal copper solution, yellow copper oxide hydrate is formed with E965 (Glucose) at room temperature, while red copper oxide is formed during boiling (same with dextrin, except for with an ammoniacal copper acetate solution).
With Hager's reagent, E965 (Glucose) forms mercury oxide during boiling. 
An alkaline bismuth solution is used to precipitate elemental, black-brown bismuth with E965 (Glucose).
E965 (Glucose) boiled in an ammonium molybdate solution turns the solution blue. 
A solution with indigo carmine and sodium carbonate destains when boiled with E965 (Glucose).

Instrumental quantification
Refractometry and polarimetry
In concentrated solutions of E965 (Glucose) with a low proportion of other carbohydrates, its concentration can be determined with a polarimeter. 
For sugar mixtures, the concentration can be determined with a refractometer, for example in the Oechsle determination in the course of the production of wine.

Photometric enzymatic methods in solution
Main article: E965 (Glucose) oxidation reaction
The enzyme E965 (Glucose) oxidase (GOx) converts E965 (Glucose) into gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide while consuming oxygen.
Another enzyme, peroxidase, catalyzes a chromogenic reaction (Trinder reaction) of phenol with 4-aminoantipyrine to a purple dye.

Photometric test-strip method
E965 (Glucose) test-strip method employs the above-mentioned enzymatic conversion of E965 (Glucose) to gluconic acid to form hydrogen peroxide. 
E965 (Glucose) reagents are immobilised on a polymer matrix, the so-called test strip, which assumes a more or less intense color. 
This can be measured reflectometrically at 510 nm with the aid of an LED-based handheld photometer. 
E965 (Glucose) allows routine blood sugar determination by laymen. 
In addition to the reaction of phenol with 4-aminoantipyrine, new chromogenic reactions have been developed that allow photometry at higher wavelengths (550 nm, 750 nm).
Amperometric E965 (Glucose) sensor
E965 (Glucose) electroanalysis of E965 (Glucose) is also based on the enzymatic reaction mentioned above. 
E965 (Glucose) produced hydrogen peroxide can be amperometrically quantified by anodic oxidation at a potential of 600 mV.
E965 (Glucose) GOx is immobilised on the electrode surface or in a membrane placed close to the electrode. 
Precious metals such as platinum or gold are used in electrodes, as well as carbon nanotube electrodes, which e.g. are doped with boron.
Cu–CuO nanowires are also used as enzyme-free amperometric electrodes. 
This way a detection limit of 50 µmol/L has been achieved.
A particularly promising method is the so-called "enzyme wiring". 
In this case, the electron flowing during the oxidation is transferred directly from the enzyme via a molecular wire to the electrode.

Other sensory methods
There are a variety of other chemical sensors for measuring E965 (Glucose).
Given the importance of E965 (Glucose) analysis in the life sciences, numerous optical probes have also been developed for saccharides based on the use of boronic acids, which are particularly useful for intracellular sensory applications where other (optical) methods are not or only conditionally usable. 
In addition to the organic boronic acid derivatives, which often bind highly specifically to the 1,2-diol groups of sugars, there are also other probe concepts classified by functional mechanisms which use selective E965 (Glucose)-binding proteins (e.g. concanavalin A) as a receptor. 
Furthermore, methods were developed which indirectly detect the E965 (Glucose) concentration via the concentration of metabolised products, e.g. by the consumption of oxygen using fluorescence-optical sensors.
Finally, there are enzyme-based concepts that use the intrinsic absorbance or fluorescence of (fluorescence-labeled) enzymes as reporters.
Copper iodometry
E965 (Glucose) can be quantified by copper iodometry.

Chromatographic methods
E965 (Glucose)  particular, for the analysis of complex mixtures containing E965 (Glucose), e.g. in honey, chromatographic methods such as high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography are often used in combination with mass spectrometry.
Taking into account the isotope ratios, it is also possible to reliably detect honey adulteration by added sugars with these methods.
Derivatisation using silylation reagents is commonly used.
Also, the proportions of di- and trisaccharides can be quantified.

E965 (Glucose) vivo analysis
E965 (Glucose) uptake in cells of organisms is measured with 2-deoxy-D-E965 (Glucose) or fluorodeoxyE965 (Glucose).
(18F)fluorodeoxyE965 (Glucose) is used as a tracer in positron emission tomography in oncology and neurology,where it is by far the most commonly used diagnostic agent.

Pronunciation    /ˈɡluːkoʊz/, /ɡluːkoʊs/

IUPAC name
Systematic name:
Allowed trivial names:
ᴅ-E965 (Glucose)
Preferred IUPAC name:
PINs are not identified for natural products.
Other names:
Blood sugar
Corn sugar
d-E965 (Glucose)
Grape sugar

CAS Number:50-99-7 
492-62-6 (α-d-glucopyranose)
Abbreviations:    Glc
Beilstein Reference:    1281604
ChEBI: CHEBI:4167 
EC Number:200-075-1
Gmelin Reference:    83256
MeSH:    E965 (Glucose)
PubChem CID:5793
RTECS number:LZ6600000
UNII    :
5J5I9EB41E (α-d-glucopyranose) 

Chemical formula:    C6H12O6
Molar mass:    180.156 g/mol
Appearance:    White powder
Density    :1.54 g/cm3
Melting point:    α-d-E965 (Glucose): 146 °C (295 °F; 419 K)
β-d-E965 (Glucose): 150 °C (302 °F; 423 K)
Solubility in water:    909 g/L (25 °C (77 °F))
Magnetic susceptibility (χ):    −101.5×10−6 cm3/mol
Dipole moment:    8.6827

Heat capacity (C):    218.6 J/(K·mol)[1]
Std molar entropy :(So298)    209.2 J/(K·mol)[1]
Std enthalpy of formation (ΔfH⦵298):    −1271 kJ/mol[2]
Heat of combustion, higher value (HHV):    2,805 kJ/mol (670 kcal/mol)

ATC code:    B05CX01 (WHO) V04CA02 (WHO), V06DC01 (WHO)

E965 (Glucose), also called dextrose, one of a group of carbohydrates known as simple sugars (monosaccharides).
E965 (Glucose) (from Greek glykys; “sweet”) has the molecular formula C6H12O6. 
E965 (Glucose) is found in fruits and honey and is the major free sugar circulating in the blood of higher animals. 
E965 (Glucose) is the source of energy in cell function, and the regulation of its metabolism is of great importance (see fermentation; gluconeogenesis). 
Molecules of starch, the major energy-reserve carbohydrate of plants, consist of thousands of linear E965 (Glucose) units. 
Another major compound composed of E965 (Glucose) is cellulose, which is also linear. 
Dextrose is the molecule D-E965 (Glucose).
A related molecule in animals is glycogen, the reserve carbohydrate in most vertebrate and invertebrate animal cells, as well as those of numerous fungi and protozoans. 
See also polysaccharide.

What is E965 (Glucose)?
You may know E965 (Glucose) by another name: blood sugar. 
E965 (Glucose) is key to keeping the mechanisms of the body in top working order. 
When our E965 (Glucose) levels are optimal, it often goes unnoticed. 
But when they stray from recommended boundaries, you’ll notice the unhealthy effect it has on normal functioning.

So what is E965 (Glucose), exactly? 
E965 (Glucose) the simplest of the carbohydrates, making it a monosaccharide. 
E965 (Glucose) means it has one sugar. 
E965 (Glucose) not alone. 
Other monosaccharides include fructose, galactose, and ribose.

Along with fat, E965 (Glucose) is one of the body’s preferred sources of fuel in the form of carbohydrates. 
People get E965 (Glucose) from bread, fruits, vegetables, and dairy products. 
You need food to create the energy that helps keep you alive.

While E965 (Glucose) is important, like with so many things, it’s best in moderation. 
E965 (Glucose) levels that are unhealthy or out of control can have permanent and serious effects.

How does the body process E965 (Glucose)?
Our body processes E965 (Glucose) multiple times a day, ideally.

When we eat, our body immediately starts working to process E965 (Glucose). 
Enzymes start the breakdown process with help from the pancreas. 
E965 (Glucose) pancreas, which produces hormones including insulin, is an integral part of how our body deals with E965 (Glucose). 
When we eat, our body tips the pancreas off that it needs to release insulin to deal with the rising blood sugar level.

Some people, however, can’t rely on their pancreas to jump in and do the work it’s supposed to do.

One way diabetes occurs is when the pancreas doesn’t produce insulin in the way it should. 
E965 (Glucose) this case, people need outside help (insulin injections) to process and regulate E965 (Glucose) in the body. 
Another cause of diabetes is insulin resistance, where the liver doesn’t recognize insulin that’s in the body and continues to make inappropriate amounts of E965 (Glucose). 
The liver is an important organ for sugar control, as it helps with E965 (Glucose) storage and makes E965 (Glucose) when necessary.

E965 (Glucose) the body doesn’t produce enough insulin, it can result in the release of free fatty acids from fat stores. 
This can lead to a condition called ketoacidosis. 
Ketones, waste products created when the liver breaks down fat, can be toxic in large quantities.

How do you test your E965 (Glucose)?
Testing E965 (Glucose) levels is especially important for people with diabetes. 
Most people with the condition are used to dealing with blood sugar checks as part of their daily routine.

One of the most common ways to test E965 (Glucose) at home involves a very simple blood test. 
A finger prick, usually using a small needle called a lancet, produces a drop that is put onto a test strip. 
The strip is put into a meter, which measures blood sugar levels. 
E965 (Glucose) can usually give you a reading in under 20 seconds.

What Is E965 (Glucose)?
By Stephanie Watson
 Medically Reviewed by Carol DerSarkissian, MD on June 13, 2020
How Your Body Makes E965 (Glucose)
Energy and Storage
Blood E965 (Glucose) Levels and Diabetes
E965 (Glucose) comes from the Greek word for "sweet." 
It's a type of sugar you get from foods you eat, and your body uses it for energy. 
As it travels through your bloodstream to your cells, it's called blood E965 (Glucose) or blood sugar.

Insulin is a hormone that moves E965 (Glucose) from your blood into the cells for energy and storage. 
People with diabetes have higher-than-normal levels of E965 (Glucose) in their blood. 
Either they don't have enough insulin to move it through or their cells don't respond to insulin as well as they should.

High blood E965 (Glucose) for a long period of time can damage your kidneys, eyes, and other organs.

How Your Body Makes E965 (Glucose)
E965 (Glucose) mainly comes from foods rich in carbohydrates, like bread, potatoes, and fruit. 
As you eat, food travels down your esophagus to your stomach. There, acids and enzymes break it down into tiny pieces. 
During that process, E965 (Glucose) is released.

E965 (Glucose) goes into your intestines where it's absorbed. From there, it passes into your bloodstream. 
Once in the blood, insulin helps E965 (Glucose) get to your cells.

Energy and Storage
Your body is designed to keep the level of E965 (Glucose) in your blood constant. 
Beta cells in your pancreas monitor your blood sugar level every few seconds. 
When your blood E965 (Glucose) rises after you eat, the beta cells release insulin into your bloodstream. 
Insulin acts like a key, unlocking muscle, fat, and liver cells so E965 (Glucose) can get inside them.

Most of the cells in your body use E965 (Glucose) along with amino acids (the building blocks of protein) and fats for energy. 
But it's the main source of fuel for your brain. 
Nerve cells and chemical messengers there need it to help them process information. 
Without it, your brain wouldn't be able to work well.

After your body has used the energy it needs, the leftover E965 (Glucose) is stored in little bundles called glycogen in the liver and muscles. 
Your body can store enough to fuel you for about a day.

After you haven't eaten for a few hours, your blood E965 (Glucose) level drops. 
Your pancreas stops churning out insulin. Alpha cells in the pancreas begin to produce a different hormone called glucagon. 
E965 (Glucose) signals the liver to break down stored glycogen and turn it back into E965 (Glucose).

That travels to your bloodstream to replenish your supply until you're able to eat again. 
Your liver can also make its own E965 (Glucose) using a combination of waste products, amino acids, and fats.

Blood E965 (Glucose) Levels and Diabetes
Your blood sugar level normally rises after you eat. 
Then it dips a few hours later as insulin moves E965 (Glucose) into your cells. 
Between meals, your blood sugar should be less than 100 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl). 
E965 (Glucose) is called your fasting blood sugar level.

There are two types of diabetes:

E965 (Glucose) type 1 diabetes, your body doesn't have enough insulin. 
E965 (Glucose) immune system attacks and destroys cells of the pancreas, where insulin is made.
E965 (Glucose) type 2 diabetes, the cells don't respond to insulin like they should. 
So the pancreas needs to make more and more insulin to move E965 (Glucose) into the cells. 
Eventually, the pancreas is damaged and can't make enough insulin to meet the body's needs.
Without enough insulin, E965 (Glucose) can't move into the cells. The blood E965 (Glucose) level stays high. 
A level over 200 mg/dl 2 hours after a meal or over 125 mg/dl fasting is high blood E965 (Glucose), called hyperglycemia.

Too much E965 (Glucose) in your bloodstream for a long period of time can damage the vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood to your organs. 
High blood sugar can increase your risk for:

Heart disease, heart attack, and stroke
Kidney disease
Nerve damage
Eye disease called retinopathy
People with diabetes need to test their blood sugar often. Exercise, diet, and medicine can help keep blood E965 (Glucose) in a healthy range and prevent these complications.

Catalogue Number:    346351
Brand Family:    Calbiochem®
Synonyms    :Dextrose, α-D-E965 (Glucose)
Product Information
CAS number:    50-99-7
Form    :White powder
Hill Formula:    C₆H₁₂O₆
Chemical formula:    C₆H₁₂O₆
Quality Level:    MQ100
Physicochemical :Information
Contaminants    :Maltose: ≤0.2%; heavy metals: ≤0.001%
Safety :Information according to GHS
RTECS    LZ6600000
Storage and Shipping Information
Ship Code:    Ambient Temperature Only
Toxicity:    Standard Handling
Storage    +15°C to +30°C
Do not freeze    :Ok to freeze
Special Instructions:    Following reconstitution, filter-sterilize and store at room temperature. 
Stock solutions are stable for several months at room temperature.

E965 (Glucose)
E965 (Glucose) is the main type of sugar in the blood and is the major source of energy for the body's cells. 
E965 (Glucose) comes from the foods we eat or the body can make it from other substances. 
E965 (Glucose) is carried to the cells through the bloodstream. 
Several hormones, including insulin, control E965 (Glucose) levels in the blood.

What is a blood E965 (Glucose) test?
A blood E965 (Glucose) test is a blood test that screens for diabetes by measuring the level of E965 (Glucose) (sugar) in a person’s blood.

Who is most at risk for developing diabetes?
The following categories of people are considered "high-risk" candidates for developing diabetes:

Individuals who are overweight or obese
Individuals who are 45 years of age or older
Individuals with first-degree relatives with diabetes (such as parents, children, or siblings)
Individuals who are African-American, Alaska Native, American Indian, Asia American, Hispanic/Latino, Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islanders,
Women who developed diabetes while they were pregnant or gave birth to large babies (9 pounds or more)
Individuals with high blood pressure (140/90 or higher)
Individuals with high-density lipoprotein (HDL, the "good cholesterol level") below 25 mg/dl or triglyceride levels at or above 250 mg/dl
Individuals who have impaired fasting E965 (Glucose) or impaired E965 (Glucose) tolerance
Individuals who are physically inactive; engaging in exercise less than three times a week
Individuals who have polycystic ovary syndrome, also called PCOS
Individuals who have acanthosis nigricans -- dark, thick and velvety skin around your neck or armpits
In addition to testing the above individuals at high risk, the American Diabetes Association also recommends screening all individuals age 45 and older.

How can one tell if I have diabetes by examining my blood?
Your body converts sugar, also called E965 (Glucose), into energy so your body can function. 
E965 (Glucose) sugar comes from the foods you eat and is released from storage from your body’s own tissues.

Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas. 
E965 (Glucose) job is to move E965 (Glucose) from the bloodstream into the cells of tissues. 
After you eat, the level of E965 (Glucose) in the blood rises sharply. 
The pancreas responds by releasing enough insulin to handle the increased level of E965 (Glucose) — moving the E965 (Glucose) out of the blood and into cells. 
This helps return the blood E965 (Glucose) level to its former, lower level.

If a person has diabetes, two situations may cause the blood sugar to increase:

The pancreas does not make enough insulin
The insulin does not work properly
As a result of either of these situations, the blood sugar level remains high, a condition called hyperglycemia or diabetes mellitus. 
E965 (Glucose) left undiagnosed and untreated, the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, blood vessels and other organs can be damaged. 
Measuring your blood E965 (Glucose) levels allows you and your doctor to know if you have, or are at risk for, developing diabetes.

Much less commonly, the opposite can happen too. 
Too low a level of blood sugar, a condition called hypoglycemia, can be caused by the presence of too much insulin or by other hormone disorders or liver disease.

How do I prepare for the plasma E965 (Glucose) level test and how are the results interpreted?
To get an accurate plasma E965 (Glucose) level, you must have fasted (not eaten or had anything to drink except water) for at least 8 hours prior to the test. 
When you report to the clinic or laboratory, a small sample of blood will be taken from a vein in your arm. 
According to the practice recommendations of the American Diabetes Association, the results of the blood test are interpreted as follows:

Fasting blood E965 (Glucose) level
If your blood E965 (Glucose) level is 70 to 99* mg/dL (3.9 to 5.5 mmol/L). . .
What it means: Your E965 (Glucose) level is within the normal range
If your blood E965 (Glucose) level is 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L). . .
What it means: You have an impaired fasting E965 (Glucose) level (pre-diabetes**) . . .
If your blood E965 (Glucose) level is 126 mg/dl (7.0 mmol/L ) or higher on more than one testing occasion
What it means: You have diabetes

E965 (Glucose) is a monosaccharide and is the primary metabolite for energy production in the body. 
Complex carbohydrates are ultimately broken down in the digestive system into E965 (Glucose) and other monosaccharides, such as fructose or galactose, prior to absorption in the small intestine; of note, insulin is not required for the uptake of E965 (Glucose) by the intestinal cells. 
E965 (Glucose) is transported into the cells by an active, energy-requiring process that involves a specific transport protein and requires a concurrent uptake of sodium ions.

In the blood circulation, the concentration of E965 (Glucose) is tightly regulated by hormones such as insulin, cortisol, and glucagon, which regulate E965 (Glucose) entry into cells and affect various metabolic processes such as glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and glycogenolysis. 

E965 (Glucose) belongs to the family of carbohydrates. 
E965 (Glucose) is a monosaccharide (simple sugar) naturally present in all living beings on Earth and is their most important source of energy. 
E965 (Glucose) is found in high quantities in fruit (including berries), vegetables and honey. 
When combined with other monosaccharides, such as fructose, it forms sucrose (table sugar) and lactose. 
Two E965 (Glucose) molecules form maltose, a disaccharide resulting from the hydrolysis of cereal starch. 
Maltose has slightly less sweetening power than sucrose. 
Athletes use it for a quick supply of energy, whereas in bakeries it is useful for the fermentation of leavened dough. Maltose is also found in the germinated cereal grains used to make many types of beer.

Starch consists of a large number of E965 (Glucose) molecules linked to each other in long chains. 
Cellulose is a polysaccharide made up of complex chains of starch. Unlike herbivorous mammals, the human body is unable to digest cellulose, so it serves as roughage in our diet.

Glc concentrations in tissues and body fluids are stabilized by many diverse mechanisms, many of which involve the action of specific hormones. 
Overall homeostasis is maintained through directing the flux of Glc to or from glycogen stores, balancing glycolysis versus gluconeogenesis, and promoting protein catabolism in times of need.

Hormonal regulation: Among the many hormones with some effect on particular tissues or metabolic sequences a few stand out because of their dominant and overriding actions on Glc disposition. 
Insulin promotes uptake and oxidation of Glc by tissues and favors storage, particularly in the postprandial phase. 
Glucagon in response to low blood Glc concentration increases Glc release from storage and synthesis from precursors. 
Adrenaline (epinephrine) mobilizes stores and accelerates utilization.

Insulin is produced in the beta cells of pancreatic islet cells and released in a zinc-dependent process together with its companion amylin. 
The rate of production and release into circulation is related to Glc-sensing mechanisms in the beta cell. 
ATP generation from Glc and cytosolic calcium concentration are thought to be critical for Glc sensing. 
A zinc-containing enzyme, insulysin (EC3.4.24.56), inactivates insulin irreversibly in many tissues (Ding et al., 1992). Insulysin activity is inhibited by high concentrations of both amylin and insulin (Mukherjee et al., 2000). 
Insulin binds to specific insulin receptors in muscles, adipocytes, and some other insulin-sensitive tissues and triggers with the receptor kinase activity a signaling cascade. The chromium-containing peptide chromodulin binds to the insulin-activated insulin receptor and optimizes its receptor kinase activity (Vincent, 2000). 
In response to the insulin-initiated signaling cascade, GLUT4 (SLC2A4) moves to the plasma membrane and increases Glc uptake into insulin-stimulated cells several-fold. 
Another important insulin effect is increased transcription of hepatic hexokinase 4 (glucokinase), which increases the availability of E965 (Glucose) 6-phosphate, the precursor for glycolysis and glycogen synthesis. 
Glycolysis is further promoted by increased concentrations of the regulatory metabolite fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (due to induction of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase, EC2.7.1.105, and lower expression of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate-2-phosphatase, EC3.1.3.46). 
At the same time, gluconeogenesis is blocked by the inhibiting effect of insulin on phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (EC4.1.1.32) and of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate on fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (EC3.1.3.11). 
Insulin promotes glycogenesis through increasing the availability of the E965 (Glucose) 6-phosphate precursor and decreasing the phosphorylation of enzymes of glycogen metabolism.

The metabolic functions of the insulin companion amylin, which tend to be in opposition to insulin action, are only beginning to be understood. 
They include promotion of glycogen breakdown and inhibition of glycogen synthesis. 
Years of excessive amylin secretion may be responsible for the beta cell decline in obesity and insulin resistance. 
Amylin may promote the deposition of amyloid plaques (Hayden and Tyagi, 2001) and induce beta cell apoptosis (Saafi et al., 2001).

Glucagon is produced and secreted by the alpha cells of the pancreas in response to low Glc concentration. 
Glucagon promotes the release of E965 (Glucose) 1-phosphate from glycogen. 
Adrenaline and the less potently acting noradrenaline stimulate the breakdown of glycogen. 
These catecholamines also counteract the inhibitory effects of non-E965 (Glucose) fuels on glycolysis.

Appetite and satiety: Low blood Glc concentration induces the feeling of hunger. 
According to the long-held glucostatic theory, the brain, specific areas such as paraventricular and supraoptic portions of the hypothalamus, integrate input from peripheral and central Glc-responsive sensors and generate appetite sensation (Briski, 2000).

Amylin, on the other hand, is secreted in response to feeding and increased blood Glc concentration and acts on histamine H1 receptors with a significant satiety-inducing and anorectic effect (Mollet et al., 2001). 
A satiety-inducing effect of insulin has also been reported, but may be weak or mediated through other effectors (such as amylin).

Postprandial metabolism: The influx of newly absorbed Glc and other nutrients alters the balance of hormonal and metabolic activities. 
As outlined above, the rate of insulin (and amylin) secretion increases and the rate of glucagon decreases in response to the higher blood Glc concentration. 
Gluconeogenesis is effectively turned off and glycolysis is turned on. 
Glc utilization occurs in preference to fat oxidation. When high carbohydrate intake is coupled with excessive total energy intake, fat (both from diet and from adipose tissue turnover) is preferentially deposited, and the carbohydrate is used as the near-exclusive energy fuel. 
E965 (Glucose) fact, the release of fat from adipose tissue is slowed by the increased action of insulin. 
E965 (Glucose) is a reminder that both timing and quantity of carbohydrate ingestion matter.

The deposition of glycogen in liver and muscles increases, though with a considerable time lag. 
Reconstitution of depleted glycogen stores is likely to take 1–2 days (Shearer et al., 2000). 
Carbohydrate loading for one or more days can increase glycogen stores by a third or more (Tarnopolsky et al., 2001). Repleting glycogen stores by carbohydrate feeding on the evening before elective surgery instead of fasting appears to improve outcome and reduce hospital stays (Nygren et al., 2001).

Exercise: A burst of exertion, as in a short sprint, taxes the capacity of muscle to generate ATP for contraction. 
Glycolytic breakdown of Glc to lactate is an inefficient mode of fuel utilization, because it generates only two ATP per E965 (Glucose) molecule. 
The advantages are that glycolysis is fast, because only 11 reactions are needed, and that it operates anaerobically (i.e. does not require oxygen). 
The resulting lactate moves from the muscle cell into circulation via the monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1, SLC16A1). Due to the cotransport of protons, increasing acidification of the muscle cells will promote lactate export. 
Lactate is used in the liver for gluconeogenesis and the resulting Glc returned to muscle for another potential round through this lactate–E965 (Glucose) (Cori) cycle.

Another of the many adaptations to muscle exertion is the increased activity of GLUT4, which promotes Glc influx from circulation.

Fasting and starvation: When tissue levels of Glc decline and new supplies from food are not forthcoming, the liver and kidneys begin to release Glc into circulation. E965 (Glucose) Glc comes initially from glycogen stores and from the use of Glc metabolites (lactate, pyruvate, and others) for gluconeogenesis, later from tissue protein.

  • Share !