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CAS NO:64-17-5
EC NO:200-578-6

Ethanol (also called ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, drinking alcohol, or simply alcohol) is an organic chemical compound. 
Ethanol is a simple alcohol with the chemical formula C2H6O. 
Ethanols formula can be also written as CH3−CH2−OH or C2H5OH (an ethyl group linked to a hydroxyl group), and is often abbreviated as EtOH. 
Ethanol is a volatile, flammable, colorless liquid with a characteristic wine-like odor and pungent taste.
Ethanol is a psychoactive drug, recreational drug, and the active ingredient in alcoholic drinks.

Ethanol is naturally produced by the fermentation of sugars by yeasts or via petrochemical processes such as ethylene hydration. 
Ethanol has medical applications as an antiseptic and disinfectant. 
Ethanol is used as a chemical solvent and in the synthesis of organic compounds. 
Ethanol is a fuel source.

Chemical formula    C2H6O
Molar mass    46.069 g·mol−1
Appearance    Colourless liquid
Odor    Methanol-like
Density    0.78945 g/cm3 (at 20 °C)
Melting point    −114.14 ± 0.03[3] °C (−173.45 ± 0.05 °F; 159.01 ± 0.03 K)
Boiling point    78.23 ± 0.09[3] °C (172.81 ± 0.16 °F; 351.38 ± 0.09 K)
Solubility in water    Miscible
log P    −0.18
Vapor pressure    5.95 kPa (at 20 °C)
Acidity (pKa)    15.9 (H2O), 29.8 (DMSO)
Magnetic susceptibility (χ)    −33.60·10−6 cm3/mol
Refractive index (nD)    1.3611[3]
Viscosity    1.2 mPa·s (at 20 °C), 1.074 mPa·s (at 25 °C)
Dipole moment    1.69 D

Ethanol is the systematic name defined by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) for a compound consisting of an alkyl group with two carbon atoms (prefix "eth-"), having a single bond between them (infix "-an-") and an attached functional group −OH group (suffix "-ol").

Main article: Alcohol (medicine)

Ethanol is used in medical wipes and most commonly in antibacterial hand sanitizer gels as an antiseptic for its bactericidal and anti-fungal effects.
Ethanol kills microorganisms by dissolving their membrane lipid bilayer and denaturing their proteins, and is effective against most bacteria, fungi and viruses. However, it is ineffective against bacterial spores, but that can be alleviated by using hydrogen peroxide.
A solution of 70% ethanol is more effective than pure ethanol because ethanol relies on water molecules for optimal antimicrobial activity. Absolute ethanol may inactivate microbes without destroying them because the alcohol is unable to fully permeate the microbe's membrane.
Ethanol can also be used as a disinfectant and antiseptic because it causes cell dehydration by disrupting the osmotic balance across cell membrane, so water leaves the cell leading to cell death.

Ethanol may be administered as an antidote to ethylene glycol poisoning and methanol poisoning.

Medicinal solvent
Ethanol, often in high concentrations, is used to dissolve many water-insoluble medications and related compounds. Liquid preparations of pain medications, cough and cold medicines, and mouth washes, for example, may contain up to 25% ethanol and may need to be avoided in individuals with adverse reactions to ethanol such as alcohol-induced respiratory reactions.
Ethanol is present mainly as an antimicrobial preservative in over 700 liquid preparations of medicine including acetaminophen, iron supplements, ranitidine, furosemide, mannitol, phenobarbital, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and over-the-counter cough medicine.

In mammals, ethanol is primarily metabolized in the liver and stomach by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) enzymes. These enzymes catalyze the oxidation of ethanol into acetaldehyde (ethanal):

When present in significant concentrations, this metabolism of ethanol is additionally aided by the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP2E1 in humans, while trace amounts are also metabolized by catalase.

The resulting intermediate, acetaldehyde, is a known carcinogen, and poses significantly greater toxicity in humans than ethanol itself. Many of the symptoms typically associated with alcohol intoxication — as well as many of the health hazards typically associated with the long-term consumption of ethanol — can be attributed to acetaldehyde toxicity in humans.

The subsequent oxidation of acetaldehyde into acetate is performed by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymes. A mutation in the ALDH2 gene that encodes for an inactive or dysfunctional form of this enzyme affects roughly 50% of east Asian populations, contributing to the characteristic alcohol flush reaction that can cause temporary reddening of the skin as well as a number of related, and often unpleasant, symptoms of acetaldehyde toxicity. This mutation is typically accompanied by another mutation in the alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme ADH1B in roughly 80% of east Asians, which improves the catalytic efficiency of converting ethanol into acetaldehyde.

Main articles: Alcohol (drug) and Alcoholic drink
As a central nervous system depressant, ethanol is one of the most commonly consumed psychoactive drugs.

Despite alcohol's psychoactive properties, it is readily available and legal for sale in most countries. However, there are laws regulating the sale, exportation/importation, taxation, manufacturing, consumption, and possession of alcoholic beverages. The most common regulation is prohibition for minors.

Chemical formula
Ethanol is a 2-carbon alcohol. 
Ethanols molecular formula is CH3CH2OH. An alternative notation is CH3−CH2−OH, which indicates that the carbon of a methyl group (CH3−) is attached to the carbon of a methylene group (−CH2–), which is attached to the oxygen of a hydroxyl group (−OH). 
Ethanol is a constitutional isomer of dimethyl ether. 
Ethanol is sometimes abbreviated as EtOH, using the common organic chemistry notation of representing the ethyl group (C2H5−) with Et.

Physical properties

Ethanol burning with its spectrum depicted
Ethanol is a volatile, colorless liquid that has a slight odor. 
Ethanol burns with a smokeless blue flame that is not always visible in normal light. The physical properties of ethanol stem primarily from the presence of its hydroxyl group and the shortness of its carbon chain. 
Ethanol's hydroxyl group is able to participate in hydrogen bonding, rendering it more viscous and less volatile than less polar organic compounds of similar molecular weight, such as propane.

Ethanol is slightly more refractive than water, having a refractive index of 1.36242 (at λ=589.3 nm and 18.35 °C or 65.03 °F). The triple point for ethanol is 150 K at a pressure of 4.3 × 10−4 Pa.


Ethanol is produced both as a petrochemical, through the hydration of ethylene and, via biological processes, by fermenting sugars with yeast. Which process is more economical depends on prevailing prices of petroleum and grain feed stocks. In the 1970s most industrial ethanol in the United States was made as a petrochemical, but in the 1980s the United States introduced subsidies for corn-based ethanol and today it is almost all made from that source. In India ethanol is made from sugarcane.

Ethanol is a primary alcohol that is ethane in which one of the hydrogens is substituted by a hydroxy group. 
Ethanol has a role as an antiseptic drug, a polar solvent, a neurotoxin, a central nervous system depressant, a teratogenic agent, a NMDA receptor antagonist, a protein kinase C agonist, a disinfectant, a human metabolite, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolite, an Escherichia coli metabolite and a mouse metabolite. 
Ethanol is a primary alcohol, an alkyl alcohol, a volatile organic compound and a member of ethanols. 
Ethanol is a conjugate acid of an ethoxide.

Ethanol appears as a clear colorless liquid with a characteristic vinous odor and pungent taste. Flash point 55°F. Density 6.5 lb / gal. Vapors are heavier than air.
Ethanol with a small amount of an adulterant added so as to be unfit for use as a beverage.

Industry Uses    
Adhesives and sealant chemicals
Agricultural chemicals (non-pesticidal)
Beverage ingredients
Food products
Fuels and fuel additives
Functional fluids (closed systems)
Functional fluids (open systems)
Laboratory chemicals
Lubricants and lubricant additives
Odor agents
Paint additives and coating additives not described by other categories
Pen Ink Component
Plating agents and surface treating agents
Process regulators
Processing aids, not otherwise listed
Processing aids, specific to petroleum production
Raw Materials
Solvents (for cleaning and degreasing)
Solvents (which become part of product formulation or mixture)
Surface active agents
Used in alcoholic beverages, vinegars, mustards, etc.
Viscosity adjustors

Consumer Uses    
Adhesives and sealants
Agricultural products (non-pesticidal)
Air care products
Anti-freeze and de-icing products
Automotive care products
Cleaning and furnishing care products
Distributors to other chemical product and preparation manufacturing.
Fire Supression
Fuels and related product
Ink, toner, and colorant products
Laundry and dishwashing products
Non-TSCA use
Paints and coatings
Personal care products
Pharmaceutical, research and/or laboratory, flavor and fragrance.
Plastic and rubber products not covered elsewhere
Research, laboratory use.
pharmaceutical use

Industry Processing Sectors
Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting
All other basic inorganic chemical manufacturing
All other basic organic chemical manufacturing
All other chemical product and preparation manufacturing
All other petroleum and coal products manufacturing
Blended for vehicle fuel
Bulk Distribution Terminal
Ethanol production
Flavor and fragrance
Food, beverage, and tobacco product manufacturing
Fuel Ethanol
Furniture and related product manufacturing

Ethanol is a clear, colorless, very mobile liquid. 
Ethanol is used in alcoholic beverages in suitable dilutions, and as a reagent in synthetic organic chemistry and chromatography, as well as industrial and laboratory organic solvent. Other uses are in manufacture of denatured alcohol, pharmaceuticals (rubbing compounds, lotions, tonics, colognes), in perfumery. Octane booster in gasoline. Pharmaceutic aid (solvent). 

Ethanol (CH3CH2OH) is a clear, colorless liquid. 
Ethanol is also known as ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and EtOH (see Fuel Properties search.) 
Ethanol has the same chemical formula regardless of whether it is produced from starch- or sugar-based feedstocks, such as corn grain (as it primarily is in the United States), sugar cane (as it primarily is in Brazil), or from cellulosic feedstocks (such as wood chips or crop residues).

Ethanol has a higher octane number than gasoline, providing premium blending properties. Minimum octane number requirements for gasoline prevent engine knocking and ensure drivability. Lower-octane gasoline is blended with 10% ethanol to attain the standard 87 octane.

Ethanol contains less energy per gallon than gasoline, to varying degrees, depending on the volume percentage of ethanol in the blend. Denatured ethanol (98% ethanol) contains about 30% less energy than gasoline per gallon. 
Ethanol’s impact on fuel economy is dependent on the ethanol content in the fuel and whether an engine is optimized to run on gasoline or ethanol.

Ethanol is one of the largest volume organic chemicals used in industrial and consumer products. The primary industrial uses of this aliphatic alcohol are as an intermediate in the production of other chemicals and as a solvent. 
Ethanol is used in the manufacture of drugs, plastics, lacquers, polishes, plasticizers, and cosmetics.
Ethanol is used in medicine as a topical antiinfective, and as an antidote for ethylene glycol or methanol overdose. Commercial products containing ethanol include beverages, perfumes, aftershaves and colognes, medicinal liquids, mouthwashes, liniments, and some rubbing alcohols.

Ethanol, also called ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, or alcohol, a member of a class of organic compounds that are given the general name alcohols; 
Ethanols molecular formula is C2H5OH. 
Ethanol is an important industrial chemical; 
Ethanol is used as a solvent, in the synthesis of other organic chemicals, and as an additive to automotive gasoline (forming a mixture known as a gasohol). 
Ethanol is also the intoxicating ingredient of many alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine, and distilled spirits.

Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol and grain alcohol, is a clear, colorless liquid and the principle ingredient in alcoholic beverages like beer, wine or brandy. Because it can readily dissolve in water and other organic compounds, ethanol also is an ingredient in a range of products, from personal care and beauty products to paints and varnishes to fuel.

What is Ethanol?
Ethanol is a natural byproduct of plant fermentation and also can be produced through the hydration of ethylene.

Uses & Benefits
Personal Care Products
Ethanol is a common ingredient in many cosmetics and beauty products. 
Ethanol acts as an astringent to help clean skin, as a preservative in lotions and to help ensure that lotion ingredients do not separate, and it helps hairspray adhere to hair.

Household Products
Ethanol mixes easily with water and many organic compounds, and makes an effective solvent for use in paints, lacquers and varnish, as well as personal care and household cleaning products. As an additive to cleaning products, ethanol is also used as a preservative because it is effective in knocking out organisms that could pose a danger to consumers.

Ethanol is a renewable biofuel because it is made from biomass. 
Ethanol is a clear, colorless alcohol made from a variety of biomass materials called feedstocks (the raw materials used to make a product). 
Ethanol can also be made from grasses, trees, and agricultural and forestry residues such as corn cobs and stocks, rice straw, sawdust, and wood chips. Ethanol is made from these feedstocks in several ways.

Formula: CH3CH2OH / C2H6O
Molecular mass: 46.1
Boiling point: 78°C
Melting point: -114 °C
Relative density (water = 1): 0.79
Solubility in water: miscible
Vapour pressure, kPa at 20°C: 5.8
Relative vapour density (air = 1): 1.6
Relative density of the vapour/air-mixture at 20°C (air = 1): 1.03
Flash point: 12.0 °C c.c.
Auto-ignition temperature: 400°C
Explosive limits, vol% in air: 3.1-27.7
Octanol/water partition coefficient as log Pow: -0.32
Viscosity: 1.074 mPa*s at 20°C 

Ethanol is a grain alcohol that can be blended with gasoline and used in motor vehicles. 
Ethanol is a good fuel for use in spark-ignition engines. 
Ethanol has a high octane number, making it attractive as an antiknock additive in gasoline. 
Ethanol can be used as an additive for diesel (biodiesel). 
Ethanol is also an important feedstock for the chemical industry.

A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. 
Ethanol has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. 
Ethanol is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in alcoholic beverages.

Ethanol is widely used for its solvent and antiseptic properties. 
Ethanol is rather an irritant and sensitization has rarely been reported.

Ethanol is commonly known as rubbing alcohol. ethyl alcohol is ordinary alcohol and is used medicinally as a topical antiseptic, astringent, and anti-bacterial. At concentrations above 15 percent, it is also a broad-spectrum preservative against bacteria and fungi, and can boost the efficacy of other preservatives in a formulation. Cosmetic companies tend to use alcohol SD-40 in high-grade cosmetic manufacturing as they consider ethanol too strong and too drying for application on the skin. obtained from grain distillation, it can also be synthetically manufactured.

Ethanol is widely used in the cosmetic industry as an antiseptic as well as a solvent given its strong grease-dissolving abilities. 
Ethanol is often used in a variety of concentrations in skin toners for acne skin, aftershave lotions, perfumes, suntan lotions, and toilet waters. Alcohol dries the skin when used in high concentrations. It is manufactured through the fermentation of starch, sugar, and other carbohydrates.

Ethanol is a colorless flammable liquid with a typical lower alcohol odor and is miscible in water in all proportions. 
Ethanol is stable and hygroscopic. 
Ethanol is incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, peroxides, acids, acid chlorides, acid anhydrides, alkali metals, ammonia, and moisture. 
Ethanol forms explosive mixtures with air. 
Ethanol is the most common solvent used in aerosols, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, alcoholic beverages, vinegar production, and in the chemical synthesis of a large variety of products in different industries. For instance, in the manufacture of plastics, lacquers, polishes, plasticizers, perfumes, adhesives, rubber accelerators, explosives, synthetic resins, nitrocellulose, inks, preservatives, and as a fuel.

ChEBI: A primary alcohol that is ethane in which one of the hydrogens is substituted by a hydroxy group.
A clear colorless liquid with a characteristic vinous odor and pungent taste. Flash point 55°F. Density 6.5 lb/gal. Vapors are heavier than air.

Ethyl alcohol, also called ethanol, absolute alcohol, or grain alcohol, is a clear, colorless, flammable liquid with a pleasant odor. 
Ethanol is associated primarily with alcoholic beverages, but it has numerous uses in the chemical industry. The word alcohol is derived from the Arabic word al kuhul, which was a fine powder of the element antimony used as a cosmetic. In Medieval times, the word al kuhul came to be associated with the distilled products known as alcohols. The hydroxyl group, -OH, bonded to a carbon, characterizes alcohols. Ethyl is derived from the root of the two-carbon hydrocarbon ethane.

Ethanol is manufactured by the controlled enzymatic fermentation of starch, sugar, or other carbohydrates. A fermented liquid is produced containing about 15% ethanol; ethanol 95% v/v is then obtained by fractional distillation. Ethanol may also be prepared by a number of synthetic methods.

Ethanol and aqueous ethanol solutions of various concentrations are widely used in pharmaceutical formulations and cosmetics. Although ethanol is primarily used as a solvent, it is also employed as a disinfectant, and in solutions as an antimicrobial preservative. 
Topical ethanol solutions are used in the development of transdermal drug delivery systems as penetration enhancers. 
Ethanol has also been used in the development of transdermal preparations as a co-surfactant.

Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol (or grain spirits, or alcohol), is a clear colorless, volatile, flammable solvent with a characteristic odor. The boiling point of ethanal is 78.5°C. The bio-alcohol is found in alcoholic beverages. Concentrated alcohol has a strong burning taste, but it is somewhat sweet when diluted. 
Ethanol is also increasingly being used as a fuel (usually replacing or complementing gasoline). 
Ethanols low melting point of -114.5° C allows it to be used in antifreeze products.

About this substance
Helpful information
Ethanol is registered under the REACH Regulation and is manufactured in and / or imported to the European Economic Area, at ≥ 1 000 000 tonnes per annum.

Ethanol is used by consumers, in articles, by professional workers (widespread uses), in formulation or re-packing, at industrial sites and in manufacturing.

Biocidal Uses
Ethanol is being reviewed for use as a biocide in the EEA and/or Switzerland, for: human hygiene, disinfection, food and animals feeds, product preservation.

Consumer Uses
Ethanol is used in the following products: fuels, coating products, anti-freeze products, washing & cleaning products, biocides (e.g. disinfectants, pest control products), adhesives and sealants, inks and toners and leather treatment products.
Other release to the environment of Ethanol is likely to occur from: outdoor use, indoor use (e.g. machine wash liquids/detergents, automotive care products, paints and coating or adhesives, fragrances and air fresheners), outdoor use in close systems with minimal release (e.g. hydraulic liquids in automotive suspension, lubricants in motor oil and break fluids) and indoor use in close systems with minimal release (e.g. cooling liquids in refrigerators, oil-based electric heaters).

Article service life
Release to the environment of Ethanol can occur from industrial use: manufacturing of the substance.
Other release to the environment of Ethanol is likely to occur from: outdoor use in long-life materials with low release rate (e.g. metal, wooden and plastic construction and building materials), indoor use in long-life materials with high release rate (e.g. release from fabrics, textiles during washing, removal of indoor paints) and indoor use in long-life materials with low release rate (e.g. flooring, furniture, toys, construction materials, curtains, foot-wear, leather products, paper and cardboard products, electronic equipment).
Ethanol can be found in complex articles, with no release intended: machinery, mechanical appliances, electrical/electronic products not covered by Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) directive (e.g. large-scale stationary industrial tools).
Ethanol can be found in products with material based on: paper (e.g. tissues, feminine hygiene products, nappies, books, magazines, wallpaper).

Widespread uses by professional workers
Ethanol is used in the following products: coating products, laboratory chemicals, fuels, washing & cleaning products, anti-freeze products, heat transfer fluids, inks and toners, textile treatment products and dyes, biocides (e.g. disinfectants, pest control products), finger paints, adhesives and sealants, leather treatment products, polishes and waxes, plant protection products, fillers, putties, plasters, modelling clay and lubricants and greases.
Ethanol is used in the following areas: scientific research and development and building & construction work.
Ethanol is used for the manufacture of: fabricated metal products, electrical, electronic and optical equipment and machinery and vehicles.
Other release to the environment of Ethanol is likely to occur from: indoor use (e.g. machine wash liquids/detergents, automotive care products, paints and coating or adhesives, fragrances and air fresheners), indoor use in close systems with minimal release (e.g. cooling liquids in refrigerators, oil-based electric heaters), outdoor use in close systems with minimal release (e.g. hydraulic liquids in automotive suspension, lubricants in motor oil and break fluids) and outdoor use.

Formulation or re-packing
Ethanol is used in the following products: fuels, cosmetics and personal care products and washing & cleaning products.
Release to the environment of Ethanol can occur from industrial use: formulation of mixtures and in processing aids at industrial sites.

Uses at industrial sites
Ethanol is used in the following products: coating products, fuels, washing & cleaning products, inks and toners, anti-freeze products, adhesives and sealants, non-metal-surface treatment products, polishes and waxes, heat transfer fluids, extraction agents, textile treatment products and dyes, fillers, putties, plasters, modelling clay, metal surface treatment products, leather treatment products and photo-chemicals.
Ethanol has an industrial use resulting in manufacture of another substance (use of intermediates).
Ethanol is used for the manufacture of: chemicals, machinery and vehicles, textile, leather or fur, furniture, electrical, electronic and optical equipment and fabricated metal products.
Release to the environment of Ethanol can occur from industrial use: in processing aids at industrial sites, of substances in closed systems with minimal release, as an intermediate step in further manufacturing of another substance (use of intermediates), manufacturing of the substance and formulation of mixtures.

Release to the environment of Ethanol can occur from industrial use: manufacturing of the substance, in processing aids at industrial sites and as an intermediate step in further manufacturing of another substance (use of intermediates).

IUPAC names
200-578-6/64-17-5 ethanol
absolute alcohol, non-denatured ethanol
alcohol dehydrated
Alcohol ethyl; Ethyl Alcohol
alcohol, denat.
Chafing Dish Fuel
Denatured Absolute Ethanol
denatured ethanol
Denatured Ethanol
ethanol ( denaturated)
Ethanol (Fuel Grade)
Ethanol - Akwawit SA
Ethanol 99%
Ethanol abs vergällt
ethanol absolute
Ethanol AZ
Ethanol Belgium
Ethanol BENP
Ethanol denatured
Ethanol DVO
ethanol ethyl alcohol
Ethanol GW
Ethanol Kow-rol-tk
Ethanol Sedacol
Ethanol Sedamyl
ethanol, ethyl alcohol
ethanol/ethyl alcohol
Ethanol/Ethyl alcohol
Ethanol; Ethyl alcohol
ethanol; ethyl alcohol
ethanol; ethyl alcohol; alcohol ...
EthanolLíhEthyl alkohol
Ethyl Alcohol
Ethyl alcohol
ethyl alcohol
ethyl alcohol
ethyl alcohol * IUPAC name:
Ethyl Alcohol, Ethanol
Ethyl Alcohol, Ethanol
Ethyl alcohol, EtOH
Ethyl alkohol
Hydroxy Ethane
Ipekakuána tinktúra
Raw ethanol
raw ethanol
RHUM HC GFG Galion 59% VOL 9219/04/18
Technical ethylic alcohol

Ethanol [ACD/Index Name] [ACD/IUPAC Name] [JP15] [Wiki]
1718733 [Beilstein]
200-578-6 [EINECS]
64-17-5 [RN]
Absolute ethanol
Aethylalkohol [German]
Alcohol [USP] [Wiki]
alcohol etílico [Spanish]
Alcohol, Absolute
Alcohol, ethyl [ACD/Index Name]
Alcohol, Grain
alcol etilico [Italian]
Alcool ethylique [French]
Alcool etilico [Italian]
álcool etílico [Portuguese]
Alkohol [German]
Alkoholu etylowego [Polish]
C2H5OH [Formula]
etanol [Spanish]
Etanol [Turkish]
Etanol [Portuguese]
Etanolo [Italian]
Ethanol [German] [ACD/Index Name] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Éthanol [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Ethanol absolute
Ethyl, 1-hydroxy- [ACD/Index Name]
Ethylalcohol [Dutch]
etil alkol [Turkish]
EtOH [Formula]
Etylowy alkohol [Polish]
Этанол [Russian]
エタノール [Japanese]
אתנול [Hebrew]
Cologne spirits

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