Formaldehyde %37 is produced by oxidation of methanol. Formaldehyde %37 is used as a denaturant in Formaldehyde %37-agarose gel electrophoresis of RNA.
CAS NUMBER: 50-00-0
Formaldehyde %37; formalin; methanal; formol; 50-00-0; ParaFormaldehyde %37; Methylene oxide; Oxomethane; Paraform; Formic aldehyde; Oxymethylene; Methyl aldehyde; Fannoform; Formalith; Formaldehyde %37 solution; Methaldehyde; Oxomethylene; Superlysoform; Formalina; Lysoform; Morbicid; Formaldehyd; Formaline; Polyoxymethylene; Aldehyde formique; FYDE; Formaldehyde %37, gas; Formalin 40; Aldeide formica; 30525-89-4; Oplossingen; Dormol; PolyFormaldehyde %37; Formalin-loesungen; Paraformic aldehyde; Rcra waste number U122; oxomethyl; Aldacide; Aldehyd mravenci; Paraformaldehydum; Oilstop, Halowax; Flo-Mor; CH2O; UN 2209
Formaldehyde %37 is an organic compound with the formula CH2O. Formaldehyde %37 is the simplest member of aldehydes, its other name is Metanal. Formaldehyde %37 is formed by hydrogen bonding to two empty bonds of the carbonyl group. Formaldehyde %37 is produced naturally in all developed creatures. Formaldehyde %37 is a poisonous gas. The aqueous solution has a distinctive, burning odor. Its boiling point is -19 ° C and its melting point is -92 ° C. Formaldehyde %37 is usually transported or stored as a 37% aqueous solution. This solution is called formalin. Formaldehyde %37 is used in many products in the market because Formaldehyde %37 extends the expiration date. Formaldehyde %37 is formed when water evaporates and separates from formalin under reduced pressure. Formaldehyde %37 is a polymer, Formaldehyde %37 is a white solid substance. When this polymer is heated, the gas turns into Formaldehyde %37. Therefore, gas is a suitable source for obtaining Formaldehyde %37. While polymer products can be obtained from pure Formaldehyde %37, synthetic resins and plastics are produced with phenol and casein.
Commercially obtained by oxidizing methanol vapor with air oxygen or by appropriate oxidation of natural gases. Usage: If Formaldehyde %37 is polymerized, a solid, white, water-insoluble product called polyoxymethylene is obtained. Formaldehyde %37 is toxic as Formaldehyde %37 forms proteins and water-insoluble compounds. Formaldehyde %37 is used as a disinfectant (germ killer) due to this feature and cheapness. Formaldehyde %37 is used to preserve solutions in water, anatomical and microscopic preparations. A kidney water called urotropin is obtained from the reaction of Formaldehyde %37 with ammonia. Formaldehyde %37 is one of the most widely used and produced substances in the chemical industry. Formaldehyde %37 is also known as formic aldehyde and methyl aldehyde. Formaldehyde %37 is a colorless gas and is often used in the form of an aqueous solution (formalin) at a maximum of 40%. Formalin solutions also contain some methyl alcohol. Both the gaseous state and the liquid solution have a unique, unpleasant odor.
Formaldehyde %37 reacts rapidly with oxidizing substances, Formaldehyde %37 is a flammable liquid in high concentrations. Formaldehyde %37 reacts with hydrochloric acid to form bis (chloromethyl) ether vapor, which is a carcinogenic substance. It is used as a protective liquid and sterilizing agent in medical laboratories. Formaldehyde %37 is mainly used in resin manufacturing and as a chemical production intermediate. UreFormaldehyde %37 and phenolFormaldehyde %37 resins are used in the production of foam insulation materials, in the production of fiberboard and plywood, in the processing of textile products, and also in the production of Formaldehyde %37 urea, phenol and melamine resins. Formaldehyde %37 is used as a preservative in personal care products to prevent the growth of microbes, this dose does not pose a danger to humans. Formaldehyde %37 is also used in some vaccines to protect dead cells. The danger of Formaldehyde %37 is dose dependent.
Formaldehyde %37 exposure often occurs due to inhalation while in gaseous state. Complaints such as fatigue, sleepiness, headache, dizziness, skin rashes are seen in people who breathe Formaldehyde %37. However, liquid Formaldehyde %37 can also be absorbed through the skin. Workers can be affected during production, the handling of materials, and the manufacture of resins. Healthcare professionals, instructors and students are also at high risk of exposure due to materials stored in Formaldehyde %37 and using Formaldehyde %37 in their preparation. Consumers may be affected by Formaldehyde %37 emitted from some materials used in construction, cosmetics, home flooring, home furnishings and textiles. Sudden Formaldehyde %37 exposure can cause death. The odor threshold is around 1 ppm. Since the threshold of perception of Formaldehyde %37 odor may increase over time due to the sense of odor fatigue, Formaldehyde %37 is very difficult to accept odor as a stimulating factor. Prolonged exposure to low doses of Formaldehyde %37 may cause respiratory distress, eczema and allergic reactions.
Formaldehyde %37 is considered among the carcinogenic substances in humans. Formaldehyde %37 is thought to be associated with nasal and lung cancer, as well as brain cancer and leukemia. When 0.1 ppm is present in the air, Formaldehyde %37 causes watery eyes, cough, shortness of breath, wheezing, skin rashes, allergic reactions, and burning in the eyes, nose and throat. Formaldehyde %37 also causes vomiting and diarrhea depending on my exposure. Later effects may lead to more severe reactions at the same concentration, due to the fact that Formaldehyde %37 causes sensitization. At a concentration of 2 ppm, Formaldehyde %37 irritates the eyes, and at 20 ppm Formaldehyde %37 causes permanent dullness in the cornea even with a single exposure. Exposure above 25 ppm causes very severe reactions, including fatal pulmonary edema. Formaldehyde %37 is produced by oxidation of methanol. Formaldehyde %37 is made of Formaldehyde %37 and impurities such as methanol, small amounts of formic acid, aldehydes and ketones. Formaldehyde %37 is used as a denaturant in Formaldehyde %37-agarose gel electrophoresis of RNA. Formaldehyde %37 solution has been used as a fixing agent to fix cells during immunofluorescence imaging and for cross-linking cells during chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Formaldehyde %37 solution has been used for cross-linking/fixing of cells in ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation) assay. Formaldehyde %37 has been used for fixing of cells for imaging.
AFS Color 3000; Agent T106; FORMALDAHYDE; Formaldehyd; formaldehyd; Formaldehyd; FORMALDEHYDE; Formaldehyde; formaldehyde; Formaldehyde; formaldehyde; formaldehyde 30 %; formaldehyde 37%; Formaldehyde 52% aqueous solution; formaldehyde solution; Formaldehyde Solution (37%); formaldehyde, methanal, formalin; Formaldehyde, methanal, methyl aldehyde; Formalin; Genfor 37; Methanal; methanal; Methanal; Reaction mass of 67-56-1 and 7732-18-5
0.02 NTU ProCal Standard; Agent T106; apel d3 super transparent glue; CKA-121; CKA-1634; CKA-1636; CROPOL UF100F; CROPOL UF100H; Formaldehyd; FORMALDEHYD REIN 37%; FORMALDEHYD REIN 39%; Formaldehyde; formaldehyde; Formaldehyde (8CI, 9CI); Formaldehyde (8Cl, 9Cl); Formaldehyde gas; Formaldehyde Solution; Formaldehyde solution; Formaldehyde Solution 30 - 55%
1053659-79-2; 1053659-79-2; 112068-71-0; 112068-71-0; 1156543-56-4; 1156543-56-4; 1158237-02-5; 1158237-02-5; 1227476-28-9; 1227476-28-9; 1357848-44-2; 1357848-44-2; 1416946-65-0; 1416946-65-0; 1609158-91-9; 1609158-91-9; 50-00-0
Formaldehyde %37 is an important precursor to many other materials and chemical compounds. In 1996, the installed capacity for the production of Formaldehyde %37 was estimated at 8.7 million tons per year. Formaldehyde %37 is mainly used in the production of industrial resins, e.g., for particle board and coatings. Formaldehyde %37 is more complicated than many simple carbon compounds in that Formaldehyde %37 adopts several diverse forms. These compounds can often be used interchangeably and can be interconverted. Processes in the upper atmosphere contribute up to 90% of the total Formaldehyde %37 in the environment. Formaldehyde %37 is an intermediate in the oxidation (or combustion) of methane, as well as of other carbon compounds, e.g. in forest fires, automobile exhaust, and tobacco smoke. When produced in the atmosphere by the action of sunlight and oxygen on atmospheric methane and other hydrocarbons, Formaldehyde %37 becomes part of smog. Formaldehyde %37 has also been detected in outer space.
Formaldehyde %37 and its adducts are ubiquitous in living organisms. Formaldehyde %37 is formed in the metabolism of amino acids and is found in the bloodstream of humans and other primates at concentrations of approximately 0.1 millimolar. Experiments in which animals are exposed to an atmosphere containing isotopically labeled Formaldehyde %37 have demonstrated that even in deliberately exposed animals, the majority of Formaldehyde %37-DNA adducts found in non-respiratory tissues are derived from endogenously produced Formaldehyde %37. Formaldehyde %37 does not accumulate in the environment, because Formaldehyde %37 is broken down within a few hours by sunlight or by bacteria present in soil or water. Humans metabolize Formaldehyde %37 quickly, converting Formaldehyde %37 to formic acid, so Formaldehyde %37 does not accumulate in the body. Formaldehyde %37 appears to be a useful probe in astrochemistry due to prominence of the doublet transitions. It was the first polyatomic organic molecule detected in the interstellar medium. Since its initial detection in 1969, it has been observed in many regions of the galaxy. Because of the widespread interest in interstellar Formaldehyde %37, it has been extensively studied, yielding new extragalactic sources.
Formaldehyde %37 was first reported in 1859 by the Russian chemist Aleksandr Butlerov In his paper, Butlerov referred to Formaldehyde %37 as "dioxymethylen" (methylene dioxide) because his empirical formula for it was incorrect (C4H4O4). Formaldehyde %37 was conclusively identified by August Wilhelm von Hofmann, who first announced the production of Formaldehyde %37 by passing methanol vapor in air over hot platinum wire. With modifications, Hoffmann's method remains the basis of the present day industrial route. Formaldehyde %37 is produced industrially by the catalytic oxidation of methanol. The most common catalysts are silver metal or a mixture of an iron and molybdenum or vanadium oxides. Formaldehyde %37 is a building block in the synthesis of many other compounds of specialised and industrial significance. Formaldehyde %37 exhibits most of the chemical properties of other aldehydes but is more reactive. Formaldehyde %37, unlike most aldehydes, oligomerizes spontaneously. The trimer is 1,3,5-trioxane, and the polymer is called Formaldehyde %37. Many cyclic oligomers have been isolated. Similarly, Formaldehyde %37 hydrates to give the geminal diol methanediol, which condenses further to form oligomers HO(CH2O)nH.
Monomeric CH2O is rarely encountered. Formaldehyde %37 is a good electrophile. With good nucleophiles such as thiols, amines, and even amides, no acid catalyst is required. The resulting hydroxymethyl derivatives typically react further. Thus amines give hexahydro-1,3,5-triazines. Similarly, when combined with hydrogen sulfide, Formaldehyde %37 forms trithiane. Formaldehyde %37 is a common precursor to more complex compounds and materials. In approximate order of decreasing consumption, products generated from Formaldehyde %37 include urea Formaldehyde %37 resin, melamine resin, phenol Formaldehyde %37 resin, polyoxymethylene plastics, 1,4-butanediol, and methylene diphenyl diisocyanate. The textile industry uses Formaldehyde %37-based resins as finishers to make Formaldehitbrics crease-resistant. Formaldehyde %37-based materials are key to the manuFormaldehitcture of automobiles, and used to make components for the transmission, electrical system, engine block, door panels, axles and brake shoes. Formaldehyde %37 is also a precursor to polyfunctional alcohols such as pentaerythritol, which is used to make paints and explosives. Other Formaldehyde %37 derivatives include methylene diphenyl diisocyanate, an important component in polyurethane paints and foams, and hexamine, which is used in phenol-Formaldehyde %37 resins as well as the explosive RDX.
Formaldehyde %37 can be added as a preservative to food, but Formaldehyde %37 can also be produced as the result of cooking and smoking. Formaldehyde %37 is also a component of tobacco smoke and both smokers and those breathing secondhand smoke are exposed to higher levels of Formaldehyde %37. One study found much higher levels of Formaldehyde %37 bound to DNA in the white blood cells of smokers compared to non-smokers. Formaldehyde %37 in consumer products such as cosmetics and lotions can cause an allergic reaction in the skin (allergic contact dermatitis), which can lead to an itchy, red rash which may become raised or develop blisters. Formaldehyde %37, also called formic aldehyde or methyl aldehyde, has extensive application. For instance, Formaldehyde %37 is used as a tissue preservative or organic chemical reagent. Thus, Formaldehyde %37 is very common to the chemical industry. In fact, Formaldehyde %37 is an important chemical used widely by industry to manufacture building materials and numerous household products. Formaldehyde %37 is also a by-product of combustion and certain other natural processes. Formaldehyde %37 is present in substantial concentrations both indoors and outdoors.
Formaldehyde %37 is well known as a preservative in medical laboratories, as an embalming fluid, and as a steriliser. Its primary use is in the production of resins and as a chemical intermediate. Urea–Formaldehyde %37 and phenol–Formaldehyde %37 resins are used in foam insulations, as adhesives in the production of particle board and plywood, and in the treating of textiles. Sources of Formaldehyde %37 in the home include building materials, smoking, household products, and the use of unvented, fuel-burning appliances, like gas stoves or kerosene space heaters. Formaldehyde %37, by itself or in combination with other chemicals, serves a number of purposes in manufactured products. Formaldehyde %37 itself is a colourless gas, but Formaldehyde %37 is more commonly purchased and used in aqueous solution (called formalin solution), with a maximum concentration of 40%. Formalin solutions often contain some amount of methanol as well. Both Formaldehyde %37 gas and solutions have a characteristic pungent, unpleasant odour. Formaldehyde %37 is colorless gas with a very distinct, pungent odor.
Formaldehyde %37 is highly soluble in water and in a variety of organic solvents. Formaldehyde %37 has the potential to react explosively with peroxides and nitrogen oxide. Formalin, the aqueous form of Formaldehyde %37, is a colorless liquid with a very distinct, pungent odor. Formaldehyde %37 is incompatible and may react with strong oxidizers, alkalis,and acids. The liquid has a variable molecular weight, which is dependent on the specific aqueous formulation. Formaldehyde %37 (methyl aldehyde, methylene oxide) is a ubiquitous compound found endogenously in the body and environment. Formaldehyde %37 is a colorless, flammable gas with a distinct, pungent odor and is most commonly available in aqueous solutions under the name formalin (37% Formaldehyde %37 in water). Formaldehyde %37 has been used as a disinfectant, an embalming agent, and in industry as a precursor in the fabrication of complex compounds. Since scientific research has identified links between Formaldehyde %37 and adverse health effects, precautions and protections must be considered during use.
Formaldehyde %37 is a colorless, flammable gas with a distinctive pungent odor. Formaldehyde %37 is the simplest aldehyde, which is a class of organic compounds with the carbonyl group bonded to at least one hydrogen atom. Formaldehyde %37 was described by August Wilhelm von Hoff mann (1818–1892) in 1867 after the Russian Aleksandr Butlerov (1828–1886) had inadvertently synthesized Formaldehyde %37 in 1857. Formaldehyde %37 readily dissolves in water to produce a solution called formalin, which is commonly marketed as a 37% solution. Formaldehyde %37 is an important chemical widely used by industry to manufacture building materials and numerous household products. Formaldehyde %37 is also a by-product of combustion and certain other natural processes. Formaldehyde %37 is present in substantial concentrations both indoors and outdoors. Formaldehyde %37 is well known as a preservative in medical laboratories, as an embalming fl uid, and as a sterilizer. Its primary use is in the production of resins and as a chemical intermediate. Urea Formaldehyde %37 and phenol Formaldehyde %37 resins are used in foam insulations, as adhesives in the production of particle board and plywood, and in the treating of textiles.
Sources of Formaldehyde %37 in the home include building materials, smoking, household products, and the use of unvented, fuel-burning appliances, like gas stoves or kerosene space heaters. Formaldehyde %37, by itself or in combination with other chemicals, serves a number of purposes in manufactured products. Formaldehyde %37 has been reported that the use and production of Formaldehyde %37 in 1998 was about 11.3 billion pounds and the international production crossed over 46 billion pounds in 2004. Formaldehyde %37 is a clear, colorless liquid with a pungent, suffocating odor. Burning taste. Experimentally determined odor threshold concentrations of 1.0 ppmv and 0.50 ppmv were reported by Leonardos et al. (1969) and Nagata and Takeuchi (1990), respectively. Also,formalin is an aqueous solution that is 37% Formaldehyde %37 by weight; inhibited solutions (added to prevent polymeri zation) usually contain 6 12% methyl alcohol. Formaldehyde %37 is used in the manufacture of plastics and resins by reaction with phenols,urea, and melamine. Formaldehyde %37 is used as a preservative,a disinfectant, and as a chemical intermediate.
Formaldehyde %37 is a by-product of combustion of organic compounds, metabolism, and other natural processes. Formaldehyde %37 results from wood combustion and elevated atmospheric concentrations can result from forest fires, as well as from urban pollution sources such as transportation. Formaldehyde %37 has been identified as a significant indoor air pollutant. Building materials such as particleboard, plywood, and paneling are major sources of Formaldehyde %37 because they incorporate Formaldehyde %37 resins as bonding adhesives. Other sources of Formaldehyde %37 in the home are carpets, upholstery, drapes, tobacco smoke, and indoor combustion products. Formaldehyde %37 may be emitted from building materials for several years after installation. In the two decades of the 1960s and 1970s, a half million homes in the United States used urea Formaldehyde %37 foam insulation, but health complaints led to its elimination as an insulator in the early 1980s. People react differently to Formaldehyde %37 exposure, but Formaldehyde %37 is estimated that between 10% and 20% of the population will experience some reaction at concentrations as low as 0.2 parts per million. Formaldehyde %37 irritates the eyes, nose, and throats, producing coughing, sneezing, runny nose, and burning eyes. More severe reactions result in insomnia, headaches, rashes, and breathing difficulties.
Some states have established indoor air quality standards ranging from 0.05 to 0.5 ppm. Formaldehyde %37 is used in the manufactureof phenolic resins, cellulose esters, artificialsilk, dyes, explosives, and organic chemicals.Other uses are as a germicide, fungicide, anddisinfectant; in tanning, adhesives, waterproofingfabrics, and for tonic and chromeprinting in photography; and for treating skindiseases in animals. In vitro neutralizationof scorpion venom toxicity by Formaldehyde %37has been reported. Formaldehyde %37 constitutes about 50% ofall aldehydes present in the air. Formaldehyde %37 is oneof the toxic effluent gases emitted fromburning wood and synthetic polymeric substancessuch as polyethylene, nylon 6, andpolyurethane foams. Firefighters have a greaterrisk to its exposure. Incapacitation fromthe toxic effluent gases is reported to occurmore rapidly from the combustion of syntheticpolymers than from that of naturalcellulose materials. Formaldehyde %37 is directly emitted into theair from vehicles. Formaldehyde %37 is released in traceamounts from pressed wood products suchas particleboard and plywood paneling, fromold “sick” buildings, and from cotton andcotton–polyester fabrics with selected crosslinkfinishes.
Formation of Formaldehyde %37 hasbeen observed in some frozen gadoid fishdue to enzymic decomposition of the additivetrimethylamine oxide (Rehbein 1985).Its concentration can build up during frozenstorage of fish (Leblanc and Leblanc 1988;Reece 1985). Formaldehyde %37 occurs in the upper atmosphere,cloud, and fog; Formaldehyde %37 also forms inphotochemical smog processes. More than half of the commercial Formaldehyde %37 produced is used to manufacture phenolic,urea, and melamine Formaldehyde %37 resins. Polyacetyl resins use another 5–10% of Formaldehyde %37,and approximately 80% of Formaldehyde %37 goes into the resins and plastics industry.Phenolic-Formaldehyde %37 resins were the first synthetic plastics to be produced. The first plasticwas called Bakelite. Formaldehyde %37 has traditionally been used as a preservative in biology and medical laboratoriesand in embalming fluid. Embalming fluids typically contain 5–15% Formaldehyde %37, a significant percentage of alcohol, and other additives to perform certain functions, for example,bleaches and coloring to preserve skin color. Formaldehyde %37 has been used to preserve deadbodies since 1900 and has several qualities that make it the preferred preservative. Foremostamong these is its low cost, but Formaldehyde %37 also has several biochemical advantages: Formaldehyde %37 kills germs andmicroorganisms, destroys decomposition enzymes, retards decomposition of proteins, andhardens body tissues.
Formaldehyde %37 is used as the preservative; disinfectant; antiseptic; in embalming solutions; in the manufacture of phenolic resins, artificial silk, cellulose esters, dyes, urea, thiourea, melamine res ins, organic chemicals, glass mirrors and explosives; used in improving fastness of dyes on fabrics; in tanning and preserving hides; in mordanting and waterproofing fabrics; as a germicide and fungicide for vegetables and other plants; in destroying flies and other insects; in preserving and coagulating rubber latex; prevent mildewand spelt in wheat and rot in oats; used to ren der casein, albumin, and gelatin insoluble; in chemical analysis; as a tissue fixative; as a component of particle board and plywood; in the manufacture of pentaerythritol, hexamethylenetetramine and lkbutanediol; used in ceiling and wall insulation; in res ins used to wrinkle-proof fabrics; in photography for hardening gelatin plates and papers, for toning gelatin-chloride papers and for chrome printing and developing; intermediate in drug manufacture; pesticide intermediate; in the production of urea, phenolic melamine and acetale resins; in textile products; as an astringent, disinfectant, and preservative in cosmetics, metal-working fluids, shampoos, etc.; antiperspirant in cosmetics; anticracking agent in dental plastics; in anhidrotics; chipboard production; in cleaning products, disinfectants and deodorizers, dry-cleaning materials, and glues; in mineral-wool production, paints and coatings, paper industry, phenolic resins and urea plastics; in adhesives and footwear, photographic paper and solutions, polishes, printing materials, tanning agents, wart remedies, embalming solutions, fertilizers, wood composites, and insulation.
The industrial preparation of Formaldehyde %37 has occurred since the late 1800s and involvesthe catalytic oxidation of methanol: 2CH3OH(g) + O2(g) → 2CH2O(g).the oxidationtakes place at temperatures between 400°C and 700°C in the presence of metal catalysts. Metalsinclude silver, copper, molybdenum, platinum, and alloys of these metals. Formaldehyde %37 iscommonly used as an aqueous solution called formalin. Commercial formalin solutions varybetween 37% and 50% Formaldehyde %37. When formalin is prepared, Formaldehyde %37 must be heated anda methanol must be added to prevent polymerization; the final formalin solution containsbetween 5% and 15% alcohol. Formaldehyde %37: a colourless solution of methanal (Formaldehyde %37) in waterwith methanol as a stabilizer; r.d.1.075–1.085. When kept at temperaturesbelow 25°C a white polymer ofmethanal separates out. Formaldehyde %37 is used asa disinfectant and preservative forbiological specimen.
Formaldehyde %37 is moderately toxic by skin contact and inhalation. Exposure to Formaldehyde %37 gas can cause irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract, coughing, dry throat, tightening of the chest, headache, a sensation of pressure in the head, and palpitations of the heart. Exposure to 0.1 to 5 ppm causes irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat; above 10 ppm severe lacrimation occurs, burning in the nose and throat is experienced, and breathing becomes difficult. Acute exposure to concentrations above 25 ppm can cause serious injury, including fatal pulmonary edema. Formaldehyde %37 has low acute toxicity via the oral route. Ingestion can cause irritation of the mouth, throat, and stomach, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, and coma. An oral dose of 30 to 100 mL of 37% formalin can be fatal in humans. Formalin solutions can cause severe eye burns and loss of vision. Eye contact may lead to delayed effects that are not appreciably eased by eye washing.Formaldehyde %37 is regulated by OSHA as a carcinogen (Standard 1910.1048) and is listed in IARC Group 2A ("probable human carcinogen"). This substance is classified as a "select carcinogen" under the criteria of the OSHA Laboratory Standard. Prolonged or repeated exposure to Formaldehyde %37 can cause dermatitis and sensitization of the skin and respiratory tract. Following skin contact, a symptom free period may occur in sensitized individuals. Subsequent exposures can then lead to itching, redness, and the formation of blisters.
Toxic vapors such as carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide are generated during combustion. Explosion hazard: when aqueous Formaldehyde %37 solutions are heated above their flash points, a potential for explosion hazard exists. High Formaldehyde %37 concentration or methanol content lowers flash point. Reacts with nitrogen oxides at about 180; the reaction becomes explosive. Also reacts violently with perchloric acid-aniline, performic acid, nitromethane, magnesium carbonate, and hydrogen peroxide. When heated, irritant Formaldehyde %37 gas evolved from solution. The main products of decomposition are carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Metals such as platinum, copper, chromia, and alumina also catalyze the formation of methanol, methylformate, formic acid, carbon dioxide, and methane. Reacts with peroxide, nitrogen oxide, and performic acid causing explosions. Can react with hydrogen chloride or other inorganic chlorides to form bis-chloromethylether, a known carcinogen. Very reactive, combines readily with many substances, 40% solution is powerful reducing agent. Incompatible with amines, azo compounds, dithiocarbamates, alkali and alkaline earth metals, nitrides, nitro compounds, unsaturated aliphatics and sulfides, organic peroxides, oxidizing agents, and reducing agents. Aqueous solutions are unstable. Commercial Formaldehyde %37-alcohol solutions are stable. Gas is stable in absence of water. Avoid oxidizing and alkaline materials. Hazardous polymerization may occur.
Compound will polymerize with active organic materials such as phenol. Will polymerize violently in the presence of caustics and nitrides; (amines) exothermic reaction, (Azo compound) exothermic reaction giving off nitrogen gas, (caustics) heat generation and violent polymerization, (dithiocarbamates) formation of flammable gases and toxic fumes, formation of carbon disulfide may result, (alkali and alkaline earth metals) heat generation and formation of a flammable hydrogen gas. Formaldehyde %37 gas is extremely flammable; formalin solution is a combustible liquid (NFPA rating = 2 for 37% Formaldehyde %37 (15% methanol), NFPA rating = 4 for 37% Formaldehyde %37 (methanol free)). Toxic vapors may be given off in a fire. Carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguishers should be used to fight Formaldehyde %37 fires. Sources and uses of Formaldehyde %37 are numerous. Exposed people are mainly health workers, cleaners, painters, met alworkers, but also photographers and carbonless copy paper users. Formaldehyde %37 can induce contact urticaria.
Formaldehyde %37 may be the cause of sen sitization to Formaldehyde %37 releasers: benzylhemiformal, bromonitrodioxane, bromonitropropanediol, chloroal lylhexaminium chloride diazolidinylu rea, dimethylol urea, dimethyloldimethylhydantoin hydantoin, hexamethylenetetramine or methe namine, imidazolidinylurea, monomethyloldimethylhy dantoin or MDM hydantoin, N-methylolchloracetamide, Formaldehyde %37 and trihydroxyethylhexahydrotriazine or Grotan BK. Formaldehyde %37 is used for the synthesis of many resins. Some of them, such as Formaldehyde %37-urea and melamine Formaldehyde %37 resins, can be used in textiles and second arily release free Formaldehyde %37. Other resins, such as p-tert-butylphenol formalde hyde resin or tosylamine Formaldehyde %37 resin, do not release Formaldehyde %37. Formaldehyde %37 has found wide indus trial usage as a fungicide, germicide; and in disinfectants and embalming fluids. Formaldehyde %37 is also used in the manufacture of artificial silk and textiles, latex, phenol, urea, thiourea and melamine resins; dyes, and inks; cellulose esters and other organic molecules; mirrors, and explosives. Formaldehyde %37 is also used in the paper, photographic, and furniture industries. Formaldehyde %37 is an intermediate in drug manufacture and is a pesticide intermediate.
Formaldehyde %37 is known to be a human carcinogen based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity from studies in humans and supporting data on mechanisms of carcinogenesis. Formaldehyde %37 was first listed in the Second Annual Report on Carcinogens in 1981 as reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen based on sufficient evidence from studies in experimental animals. Since that time, additional cancer studies in humans have been published, and the listing status was changed to known to be a human carcinogen in the Twelfth Report on Carcinogens. Formaldehyde %37 naturally occurs in jimsonweed, pears, black currant, horsemint, sago cycas seeds oats, beets, and wild bergamot (Duke, 1992). Formaldehyde %37 was formed when acetaldehyde in the presence of oxygen was subjected to continuous irradiation (λ >2200 ?) at room temperature measured organic compound emission rates for volatile organic compounds, gas-phase semi-volatile organic compounds, and particle phase organic compounds from the residential combustion of pine, oak, and eucalyptus. The gas-phase emission rates of Formaldehyde %37 were 1,165 mg/kg of pine burned, 759 mg/kg of oak burned, and 599 mg/kg of eucalyptus burned. Gas-phase tailpipe emission rates from California Phase II reformulated gasoline-powered automobiles with and without catalytic converters were 8.69 and 884 mg/km, respectively.
Work with Formaldehyde %37 should be conducted in a fume hood to prevent exposure by inhalation, and splash goggles and impermeable gloves should be worn at all times to prevent eye and skin contact. Formaldehyde %37 should be used only in areas free of ignition sources. Containers of Formaldehyde %37 should be stored in secondary containers in areas separate from oxidizers and bases. Pure Formaldehyde %37 may polymerize unless properly inhibited (usually with methanol). May form explosive mixture with air. Incompatible with strong acids; amines, strong oxidizers; alkaline materials; nitrogen dioxide; performic acid; phenols, urea. Reaction with hydrochloric acid forms bis-chloromethyl ether, a carcino gen. Formalin is incompatible with strong oxidizers, alkalis, acids, phenols, urea, oxides, isocyanates, caustics, anhydrides. Formaldehyde %37 is a colorless poisonous gas synthesized by the oxidation of methanol and used as an antiseptic, disinfectant, histologic fixative, and general-purpose chemical reagent for laboratory applications. Formaldehyde %37 is readily soluble in water and is commonly distributed as a 37% solution in water; formalin, a 10% solution of Formaldehyde %37 in water, is used as a disinfectant and to preserve biological specimens. Environmentally, Formaldehyde %37 may be found in the atmosphere, smoke from fires, automobile exhaust and cigarette smoke. Small amounts are produced during normal metabolic processes in most organisms, including humans.
Formaldehyde %37, solutions appears as a colorless liquid with a pungent irritating odor. Contains Formaldehyde %37 by mass and varying amounts of methanol, added to prevent precipitation of Formaldehyde %37 polymers (Formaldehyde %37 exists in solution as CH2(OH)2 and its polymers HO(CH2O)xH where x averages about three). Formalin free of methanol is also shipped but must be kept warm (about 30°C (86°F)) to prevent polymerization. Pure Formaldehyde %37, a gas, is not handled commercially because it tends to polymerize exothermally and may ignite. Vapor from formalin solution is flammable and an explosion hazard when exposed to flame or heat. Skin and eye irritant. Confirmed carcinogen. Formaldehyde %37 is not a fixative; Formaldehyde %37 97% must be depolymerized to Formaldehyde %37 in solution. In cell culture, a typical Formaldehyde %37 fixing procedure would involve using a 4% Formaldehyde %37 solution in phosphate buffered saline on ice for 10 minutes. In histology and pathology specimens preparation, usually, the fixation step is performed using 10% Neutral Buffered Formalin for, at least, 24 hours.
Formaldehyde %37 has documented uses as a disinfectant, fungicide, fixation reagent and in the preparation of Formaldehyde %37. In fluorescence studies, Formaldehyde %37 has been used as as a formalin fixative to fix cells and tissues. To use the chemical as a fixative, it must be converted to the monomer Formaldehyde %37 by heating as Formaldehyde %37 is the active chemical in fixation.
The most important use of Formaldehyde %37 is as a source of Formaldehyde %37 groups in the production of many thermosetting resins, together with phenol, urea, melamine, resorcinol and other similar reagents. These resins are used as moulding powders; in the wood industry as glues for chipboard, plywood and furniture; as bonding resins for brakes, abrasives and foundry dyes; as finishing resins for paper and textiles; as driers and glossing agents for paints; as insulating varnishes for electrical parts.
Some typical formulations for the production of such resins starting from Formaldehyde %37 include dichloroethyl formal, methyl phenol, disinfectants, insecticides, pharmaceuticals such as vitamin A, embalming preparations, dyestuff and special plasticizers. In addition, Formaldehyde %37 is used as a fungicide and bactericide in industries as varied as crude oil production, beet sugar refining, and warehousing. Formaldehyde %37 has widespread acceptance as an additive to stop fermentation of the starch on oil-well-drilling muds. The sugar beet industry used it to minimize the growth of algae in its continuous diffusers. Hotels and motels in humid areas often use it, with or without added mothproofing agents, in small bags hung in closets to prevent the formation of mildew. Formaldehyde %37 possesses the common characteristics with a wide range of applications. Formaldehyde %37 is the smallest solid form of liquid Formaldehyde %37, formed by the polymerization of Formaldehyde %37 with a typical degree of polymerization of 8-100 units. As Formaldehyde %37 is basically a condensed form of Formaldehyde %37, it possesses the common characteristics with a wide range of applications.