Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a ketonic simple sugar found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide sucrose.
Fructose is one of the three dietary monosaccharides, along with glucose and galactose, that are absorbed directly into blood during digestion. Fructose was discovered by French chemist Augustin-Pierre Dubrunfaut in 1847. The name "fructose" was coined in 1857 by the English chemist William Allen Miller. Pure, dry fructose is a sweet, white, odorless, crystalline solid, and is the most water-soluble of all the sugars. Fructose is found in honey, tree and vine fruits, flowers, berries, and most root vegetables.
Commercially, fructose is derived from sugar cane, sugar beets, and maize. High-fructose corn syrup is a mixture of glucose and fructose as monosaccharides. Sucrose is a compound with one molecule of glucose covalently linked to one molecule of fructose. All forms of fructose, including fruits and juices, are commonly added to foods and drinks for palatability and taste enhancement, and for browning of some foods, such as baked goods. About 240,000 tonnes of crystalline fructose are produced annually.
Chemical formula C6H12O6
Molar mass 180.156 g·mol−1
Density 1.694 g/cm3
Melting point 103 °C (217 °F; 376 K)
Solubility in water ~4000 g/L (25 °C)
Magnetic susceptibility (χ) −102.60×10−6 cm3/mol
Fructose is a type of sugar that makes up around 50% of table sugar and high-fructose corn syrup. Scientists are concerned that excessive intake may cause metabolic disorders.
Fructose is a type of sugar known as a monosaccharide.
Like other sugars, fructose provides four calories per gram.
Fructose is also known as “fruit sugar” because it primarily occurs naturally in many fruits.
Fructose also occurs naturally in other plant foods such as honey, sugar beets, sugar cane and vegetables.
Fructose is the sweetest naturally occurring carbohydrate and is 1.2–1.8 times sweeter than sucrose (table sugar).
Fructose metabolism does not require insulin and has a low impact on blood glucose levels.
There are many different types of sugars, some of which are more common than others.
Fructose is a type of sugar known as a monosaccharide, or a “single” sugar, like glucose. Monosaccharides can bond together to form disaccharides, the most common of which is sucrose, or “table sugar.”
Sucrose is 50% fructose and 50% glucose.
Fructose and glucose have the same chemical formula (C6H12O6) but have different molecular structures, which makes fructose 1.2–1.8 times sweeter than sucrose. In fact, fructose is the sweetest naturally occurring carbohydrate. In nature, fructose is most often found as part of sucrose.
Fructose is also found in plants as a monosaccharide, but never without the presence of other sugars.
Fructose is a monosaccharide naturally present in fruit, vegetables and honey. When combined with glucose, it forms sucrose, commonly known as sugar. The physical and chemical properties of fructose appeal to the food industry, which produces it from cornflour. Even though fructose is just as calorific as glucose, our body metabolises them differently.
Fructose is a monosaccharide, a simple sugar also called ‘fruit sugar’.
Fructose is naturally present in fruit (including berries), vegetables and honey. Fructose is combined with glucose to form sucrose or table sugar.
Fructose, or “fruit sugar”, is one of the three most common natural monosaccharides. (The other two are glucose and galactose.) As its name implies, fructose is found in almost all fruits; but it also exists in commercial quantities in sugarcane, sugarbeets, and corn.
Fructose and glucose combine to form the disaccharide sucrose, which we know as common sugar.
CAS Reg. No. 57-48-7
Molar mass 180.16 g/mol
Appearance White crystals
Melting point 91–185 ºC (dec.)*
Water solubility 3750 g/L
Fructose is a fructopyranose having D-configuration.
Fructose has a role as a sweetening agent.
Fructose is a fructopyranose, a D-fructose and a cyclic hemiketal.
A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether.
Fructose is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
To prevent sandiness in ice cream
Therap cat: Fluid and nutrient replenisher, and ferric form as hematinic.
Fructose, a member of a group of carbohydrates known as simple sugars, or monosaccharides. Fructose, along with glucose, occurs in fruits, honey, and syrups; Fructose also occurs in certain vegetables.
Fructose is a component, along with glucose, of the disaccharide sucrose, or common table sugar.
Fructose (or levulose) is a simple sugar (monosaccharide) found in many foods and is one of the three most important blood sugars along with glucose and galactose. Honey; tree fruits; berries; melons; and some root vegetables, such as beets, sweet potatoes, parsnips and onions, contain fructose, usually in combination with sucrose and glucose.
Fructose is also derived from the digestion of sucrose, a disaccharide consisting of glucose and fructose that is broken down by glycoside hydrolase enzymes during digestion.
Fructose is the sweetest naturally occurring sugar, estimated to be twice as sweet as sucrose.
Fructose is often recommended for, and consumed by, people with diabetes mellitus or hypoglycemia, because it has a very low Glycemic Index (GI) relative to cane sugar (sucrose). However, this benefit is tempered by concern that fructose may have an adverse effect on plasma lipid and uric acid levels, and the resulting higher blood levels of fructose can be damaging to proteins (see below). The low GI is due to the unique and lengthy metabolic pathway of fructose, which involves phosphorylation and a multi-step enzymatic process in the liver. See health effects and glycation for further information.
Fructose is more commonly found together with glucose and sucrose in honey and fruit juices.
Fructose, along with glucose are the monosaccharides found in disaccharide, sucrose.
Fructose is classified as a monosaccharide, the most important ketose sugar, a hexose, and is a reducing sugar.
What is Fructose?
Fructose is simple ketonic monosaccharide sugar found in many plants, flowers, and fruits.
Fructose is a fruit sugar which is one of the three dietary monosaccharides along with glucose and galactose that are absorbed into blood directly during digestion. Monosaccharides are the simplest form of sugar and basic unit of carbohydrates. So, fructose is the simplest sugars and easier to digest than other sugars. In pure form it is sweet, white, odorless, and crystalline solid.
Fructose is more soluble in water than other sugars.
Commonly Fructose is found in fruits such as mango, litchi, cherry, guava, and vegetables such as carrot, radish, beetroot and sugarcane etc.
Commercially, Fructose is derived from sugar cane, maize, and sugar beets.
Physical Properties of Fructose
Fructose is an important ketohexose which is obtained by hydrolysis of disaccharide sucrose. Physical properties of fructose are listed below –
Fructoses molar mass is 180.156 g.mol-1.
Fructoses melting point is 103℃.
Fructose is most soluble sugar in water.
Fructose is sweet in taste. This is the reason it is used in beverages and foods as a sweetening agent.
Fructose is low cost and sweetest of all naturally occurring carbohydrates. As we increase the temperature, its relative sweetness decreases.
Fructose is white crystalline solid at room temperature.
Fructose is an odorless sugar.
Fructose absorbs moisture quickly and becomes sticky.
Fructose is an excellent humectant.
Chemical Properties of Fructose
Fructose is very important to know all chemical aspects of fructose as it is extensively used in food products and part of our daily diet. Chemical properties of fructose are listed below –
Fructose can be fermented anaerobically by yeast and bacteria. Yeast converts sugar to ethanol and carbon dioxide.
Fructose shows Maillard reaction. As it can exist in open chain form for greater extent so the initial stage of Maillard reaction occurs more rapidly.
Fructose has potential to form mutagenic compounds.
After dehydration, fructose gives hydroxymethylfurfural (“HMF”).
Preparation of Fructose
Fructose can be prepared by hydrolysis of sucrose in presence of invertase or dilute sulfuric acid.
Fructose is a laboratory method of preparation of fructose. Reaction is given below –
Applications of Fructose
Fructose has various applications. Few of them are listed below –
As it can be converted into hydroxymethylfurfural (“HMF”) so it can be used as diesel fuel additives and diesel fuel itself.
Large scale applications of fructose involve its use as a sweetener.
Fructose is used in many foods as a sweetening agent.
Fructose is a low - calorie sweetener which enhances its value as a sweetening agent.
Fructose is used in plastics as well.
Fructose is used to increase the shelf life of foods like nutrition bars and cookies.
Corn syrup is produced by using fructose.
Fructose is used in infant feeding formulas.
Fructose is used as a food for diabetics.
Fructose has a low glycemic index and results in moderate release of insulin to the bloodstream relative to glucose and fructose.
Fructose is used in stevia.
Fructose is used in many beverages and baked goods etc.
Fructose, also called fruit sugar, is the only naturally occurring ketohexose .
Fructose is also referred to as levulose because it has an optical rotation that is strongly levorotatory.
Uses of Fructose
Crystalline fructose is used in enhancing the taste in food industries.
Fructose is used in flavoured water, energy drinks, low-calorie products, etc.
Fruit sugar is used in the manufacturing of soft moist cookies, nutrition bars, reduced-calorie products etc.
What is fructose used for?
Fructose is a basic natural sugar found in fruits, honeys, and vegetables. Since the mid-1850s, fructose in its pure form has been used as a sweetener and has advantages for certain groups including people with diabetes and those who try to control their weight.
Structure of Fructose
Fructose has a cyclic structure.
Due to the presence of the keto group, it results in the formation of the intramolecular hemiacetal.
In this arrangement, C5-OH combines with the ketonic group present in the second position.
This results in the formation of chiral carbon and two arrangements of CH2OH and OH group.
Hence, D-fructose exhibits stereoisomerism in which α-D-fructopyranose and β-D-fructopyranose are the isomers.
Fructose is present as a monosaccharide in fruits and vegetables, as a disaccharide in sucrose (with D-glucose), and as oligoand polysaccharides (fructans) in many plants.
Fructose is also used as an added sweetener for food and drink, and as an excipient in pharmaceutical preparations, syrups, and solutions.
In equal amounts, it is sweeter than glucose or sucrose and is therefore commonly used as a bulk sweetener. An increase in high fructose corn syrup, as well as total fructose, consumption over the past 10 to 20 years has been linked to a rise in obesity and metabolic disorders. This raises concerns regarding the short and long-term effects of fructose in humans.
Fructose is present more or less frequently than glucose in the juices of plants, fruits, and especially the honey, which is about half the solid matters.
Fructose leads to an equal amount of glucose by the hydrolysis of sugar cane and a smaller proportion than some other less common sugars.
Fructose is used, such as glucose, in the production of glycogen.
Fructose enters the body through either be eaten as such or as the result of digestion of sugar cane.
Fructose is mainly changed into glycogen or triglycerides after reaching the liver, so do not enter largely in the blood circulation. Glucose and fructose are partially inter-convertible under the influence of very dilute alkali.
Fructose is not surprising; therefore, that fructose must be converted to glycogen in the liver, which on hydrolysis yields of glucose. Dubois et al. reported that regular consumption of sugary drinks between meals increases risk of overweight among preschool children.
Fructose occurs in a large number of fruits, honey, and as the sole sugar in bull and human semen
Fructose is a naturally occurring sugar in fruits and honey.
Fructose has moisture-binding and skin-softening properties.
Fructose is a sweetener that is a monosaccharide found naturally in fresh fruit and honey.
Fructose is obtained by the inversion of sucrose by means of the enzyme invertase and by the isomerization of corn syrup.
Fructose is 130–180 in sweetness range as compared to sucrose at 100 and is very water soluble.
Fructose is used in baked goods because it reacts with amino acids to produce a browning reaction.
Fructose is used as a nutritive sweetener in low-calorie beverages.
Fructose is also termed levulose and fruit sugar.
Fructose, a monosaccharide sugar, occurs naturally in honey and a large number of fruits.
Fructose may be prepared from inulin, dextrose, or sucrose by a number of methods. Commercially, fructose is mainly manufactured by crystallization from high-fructose syrup derived from hydrolyzed and isomerized cereal starch or cane and beet sugar.
A sugar found in fruit juices, honey, and cane sugar.
Fructose is a ketohexose, existing in a pyranose form when free. In combination (e.g. in sucrose) it exists in the furanose form.
Fructose, along with glucose and galactose, is one of the three monosaccharides absorbed in the small intestine.
Fructose has molecular formula C6H12O6, and molar mass 180.16 g/mol.
As the name suggests, it is found in fruit (and fruit juices) from which sometimes the name of “fruit sugar”. In reality, the previous name is in part improper, as glucose, generally in concentrations similar to those of fructose, and sucrose as well are present in fruit.
Fructoses content in fruit oscillates between 1% to 7%, even if some fruit contain considerably higher quantities. When ripe fruits become sweeter it is because contented sucrose is enzymatically cleaved into its component carbohydrates glucose and fructose.
Conversely, the monosaccharide is present in high amount in honey, where it may also represent half the weight.
Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide sucrose.
Fructose is one of the three dietary monosaccharides, along with glucose and galactose, that are absorbed directly into blood during digestion.
Fructose is a natural simple sugar found in fruits, honey, and vegetables. In its pure form, fructose has been used as a sweetener since the mid 1850s and has advantages for certain groups, including people with diabetes and those trying to control their weight. Of course, fructose has been consumed for centuries in foods we still eat.
Fructose is known as a simple sugar because it is a single sweetening molecule. Fructose is also known as a monosaccharide.
Fructose is one of the main types of sugars found in fruits such as apples, in fruit juices, and in honey.
Fructose is also a component of sucrose (table sugar) in equal quantity to glucose to which it is linked. As with table sugar, fructose can be bought at the supermarket; both can be used in the same ways in home cooking and processing. Hence fructose is found also in processed foods such as desserts, dairy products, and preserves.
General description :
Fructose is a reducing sugar. In fruits it is a very important sugar component, and mostly exists in free form in plants and often together with sucrose and D-glucose.
Fructose is a component of polysaccharide inulin and also a component of di-, tri- and oligo-saccharides.
Fructose is a six-carbon polyhydroxyketone. The formula of the isomer molecule of glucose is C6H12O6.
Crystallized fructose has a cyclic six-membered thing from semi-acetal and internal bonds. This form is called D-fructopyranose.
Fructose in solution is in equilibrium, 70% of the protein is in the form of fructopyranose and 22% of it is in the form of fructofuranose. In the same way, it consists of three forms together with the non-ringed structure in usage.
Products, materials and honey from materials with trace amounts of fructose.
Fructose, which can also be found in the form of a monosaccharide to start with in these meals, will combine with glucose to form the disaccharide called sucrose.
Fructose, glucose and sucrose are parts that are very likely to be encountered in foods, and they are found in different proportions.
In general, foods containing pure fructose have about 1 fructose to glucose. In this context, it is a nutrient in terms of balances with fructose. However, there are fruits such as apples and pears with a higher ratio, as well as apricots, where this ratio is higher.
Fructose is a simple sugar found naturally in fruits, grains and root vegetables and is one of the essential energy sources for the body.
Fructose, also known as fruit sugar, is the sweetest of all natural sugars and is generally harmless when taken from natural foods. However, industrial fructose syrup is completely useless for the body, even a toxic substance.
Unlike other sugars, it can cause numerous anomalies, especially in the liver. As it is a more stable energy source, in the long run, high amounts of triggered insulin production can cause diseases such as diabetes.
Fructose reacts with proteins and polyunsaturated fats in our body seven times more than glucose. This reaction creates AGEs (advanced glycation end products), which are compounds that cause oxidative damage in our cells and ultimately lead to or contribute to most inflammation and chronic diseases.
Fructose is approved in the EEA and/or Switzerland for use in biocidal products more favourable for the environment, human or animal health.
Fructose is a traditionally used substance, of natural origin.
Fructose is a monosaccharide, which is the simplest form of a carbohydrate; it is easily taken in by cells since it does not need to be broken down any further to be metabolized. A pure form of fructose,crystalline fructose is somewhat sweeter than high fructose corn syrup and significantly sweeter than table sugar. This makes crystalline fructose a good choice for use as a replacement in lower-calorie and health-conscious bakery items and snacks.
White hygroscopic crystals
Soluble in water
Fructose is a simple sugar that occurs naturally in fruits, specimens, and many fruits.
One of the sources of power energy that it needs will be useful for it to become sufficient by consuming a healthy diet.
Among the fructose properties, it is noteworthy that it does not have a glycemic index. However, due to the form of sweetener as the end product, it causes weight gain for high income.
In the form of fructose, which is also one of the raw products of the syrup consumed in our age, it is boring for health.
In case of consuming too much fructose, the body and body resistance can be deeply affected.
Naturally, the fructose taken intensively cannot be provided as energy. At the entrance to this unfavorable situation, in terms of health.
A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether.
Fructose is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
Fructose CAS 57-48-7, or fruit sugar, has a simple ketonic life found in many plants, where once disaccharide is attached to glucose to form sucrose.
Fructose is one of three dietary abundant, glucose and galactose together, which are absorbed directly into the blood during digestion. Pure, Dry fructose is very sweet, white, odorless, crystalline solid and most all sugar soluble in water.
Fructose is found in honey, tree and vine fruits, flowers, berries, and most root vegetables.
Commercially, fructose is commonly derived from sugar cane, sugar beet, and corn. Crystalline fructose is life, dried, ground and high purity.
Appearance white crystals, free
Tested and flowing odor naturally sweet, no unpleasant taste or odor
fructose (dry basis) assay 98.0 102%
dextrose content ≤0.5%
GMO status negative
acid ≤0.50ml ≤0.5%
residue on superheat drying
≤0.005% as calcium and magnesium (Ca)
Hydroxymethylfurfural (dry basis) ≤0.1%
heavy metals (Turkish) ≤0.1 / kg
Arsenic(as As) ≤1.0%
total plate count ≤100cfu/g
Mold and Yeast ≤10cfu/g
coli forms ≤30MPN / 100g
colon Bacillus negative
pathogen (salmonella Staphylococcus, shigella)
- low calorie
Negatively it does not show to raise blood sugar levels, stimulate insulin secretion and inhibit excess body fat.
- Once the crystalline fructose is purged from the food, it is hard crystal
it will not crystallize easily.
1.8times Sucrose is crystal fructose sweetness.
- flavor enhancer
Fructose releases the crystalline fructose flavor first to glucose and sucrose. And fruit scent mask.
- Reduce freezing point capable of reducing freezing point
. Therefore, it is widely used to enhance the flavor of frozen food.
- Fructose's not why rotten teeth; Because it is sweeter than cane sugar, it is effective in weighing people's satiety and
By increasing fat felling with decreasing control but low calories. food and beverage Beverage, yoghurt, industrial bread, cookies, salad
used as a sugar substitute, such as sauce and tomato soup
. Many such sugar-free, low-calorie and diet products,
used in the manufacture of:
- beverages : carbonated and still soft drinks, juice and fruit syrups.
-tabletop : compressed/powder sweetener, sweetener sachets and liquid tabletop sweetener.
- dry mixes: hot and cold chocolate and beverage mixes and instant desserts.
- milk: frozen yogurt, novelties and desserts.
- confectionery : boiled marshmallows, lozenges, mints, chocolate, chewing gum, gums and jelly.
The sweetness of fructose is 1.8 times that of sucrose, one of the highest sweetness of all natural sugars, so under the same standard of sweetness, fructose intake is usually only half that of sucrose. and absorbs water easily. Can be used in bread, pastries and desserts
1.Different appearance, crystalline powder and liquid syrup.
2. Pure sweet, no peculiar smell.
3. Low-calorie, low-sugar, healthy sweeteners.
4. Passed ISO, halal, kosher and other certifications.
Fructose is widely used in the manufacture of food, medicine and health products.
Fructose is widely used in the food industry in fruit wine, medicinal wine, sparkling wine, medicinal syrup, juice drink, jam, canned fruit, candied fruit, hard candy and baked goods.
Fructose is mainly used for injections in the pharmaceutical industry.
D-Fructose [ACD/Index Name] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
D-Fructose [German] [ACD/Index Name] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
D-Fructose [French] [ACD/Index Name] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Fructose [JAN] [Wiki]
Fructose (JP15/USP) [USP]