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Gibberellic Acid

Gibberellic Acid

GA3 = GA = Gibberellin A3

CAS Number: 77-06-5
EC Number: 201-001-0

Empirical Formula (Hill Notation): C19H22O6

Molecular Weight: 346.37
Beilstein: 54346
MDL number: MFCD00079329
PubChem Substance ID: 4895317

Quality Level 200
product line    BioReagent
assay        ≥90% gibberellin A3 basis (of total gibberellins.)
technique(s)      cell culture | plant: suitable
application(s)    agriculture
SMILES string       C[C@]12[C@@H](O)C=C[C@@]3(OC1=O)[C@@H]4CC[C@]5(O)C[C@]4(CC5=C)[C@H]([C@H]23)C(O)=O
InChI        1S/C19H22O6/c1-9-7-17-8-18(9,24)5-3-10(17)19-6-4-11(20)16(2,15(23)25-19)13(19)12(17)14(21)22/h4,6,10-13,20,24H,1,3,5,7-8H2,2H3,(H,21,22)/t10-,11+,12-,13-,16-,17+,18+,19-/m1/s1

Product Name     Gibberellic acid BioReagent, suitable for plant cell culture, ≥90% gibberellin A3 basis (of total gibberellins.)
Product Number    G7645
CAS Number  77-06-5
Molecular Weight  346.37

APPEARANCE (COLOR)     White to Off White
APPEARANCE (FORM)        Powder
PURITY (HPLC AREA %)    ≥ 90 %
SOLUBILITY (COLOR)        Colorless to Faint Yellow

Computed Properties of Gibberellic Acid
Property Name  Property Value
Molecular Weight      346.4
XLogP3            0.2
Hydrogen Bond Donor Count       3
Hydrogen Bond Acceptor Count    6
Rotatable Bond Count        346.14163842
Monoisotopic Mass      346.14163842
Topological Polar Surface Area    104 Ų
Heavy Atom Count        25
Formal Charge       0
Complexity               772
Isotope Atom Count              0
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count       8
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count        0
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count            0
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count        0
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count            1
Compound Is Canonicalized                Yes

General description
Gibberellic acid is a tetracyclic diterpenoid compound, which is synthesized by terpenoid pathway in chloroplasts, cytoplasm, plastid, and endoplasmic reticulum.
Gibberellic acid is an endogenous plant growth regulator

Gibberellic acid (also called gibberellin A3, GA, and GA3) is a hormone found in plants and fungi.
Its chemical formula is C19H22O6.
When purified, it is a white to pale-yellow solid.

GA is a crystalline acid C19H22O6 that is a gibberellin used especially in the malting of barley.

Gibberellin A3 is a C19-gibberellin that is a pentacyclic diterpenoid responsible for promoting growth and elongation of cells in plants.
Initially identified in Gibberella fujikuroi,it differs from gibberellin A1 in the presence of a double bond between C-3 and C-4.
It has a role as a plant metabolite and a mouse metabolite.
It is a lactone, a gibberellin monocarboxylic acid, an organic heteropentacyclic compound and a C19-gibberellin.
It is a conjugate acid of a gibberellin A3.

Plants in their normal state produce large amounts of GA3.
It is possible to produce the hormone industrially using microorganisms.
Gibberellic acid is a simple gibberellin, a pentacyclic diterpene acid promoting growth and elongation of cells.
It affects decomposition of plants and helps plants grow if used in small amounts, but eventually plants develop tolerance to it.
GA stimulates the cells of germinating seeds to produce mRNA molecules that code for hydrolytic enzymes.
Gibberellic acid is a very potent hormone whose natural occurrence in plants controls their development.
Since GA regulates growth, applications of very low concentrations can have a profound effect while too much will have the opposite effect.
It is usually used in concentrations between 0.01 and 10 mg/L.

GA was first identified in Japan in 1926, as a metabolic by-product of the plant pathogen Gibberella fujikuroi (thus the name), which afflicts rice plants.
Fujikuroi-infected plants develop bakanae ("foolish seedling"), which causes them to rapidly elongate beyond their normal adult height.
The plants subsequently lodge due to lack of support, and die.

Gibberellins have a number of effects on plant development.
They can stimulate rapid stem and root growth, induce mitotic division in the leaves of some plants, and increase seed germination rates.

Gibberellic acid is sometimes used in laboratory and greenhouse settings to trigger germination in seeds that would otherwise remain dormant.
It is also widely used in the grape-growing industry as a hormone to induce the production of larger bunches and bigger grapes, especially Thompson seedless grapes.
In the Okanagan and Creston valleys, it is also used as a growth regulator in the cherry industry.
It is used on Clementine Mandarin oranges, which may otherwise cross-pollinate with other citrus and produce undesirable seeds.
Applied directly on the blossoms as a spray, it allows for Clementines to produce a full crop of seedless fruit.

GA is widely used in the barley malting industry.
A GA solution is sprayed on the barley after the steeping process is completed.
This stimulates growth in otherwise partly dormant kernels and produces a uniform and rapid growth.

Gibberellic acid is a diterpene fungal metabolite and plant hormone that has been found in Gibberella and various plants.1 It induces production of α-amylase to stimulate seed germination in cereal grains and stimulates photo- and skoto-morphogenesis and internode elongation in Arabidopsis.
Gibberellic acid (150 μg per animal) increases testicular 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and 17β-HSD activities and testosterone levels, markers of steroidogenesis, in rats.2 Dietary administration of gibberellic acid (300 ppm) to pregnant rats increases hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, decreases catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities, and reduces hepatic function in both the pregnant rats and their offspring.3 Formulations containing gibberellic acid were previously used to enhance crop growth in agriculture.

Gibberellic Acid, also called Gibberellin A3, is a plant hormone in the family of gibberellins, a large class of naturally ocuring tetracyclic diterpene acids which promote cell growth and development.
In small concentrations, GA3 is a potent, dihydroxylated gibberellin which commonly used in the triggering of seed germination, stem differentiation and plant maturation.GA3 is widely used to promote the production of larger grape bunches or the induction of other fruit without pollination or seed development.

Gibberellic acids (Gibberellins) are naturally occurring plant hormones that are used as plant growth regulators to stimulate both cell division and elongation that affects leaves and stems.

Gibberellic acids are diterpene plant hormones that are biosynthesized from geranylgeranyl diphosphate, a common C20 precursor for diterpenoids, which control diverse aspects of growth and development including seed germination, stem elongation, flowering, fruit development, and the regulation of gene expression in the cereal aleurone layer.

What is Gibberellic Acid.
Gibberellic acid, or GA3 for short, is the most commonly used Gibberellin, of which there are about 100 different kinds.
It is a natural plant hormone that affects plant growth.

An interesting application of GA3 is on Clementine Mandarin oranges.
These oranges easily cross pollinate with other citrus fruits resulting in the production of seed.
When GA3 is sprayed on the blossoms, clementines are produced without seeds.

Gibberellic acid can also have these effects.

Overcome dormancy in seeds
Cause premature flowering
Increase fruit set
Stimulate excess growth
Offset the effects of frost on blossoms
Inhibit the formation of roots on cuttings
As you can see it is a very interesting plant hormone, but in this post I will focus on germinating stubborn seed.

Gibberellins are a group of complex chemical compounds found in plants.
Many of these compounds have positive effects on plant growth and development and are regarded as natural plant hormones.
They are usually described as GAs.
The compound gibberellic acid, which is used in the malting industry to increase enzyme production and accelerate endosperm modification, is a gibberellin.
Gibberellic acid is also used to overcome dormancy in some seeds and to produce seedless fruits such as grapes.
However, dormancy in barley is not broken by gibberellic acid during malting.
At present, 126 gibberellins have been isolated from higher plant tissues such as leaves, fruits, and seeds, and from lower plants such as fungi and mosses.
Gibberellins are categorized numerically from GA1 to GA126.
Gibberellic acid is GA3.

A gibberellin complex was isolated from fungal infected rice plants in Japan in 1926.
In 1935 the complex was isolated from the fungus Gibberella fujikuroi.
This crude complex of natural plant hormones promoted plant growth and development.
It also increased alpha amylase production in cereal grains.
The first gibberellin to be isolated and identified from the gibberellin complex was GA1 in 1957.
Gibberellic acid was isolated later at Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) and was applied to malting barley to increase enzyme production and accelerate endosperm modification in 1959.
Unlike other gibberellins which are isolated in small quantities, gibberellic acid is isolated in large quantities from the fungus Gibberella fujikuroi (Gibberella moniliforme) and is produced commercially from this fungus.
Not all gibberellins have biological activity.
Some do not have any obvious actions on plant growth and development.
Others like gibberellic acid (GA3), GA1, GA4, and GA7 are very active and have different actions in different plants.
During malting, gibberellic acid will increase alpha amylase development in barley and wheat but not in sorghum.

About Gibberellic Acid
First discovered in Japan in the first half of the twentieth century, Gibberellic Acid is a naturally occurring plant hormone that can be used to regulate growth, trigger seed germination and protect against frost.
Gibberellic Acid typically comes in a water-soluble powder form with a concentration of 90%, although other concentrations are available.

Gibberellic acid is comprised of related substance, called gibberellins, that affect plant growth.
They occur naturally in a variety of foods, such as rice, wheat, corn, maize and others.
The acid is extracted from a fungus in them called gibberella fujikuroi.
It is then purified and processed as a liquid or powder for agricultural use.
Gibberellic acid is a hormone that regulates cell division and stem elongation in plants.

Gibberellic acid-3 (GA-3) is a naturally occurring plant growth regulator that may cause a variety of effects, including the stimulation of seed germination in some cases.
GA-3 occurs naturally in the seeds of many species and is produced commercially by growing Gibberella fujikuroi fungus cultures in vats, then extracting and purifying the GA-3.
Presoaking seeds in GA-3 solution will in many cases cause the rapid germination of many types of highly dormant seeds which would otherwise need cold treatment, after-ripening, aging, or other prolonged pre-treatments.
Gibberellins are used in agriculture for various purposes.
GA-3 is sprayed on seedless grapes to increase grape size and yield, and is used on navel oranges, lemons, blueberries, sweet and tart cherries, artichokes and other crops to decrease or increase fruit set, delay rind aging, etc.
These effects are highly dependent on concentration and stage of plant growth.

What are Gibberellins?
Gibberellins are the plant growth regulators involved in regulating the growth and influencing different developmental processes which include stem elongation, germination, flowering, enzyme induction, etc.

Gibberellins have different effects on plant growth and the stem elongation is the most dramatic amongst all.
The stem starts to grow when it is applied in low concentration to a bush.
The internodes grow so long that the plants become indistinguishable from climbing.
The Gibberellins overcome the genetic limitations in different dwarf varieties.

There are more than 70 gibberellins isolated.
They are GA1, GA2, GA3 and so on.
GA3 Gibberellic acid is the most widely studied plant growth regulators.

Gibberellic acid (GA) is an important senescence-impeding hormone whose active form declines in leaves as a plant ages

Gibberellic Acid
We have all seen young buds blossom into beautiful flowers.
There is a specific procedure which it goes through so it can develop into a complete plant.
Therefore, gibberellic acid plays a vital role in it.

There are various things which are required for it.
Similarly, there is one very important hormone needed for the growth and development of the plant which is Gibberellic acid (GA).

The bioactive gibberellic acid GA3 is binding to the receptor “gibberellin insensitive dwarf” (GID1) and thereby induces a conformational change that results in the strong binding of the GID1-GA3 complex to the protein GAI (“gibberellin insensitive”).

Gibberellic acid (GA), a plant hormone stimulating plant growth and development, is a tetracyclic di-terpenoid compound.
GAs stimulate seed germination, trigger transitions from meristem to shoot growth, juvenile to adult leaf stage, vegetative to flowering, determines sex expression and grain development along with an interaction of different environmental factors viz., light, temperature and water.
The major site of bioactive GA is stamens that influence male flower production and pedicel growth.
However, this opens up the question of how female flowers regulate growth and development, since regulatory mechanisms/organs other than those in male flowers are mandatory.
Although GAs are thought to act occasionally like paracrine signals do, it is still a mystery to understand the GA biosynthesis and its movement.
It has not yet confirmed the appropriate site of bioactive GA in plants or which tissues targeted by bioactive GAs to initiate their action.
Presently, it is a great challenge for scientific community to understand the appropriate mechanism of GA movement in plant’s growth, floral development, sex expression, grain development and seed germination.
The appropriate elucidation of GA transport mechanism is essential for the survival of plant species and successful crop production.

ibberellic acid (GA) is a kind of hormone that is important for plant growth.
The “green revolution” of farming occurred largely due to the application of gibberellic acid to crops.
Scientists are discovering the many ways in which gibberellins aid plant development, while discerning the methods by which they are transported and synthesized in plants.

Gibberellic acid (GA) is a hormone found in plants that aids in plant growth and development.
It is commonly used in agriculture to increase crop yields.

Gibberellic Acid Description
Gibberellic acid, or GA, is a hormone found in plants.
Gibberellic acid can be found in growing plant tissues like shoots, young leaves and flowers.
It is weakly acidic.
Another name for gibberellic acid is gibberellin.
Gibberellic acid can enter cell membranes via simple diffusion.
The acids can also be aided by influx transporters, which are proteins that can move GAs across the cell membrane.
One kind of influx transporter is a nitrate transporter 1/peptide transporter (NPF).
Other such transporters include SWEET13 and SWEET14, which apparently transport sucrose to the phloem of the plant.
The inside of the cell possesses lower acidity (a higher pH), and so GA becomes negative in charge.
After that point, the gibberellin cannot escape the cell without being joined to another component.
Scientists presume that there must be transporters that can move gibberellin out of the cytoplasm again, but so far these “efflux transporters” have not been found.

Over 130 types of gibberellic acids have been discovered so far.
Several of these are not biologically active (bioactive), so they serve as precursors for bioactive GAs such as GA1, GA3, GA4 and GA7.
The biosynthesis of these active GAs is not well understood, but scientists are making gains in this area.
While nonbioactive GAs appear to move long distances in plants, bioactive ones do not tend to do this.
It is clear that GA can move into phloem sap of plants, and that it aids growth and development of the plants, as well as their flowering.
Apparently GAs can move across short distances as well.
In the case of GA9, this gibberellin is made in plant ovaries and is relocated to petals and sepals.
From there, it undergoes changes to become GA4.
This bioactive hormone in turn affects plant organ growth.
Scientists continue to seek answers for how mobile gibberellic acids are in plants.

GA3 Growth Hormone
GA3 growth hormone is a kind of gibberellin that is bioactive.
A Japanese scientist discovered AC3 in the 1950s.
At that time, a fungus affected rice crops so that it caused the plants to grow tall while halting the production of seeds.
These lanky, infertile plants could not even support their weight.
When scientists studied this fungus, they found that it contained compounds that could promote plant growth.
The fungus was called Gibberella fujikuroi, which originated the name gibberellin.
One of these compounds, now called GA3, is the most produced gibberellic acid for industrial use.
GA3 growth hormone is important for agriculture, science and horticulture.
GA3 stimulates the occurrence of male organs in certain species.

History and Evolution of Gibberellic Acid
Gibberellins commonly known as gibberellic acids first came to the attention of western scientists in 1950s, they had been discovered much earlier in Japan.
Rice farmers of Japan had long known of a fungal disease called foolish seedling or bakanae disease in Japanese that causes rice plants to grow taller and eliminated seed production.
Plant pathologists found that these symptoms in rice plant were induced by a chemical secreted by a pathogenic fungus, Gibberella fujikuroi.
Culturing this fungus in the laboratory and analyzing the culture filtrate enabled Japanese scientists in the 1930s to obtain impure crystal of two fungal “compounds” possessing plant growth promoting activity.
One of these, because it was isolated from the fungus Gibberella, was named gibberellin A.
In 1950s scientists of Tokyo University separated and characterized 3 different gibberellins from gibberellin A sample, and named them gibberellin A1, gibberellin A2 and gibberellin A3.
The numbering system for gibberellins used in the past 50 y builds on this initial nomenclature of gibberellins A1 (GA1), GA2, and GA3.

In the same year, 2 research groups, one at Imperial Chemical Industries in Britain and other at the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) in Illinois, elucidated the chemical structure of the compound that they had purified from Gibberella culture filtration and named gibberellic acid.
This compound was later shown to be identical to the gibberellin isolated by the Japanese scientist.
For this GA3 is also referred to as gibberellic acid.
GA3 is the principal component in Gibberella culture.
The GA3 is the most frequently produced GA in commercial industrial scale fermentations of Gibberella for agronomic, horticultural and other scientific uses.
Identification of a GA from a plant extract was first made in 1958 with the discovery of GA1 from immature seeds of vuner bean (Phaseolus cocineus).
As more and more GAs from Gibberella and different plant sources were characterized, a scheme was adopted in 1968 to number them (GA1–GA4), in chronological order of their discovery.

Structure of Gibberellic Acid
Gibberellic acid (GA) is a type of hormone which can be found in plants.
It is quite an important part of the growth of the plant.

You can find it commonly in tissues of plants like shoots, young leaves, and flowers.
GA is a weakly acid which is also referred to as Gibberellin.
It enters the membrane of the cell through very simple diffusion.

They first came to the attention of western scientists around the time of the 1950s.
Even though, the Japanese people had discovered it much earlier.

The rice farmers there were experiencing a fungal disease that was causing the rice plants to grow taller and prevent seed production.
Thus, when the scientists studied this fungus, they found out it promotes plant growth, which led to the invention of it.

Farmers use it commonly in agriculture to enhance their crop yields.
We have discovered almost 130 kinds of Gibberellic acid so far.
While some of them are not active biologically, they serve as precursors for bioactive GAs.

Applications of Gibberellic Acid:
Gibberellic Acid (GA3) is found naturally in virtually all plant species.
It is a highly effective plant hormone increasing size and quality of fruits vegetables and other crops essential for optimum growth and development.
Gibberellic acid GA3 also plays a role in the regulation of other plant processes such as flowering seed germination dormancy and senescence.
Gibberellic acid GA3 is used in vegetables fruits and other crops to improve crop quality and value.

Applications of Gibberellic Acid:
Gibberellic acid has been used as a supplement in Murashige and Skoog media (MS) for treating young leaves of hybrid poplar to follow MYB transcription factor PtrMYB012 expression and in vitro peas seed germination.
It has also been used in gibberellic acid (GA)-sensitivity assay in wheat seeds and to promote seed germination in Arabidopsis seeds.
The specific actions of Gibberellin A3 (G1025, G7645) and A4 (G7276) or combinations of Gibberellins should be determined in specific plant applications.

Gibberellic acid (GA) is used in citrus orchards to manipulate flowering and fruit development and reduce the incidence and/or severity of some physiological disorders that occur due to environmental conditions.
Its effectiveness depends on application at the right concentration and right times.

Gibberellic acid (GA) is a naturally occurring hormone or growth-regulating chemical that is found to varying degrees in all parts of plants.

GA stimulates both cell division and elongation and has been used to manipulate flowering and fruit development in selected horticultural crops for many years.

Reason for use
There are four key reasons for using GA on citrus:

reducing the severity and incidence of albedo breakdown
reducing the severity and incidence of watermark (mostly on Imperial mandarin)
reducing the severity and incidence of oleocellosis
improving rind quality.

Albedo breakdown
Albedo breakdown (sometimes known as creasing) is the separation of the mesocarp or albedo (the layer of white internal rind) from the exocarp or flavedo (the external rind) resulting in the rind developing creases and sometimes cracks.

It is recognised by narrow sunken grooves in the rind.
In severe cases the grooves intersect making the fruit appear lumpy and soft (Figure 1).
This s a serious condition and may cause fruit to split open under pressure when packed.
GA and up to three calcium (Ca) sprays should be used to obtain maximum control.
Balanced nutrition and irrigation are also crucial.
High phosphorus (P) levels are associated with thinner rinds and therefore are more prone to developing albedo.
High levels of nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) are associated with thicker rinds.
In districts prone to the disorder it may be necessary to accept thicker rinds in order to obtain economic yields.
Moisture stress (not enough or too much) significantly increases the incidence and severity of albedo.

What Is the Function of Gibberellins?
Gibberellins function as controllers of growth in plants.
They work to kickstart the germination of seeds, aid shoot growth and maturation of leaves, and affect flowering.

With seed germination, seeds remain dormant until they are triggered to germinate.
When gibberellins are released, they start a process of weakening seed coats by beginning gene expression.
This leads to the expansion of cells.

GAs are factors that contribute to flower development.
In biennials, they will stimulate flower development.
Interestingly, in perennials, gibberellins inhibit flowering.
In addition, gibberellic acids are pivotal for internode elongation.
Again, the result is an expansion of cells and cell division.
This occurs as a response to light and dark cycles.
In mutant plants that are dwarf or late flowering, there is less gibberellic acid present.
In these plants, more application of GA is needed to return the plants to a more normal growth pattern.
Therefore gibberellin functions as a kind of reset for plants.

Another gibberellin function is to aid pollen germination.
During pollen tube growth, the amount of gibberellin has been shown to increase.
Gibberellins also affect male and female fertility in plants.
Gibberellic acid plays a role in suppressing female flower formation.
The stamen is a chief site for making gibberellic acids.
Recent discoveries in botany have led to greater understanding of signaling pathways for gibberellic acids.
Generally, these pathways require a GA receptor, growth repressors called DELLAs and proteins of various kinds.
The DELLA proteins inhibit plant growth, while the GA signal aids growth.
To get beyond this inhibition, gibberellic acids form a complex that leads to the breakdown of the DELLA growth repressors.

Scientists are still seeking to understand the process for how GAs make all of these things happen.
Theoretically, gibberellins must be transporting long distances inside plants.
The mechanism for this is not yet clear.

Since plants cannot move, the importance of signaling molecules and hormones is of great importance.
Leaning more about the fundamental transport mechanisms of gibberellic acid, in addition to the hormones’ signaling pathways, will lead to greater understanding of plants.
This, in turn, will aid agriculture as humans face the need for highly efficient crop yields.

Gibberellic acid is a plant hormone that promotes growth and elongation of cells.
In tart and sweet cherries, gibberellic acid has been used successfully to reduce flowering during the early years of an orchard's life.
The reduced flowering and subsequent reduced fruiting helps young trees increase vegetative growth.
Minimizing flowering in early years slows the transmission of pollen-borne viruses in young trees.
Furthermore, preventing fruit development on non-bearing trees could help to reduce localized population build up of spotted wing Drosophila and other direct pests of cherry fruit.
We have also shown that gibberellic acid used in mature tart cherry orchards can increase fruiting capacity by stimulating formation of lateral shoots and spurs.

When gibberellic acid is applied to cherry trees in late spring, a percentage of the flower buds forming for the following season will be converted to vegetative buds.
Therefore, gibberellic acid application in 2016 influences flowering in 2017.
The effectiveness of gibberellic acid is dependent on rate, timing and temperature.
Surfactants have also been shown to influence gibberellic acid applications.
As a rule of thumb, high gibberellic acid rates are required to prevent young trees from fruiting, whereas much lower rates are used to keep bearing trees in a good balance between vegetative and fruit production.

Gibberellic acid applications should be made when daily high temperatures are expected to be above 70 degrees Fahrenheit for two to three days, if possible.
We have observed poor results when applications are made when daily high temperatures are below 60 F, as is the case with most growth regulators.
We hypothesize that the temperatures of 2015 may have been too cool when gibberellic acid was applied for a good response from the application.
As a result, some young trees have a lot of flowers on them when growers were trying to use gibberellic acid to minimize flowers and fruit on the trees.
In this situation, growers should really try to optimize gibberellic acid use when temperatures are warm this spring to reduce the crop load for 2017.

If orchards have five to seven fully expanded leaves, Michigan State University Extension suggests growers begin gibberellic acid applications this week to improve response.
Currently, temperatures are predicted to be in the 70s for the remainder of the week with the chance for a temperature drop into the 60s early next week.
Gibberellic acid will be less effective in cooler temperatures, so growers should try and make gibberellic acid applications when temperatures are warm, particularly if they had lack of response in young blocks that were the result of the cool temperatures last spring.

Applying gibberellic acid to non-bearing trees
Gibberellic acid is typically applied to non-bearing cherries with a handgun, so rates are applied on a dilute basis.
The best results are generally achieved with two applications of 50 parts per million (ppm) (20 fluid ounces of 4 percent formulated product per 100 gallons of water).
The first application should occur three to three and a half weeks after full bloom, followed by a second application two and a half to three weeks later.
An alternative method, though slightly less effective, is to apply a single treatment of 100 ppm (40 fluid ounces per 100 gallons of water) at about three to four weeks after bloom.

Gibberellic acid should not be applied to trees during the year of planting due to possible phytotoxicity.
Vigorously growing trees in their second leaf do not need gibberellic acid, as these trees naturally produce little fruit the following year.
Gibberellic acid application often starts in year three, but may be desirable in year two if trees start off poorly.
These high rates should continue until the year prior to first harvest or year of production.

Applying gibberellic acid to early bearing trees
To bring young cherries into bearing following gibberellic acid treatments with high rates, growers should phase down gibberellic acid rates rather than discontinuing gibberellic acid use all at once.
A sudden drop of gibberellic acid from high rates to nothing will result in oversetting of fruit and potential tree stunting.
Trees that have been kept vegetative with gibberellic acid use have a tremendous capacity to set (overset) fruit.

The year prior to when growers first desire fruiting, they should apply gibberellic acid at 30-40 ppm if spraying dilute (12-16 fluid ounces per 100 gallons of water) or 20-24 fluid ounces per acre if applied at a concentrated rate.
This rate per acre for concentrate spraying takes average tree size into account; therefore, growers should not reduce the rate further based on tree row volume.
The next year, decrease this rate to 15-20 ppm applied dilute (6-8 fluid ounces per 100 gallons of water) or 10-12 fluid ounces per acre concentrate.
The following year, 10 ppm is optional, but often not required.
In orchards where growth is weak, growers should continue annual gibberellic acid applications at 10-15 ppm as described for bearing trees.

Applying gibberellic acid to bearing trees
Growers should apply gibberellic acid three to four weeks after bloom or when trees have five to seven leaves (three to five fully expanded) on terminal growth.
Gibberellic acid should be used at rates of 10-20 ppm or 4-8 ounces per 100 gallons of ProGibb 4 percent (or equivalent) when applied dilute.
For concentrate application to full-sized tart cherries, use 6 ounces per acre of product to achieve a 10 ppm response or 12 ounces per acre for a 20 ppm response.
Lower rates are typically used on more vigorous orchards or those with previous successful use of gibberellic acid.
Adding surfactants has caused varied responses – everything from increased phytotoxicity to no gibberellic acid-related effects.
Therefore, adding a surfactant is not suggested unless a grower has enough experience with a product to have confidence in the response.

Applying gibberellic acid on Balaton trees
Balaton appears to have less need for gibberellic acid during non-bearing years to maintain good tree growth, but as it matures, the variety produces a lot of blind wood.
Therefore, using gibberellic acid is strongly encouraged on bearing Balaton trees.
Figure 1 shows the successful use of gibberellic acid to increase lateral shoots and spurs in a Balaton orchard at the Northwest Michigan Horticulture Research Center.
However, we cannot conclude that gibberellic acid applications improve Balaton yields although gibberellic acid does appear to increase crop load based on a trial conducted at the Northwest Michigan Horticulture Research Center

Effect of Gibberellic Acid on Plant Growth Experiment
When they discovered Gibberellic acid, it made the agriculture sector grow well.
This is so because the farmers found a way to enhance grain production by using GAs.
It is one of the major reasons behind the Green Revolution in the agriculture sector.
It further allowed the farmers to add more nitrogen fertilizer to the crops without worrying about the stem elongation.
Thus, we see how it is so beneficial for modern farming.
Furthermore, we use GA for treating plants with dwarf phenotypes.
They help in stimulating the plant growth of these dwarf plants.
Furthermore, we can also use it for reducing the flowering in the young fruit tree orchards.
It similarly helps as a deterrent measure against plant viruses in young trees that transfer by pollen.
Moreover, it also helps fruits like citrus.
When we apply it to citrus, it will help in preventing the albedo breakdown.
Additionally, it can also reduce the watermark spots found on the citrus fruits.
Thus, it enhances the citrus rind quality.
This application of GA thus produces the fruit of higher quality which is more resistant to hostile weather conditions and decay.
Functions of Gibberellic Acid
Its main function is to control the growth of the plants.
They work to boost the germination of the seeds.
It then helps in advancing the growth and maturation of leaves.
Further, they also assist in the development of the flower.

Other than that, we also have the function of helping in pollen germination.
When there is a growth of pollen tube happening, the number of gibberellin increases.
This affects the fertility of male and female plants.
It also assists in suppressing female flower formation.
Furthermore, as we know that plant’s movement is impossible.
That is why Gibberellic acid carries such importance.
It is so because they are basically signalling molecules and hormones.
Therefore, when we look at it closely, we will realize that Gibberellic acid is very important for the development of the agriculture sector.

Gibberellic Acid Useage 
Gibberellic Acid has a variety of applications.
To improve fruit setting of clementines and pears(especially William pears);
To loosen and elongate clusters and increase berry size in grapes;
To control fruit maturity by delaying development of the yellow colour in lemons;
To reduce rind stain and retard rind ageing in navel oranges;
To counteract the effects of cherry yellows virus diseases in sour cherries;
To produce uniform seedling growth in rice;
To promote elongation of winter celery crop;
To induce uniform bolting and increase seed production in lettuce for seed;
To break dormancy and stimulate sprouting in seed potatoes;
To extend the picking season by hastening maturity in artichokes;
To increase the yield in forced rhubarb;
To increase the malting quality of barley;
To produce brighter-coloured, firmer fruit, and to increase the size of sweet cherries;
To increase yields and aid harvesting of hops;
To reduce internal browning and increase yields of Italian prunes;
To increase fruit set and yields of tangelos and tangerines;
To improve fruit setting in blueberries;
To advance flowering and increase the yield of strawberries;
 Also a variety of applications on ornamentals.
 Application rates up to 80 g/a per application, depending on desired effect.

Gibberellins and Germination
Gibberellins are responsible for promoting growth in the embryo of a seed.
It does this the following way

Gibberellin released by the embryo travels towards the aleurone layer, its target tissue situated in the endosperm region of the seed (alongside the embryo).
Gibberellin acts as the inducer, as its presence allows the enzyme induction of amylase, which can break down starch INTO a sugar to be used in the embryo.
Sugar is used in the plant to synthesize proteins and break out of dormancy.
Gibberellins initiate this process in Summer, when the external environment exhibits favorable conditions for plant growth.

The previous tutorial has investigated the auxin family hormones involved in plant growth.
The next tutorial investigates the sites of this growth, the meristems.

Gibberellin Biosynthesis
Gibberellins (GAs) are endogenous plant growth regulators, having tetracyclic, diterpenoid compounds.
After valuable efforts to understand the GA biosynthesis and movements, the appropriate site of bioactive GA in plants or tissues targeted by bioactive GAs to initiate their action has not yet been confirmed.
Dwarf plant bioassay and its quantitative analysis revealed the presence of GA in active growing tissues i.e., shoot apices, young leaves and flowers.
1, 2, 3In contrast, there are some reports for the presence of GAs in xylem and phloem exudates, indicating a long-distance transport of Gas.4,5 The transport of active GAs and their intermediates was supported by grafting experiments.6,7,8 The contradictory results obtained from different experiments could not pin-point the site of synthesis of bioactive GA.
Gibberellins being synthesized via the terpenoid pathway, require 3 enzymes viz., terpene synthase (TPSs), cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450s) and 2-oxoglutarate dependent dehydrogenase (2 ODDs), for the biosynthesis of bioactive GA from GGDP in plants (Fig.
Two terpene synthase, ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPS) and ent-kaurene synthase (KS), located in plastids, involved in conversion of GGDP to tetracyclic hydrocarbon intermediate ent-kaurene (Fig.
ent-Kaurene is then converted to GA12 by 2 P450s.
First, ent-Kaurene oxidase (KO) present in the outer membrane of plastid,12 catalyzes the sequential oxidation on C-19 to produce ent-kaurenoic acid.
Second, ent kaurenoic acid oxidase (KAO) present in endoplasmic reticulum is subsequently converted to GA12.
12, 13 Bioactive GA4 is converted from GA12 through oxidations on C-20 and C-3 by GA 20-oxidase (GA20ox) and GA 3-oxidase (GA3ox), respectively 

Biochem/physiol Actions
Phytohormone that controls important aspects of plant growth: germination, elongation, and flowering.
The effects are mediated by inducing degradation of the DELLA repressor protein, and probably other minor signalling pathways.
Gibberellic acids (GA) are important plant growth hormones that promote plant cell growth and elongation.
Gibberellins promote rapid stem and root growth, induce mitotic division and initiate (break dormancy) and increase seed germination rates.
The gibberellins are also involved in processes such as gravitropism and flowering.

Storage Class Code:     11 - Combustible Solids
WGK:                    WGK 3
Flash Point(F):         Not applicable
Flash Point(C):         Not applicable

Personal Protective Equipment   dust mask type N95 (US),Eyeshields,Gloves


How do I solubilize Gibberellic acid, Product G7645?
Gibberellic acid is tested for solubility in ethanol (50 mg/ml), yielding a clear, colorless to faint yellow solution.
This may require heating in a water bath for complete solubility.

How is the purity of Gibberellic acid, Product G7645, determined?
We measure purity by Thin Layer Chromatography, not by HPLC.

How would you recommend that I store a solution of Gibberellic acid, Product G7645?
This product can be initially dissolved in ethanol, diluted with water and stored at 2-8° C.

Can solutions of Gibberellic acid, Product G7645, be sterilized?
Sterilization can be either by filter sterilization or coautoclaving with other media components.

What concentration of Gibberellic acid, Product G7645, should I use with my plant culture?
Gibberellic acid is used at 0.01 - 5.0 mg/L.

Synonyms of Gibberellic Acid:

GA(3) gibberellin
GA3 gibberellin
gibberellic acid
gibberellic acid, (1alpha,2beta,4aalpha,4bbeta,6alpha,10beta)-isomer
gibberellic acid, monoammonium salt
gibberellic acid, monopotassium salt
gibberellic acid, monosodium salt
gibberellic acid, potassium salt
gibberellin A3
potassium gibberellate
Gibberellin A3
Gibberellin X
Gibberellic acid GA3
Pro-Gibb Plus
Gibberellins A4A7
Activol GA
Acide gibberellique
(+)-Gibberellic Acid
Gibberelic acid
Acide gibberellique [ISO-French]
Gibb-3-ene-1,10-dicarboxylic acid, 2,4a,7-trihydroxy-1-methyl-8-methylene-, 1,4a-lactone, (1alpha,2beta,4aalpha,4bbeta,10beta)-
Gibberellic acid [BSI:ISO]
(3S,3aS,4S,4aS,6S,8aR,8bR,11S)-6,11-Dihydroxy-3-methyl-12-methylene-2-oxo-4a,6-ethano-3,8b-prop-1-enoperhydroindeno[1,2-b]furan-4-carboxylic acid
2,4a,7-Trihydroxy-1-methyl-8-methylenegibb-3-ene-1,10-dicarboxylic acid 1,4a-lactone
Gibb-3-ene-1,10-dicarboxylic acid, 2,4a,7-trihydroxy-1-methyl-8-methylene-, 1,4a-lactone
(1alpha,2beta,4aalpha,4bbeta,10beta)-2,4a,7-Trihydroxy-1-methyl-8-methylenegibb-3-ene-1,10-dicarboxylic acid 1,4a-lactone
(3S,3aR,4S,4aS,7S,9aR,9bR,12S)-7,12-Dihydroxy-3-methyl-6-methylene-2-oxoperhydro-4a,7-methano-9b,3-propenoazuleno(1,2-b)furan-4-carboxylic acid
(3S,3aS,4S,4aS,6S,8aS,8bS,11S)-6,11-Dihydroxy-3-methyl-12-methylene-2-oxo-4a,6-ethano-3,8b-prop-1-enoperhydroindeno(1,2-b)furan-4-carboxylic acid
(3S,3aS,4S,4aS,7S,9aR,9bR,12S)-7,12-Dihydroxy-3-methyl-6-methylene-2-oxoperhydro-4a,7-methano-9b,3-propeno(1,2-b)furan-4-carboxylic acid
2beta,4aalpha,7-Trihydroxy-1beta-methyl-8-methylene-4aalpha,4bbeta-gibb-3-ene-1alpha,10beta-dicarboxylic acid 1,4a-lactone
2beta,4alpha,7-Trihydroxy-1-methyl-8-methylene-4aalpha,4bbeta-gibb-3-ene-1alpha,10beta-dicarboxylic acid 1,4a-lactone
2beta,4alpha,7-Trihydroxy-1-methylene-4aalpha,4bbeta-gibb-3-ene-1alpha,10beta-dicarboxylic acid 1,4a-lactone
(3S,3aS,4S,4aS,6S,8aR,8bR,11S)-6,11-dihydroxy-3-methyl-12-methylene-2-oxo-4a,6-ethano-3,8b-prop-1-enoperhydroindeno(1,2-b)furan-4-carboxylic acid
2,4alpha,7-Trihydroxy-1-methyl-8-methylenegibb-3-ene-1,10 beta-dicarboxylic acid 1,4alpha-lactone
Caswell No.
GA [Plant Growth Regulator]
Gibberellic acid [ISO:BSI]
CCRIS 4820
Gibberillic acid
HSDB 712
gibberellin 3
2,7-Trihydroxy-1-methyl-8-methylenegibb-3-ene-1,10-carboxylic acid 1-4-lactone
Gibberellin (GA)
(1S,2S,4aR,4bR,7S,9aS,10S,10aR)-2,7-dihydroxy-1-methyl-8-methylene-13-oxo-1,2,4b,5,6,7,8,9,10,10a-decahydro-4a,1-(epoxymethano)-7,9a-methanobenzo[a]azulene-10-carboxylic acid
Gibb-3-ene-1, 2,4a,7-trihydroxy-1-methyl-8-methylene-, 1,4a-lactone, (1.alpha.,2.beta.,4a.alpha.,4b.beta.,10.beta.)-
EINECS 201-001-0
NSC 14190
EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 043801
BRN 0054346
2b-Hydroxygibberellin 1
GibberellinsA currencyure
gibberellic acid (ga-3)
5-18-09-00269 (Beilstein Handbook Reference)
Gibberellic acid 100 microg/mL in Acetonitrile
Gibberellin, 80% gibberellin A3 basis (TLC)
Gibberellic acid, 90% gibberellin A3 basis (HPLC)
Gibberellic acid, PESTANAL(R), analytical standard
Gibberellic acid, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
Gibberellic Acid, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
(1R,2R,5S,8S,9S,10R,11S,12S)-5,12-Dihydroxy-11-methyl-6-methylene-16-oxo-15-oxapentacyclo[,8.01,10.02,8]heptadec-13-ene-9-carboxylic acid
(1R,2R,5S,8S,9S,10R,11S,12S)-5,12-dihydroxy-11-methyl-6-methylidene-16-oxo-15-oxapentacyclo[,8).0(1,10).0(2,8)]heptadec-13-ene-9-carboxylic acid
(1S,2S,4aR,4bR,7S,9aS,10S,10aR)-2,7-dihydroxy-1-methyl-8-methylidene-13-oxo-1,2,4b,5,6,7,8,9,10,10a-decahydro-4a,1-(epoxymethano)-7,9a-methanobenzo[a]azulene-10-carboxylic acid
2beta,7alpha-dihydroxy-1beta-methyl-8-methylidene-13-oxo-4a,1alpha-epoxymethano-4aalpha,4bbeta-gibb-3-ene-10beta-carboxylic acid
Gibberellic acid, plant cell culture tested, BioReagent, >=90% gibberellin A3 basis (of total gibberellins.)

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