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CAS Number:3416-24-8 
EC Number:222-311-2

Glucosamine is an amino sugar produced in the body from glucose and an amine. Chondroitin; sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG). 
It is an important structure of cartilage tissue. MSM (methylsulfonylmethane) is an organosulfur compound.
Children, pregnant women, lactating women and those allergic to shellfish should not use it. 
Those who use anticoagulant drugs should consult their physician before using them. 

Glucosamine is a natural compound found in cartilage — the tough tissue that cushions joints.

In supplement form, glucosamine is harvested from shells of shellfish or made in a lab. 
There are several forms of glucosamine, including glucosamine sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride and N-acetyl glucosamine. 
These supplements aren't considered interchangeable.

People use glucosamine sulfate orally to treat a painful condition caused by the inflammation, breakdown and eventual loss of cartilage (osteoarthritis).

Research on glucosamine use for specific conditions shows:

Oral use of glucosamine sulfate might provide some pain relief for people with osteoarthritis of the knee. 
Some research shows that it may also help slow knee joint degeneration associated with osteoarthritis. 
More studies are needed to determine the benefits of glucosamine sulfate supplements for osteoarthritis of the hip, spine or hand.
Rheumatoid arthritis. 
Early research suggests that oral use of glucosamine hydrochloride might reduce pain related to rheumatoid arthritis. 
However, researchers didn't see an improvement in inflammation or the number of painful or swollen joints.
When considering glucosamine, read product labels carefully to make sure you choose the correct form. 
There's less clinical evidence to support the use of N-acetyl glucosamine in treating osteoarthritis, and more research is needed to confirm its benefits.

Our take
Green light: Generally safe
Generally safe
Glucosamine sulfate might provide some pain relief for people with osteoarthritis. 
The supplement appears to be safe and might be a helpful option for people who can't take nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). 
While study results are mixed, glucosamine sulfate might be worth a try.

Safety and side effects
When taken in appropriate amounts, glucosamine sulfate appears to be safe. 
Oral use of glucosamine sulfate can cause:

Other side effects may include:

Skin reactions
Because glucosamine products might be derived from the shells of shellfish, there is concern that the supplement could cause an allergic reaction in people with shellfish allergies.

Glucosamine might worsen asthma.

There's some concern that glucosamine might raise eye pressure. 
If you have glaucoma, talk to your doctor before taking glucosamine supplements.

Possible interactions include:

Acetaminophen (Tylenol, others). 
Taking glucosamine sulfate and acetaminophen together might reduce the effectiveness of both the supplement and medication.
Warfarin (Jantoven). 
Taking glucosamine alone or in combination with the supplement chondroitin might increase the effects of the anticoagulant warfarin. 
This can increase your risk of bleeding.
Product description
Dermolife Glucosamine Chondroitin Msm 60 Tablets
Content contained in 2 tablets;
Glucosamine Hydrochloride 1500mg
Chondroitin sulfate Sodium 1200mg
MSM 250mg
Corn starch
Use of,
Use 2 tablets a day or as often as your doctor recommends.
Product Code: kc2621605 

Product Name : Solgar Glucosamine Chondroitin MSM 60 Ta
Product Detail:
Solgar Glucosamine Chondroitin Msm 60 Tablets
Food Supplement.
On Each Tablet;
Herbal Glucosamine Hydrochloride 750Mg
Chondroitin (Sulphate) 600Mg
Methylsulfonylmethane (Msm) 350Mg
Does not contain potential allergens such as sugar, starch, yeast, wheat, soy and dairy products. 
No Synthetic Colorants, Odor Correctors, Sweeteners and Preservatives have been used. 

Glucosamine in tablet; It is a food supplement that contains Glucosamine Sulfate, Msm, Chondroitin Sulphate, Bromelain Extract (Pineapple) and that combines completely natural products with high technology, which will always make you feel strong. 
Natural products are the key to a healthy life due to their full compatibility with human chemistry. 
Our capsules are completely of vegetable origin.

 Since 1989, Turkey's food supplement producer AksuVital has been developing products with maximum efficiency and benefit in its R&D center with the quality raw materials it has carefully procured.

Developed with Glucosamine, Chondrotine, Msm (Methyl sulfonyl methane-legume source), Bromelain (pineapple extract).

Glucosamine is a naturally occurring compound in the body that falls into a chemical class of amino sugars. 
It acts as a building block for various functional molecules in the body.
Shiffa Home combines scientific and traditional studies with state-of-the-art technology with the aim of being Turkey's most prestigious natural products brand with the high quality standards in the products it produces.
Care is taken at every stage of production to produce without harming the nature. 
Amber colored glass bottles are used, which are recyclable and will prevent the product from being affected by light. 
Halal certified herbal capsules and bovine gelatine origin softgels are used in the products.

Msm (Methyl Sulfonyl Methane-Legumes), as a result of medical researches, contains many important active substances in terms of health. 
It contains organic sulfur originating from the high amount of natural sulfur in its structure.

Bromelain is an enzyme extract obtained from the stems of fresh pineapple. 
It is a protein degrading enzyme.
Content (In 2 Tablets): Glucosamine Sulfate (Originated Shellfish) 1340 mg, Methyl Sulfonylmethane (Msm) 330mg, Chondroitin Sulfate 80 mg, Bromelain Extract (Pineapple) 60 mg. 
If you're looking for a supplement that may ease your joint pain, glucosamine might be worth a try. 
Some studies show it gives relief for mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis, and it may work for other joints, too.

What Is It?
Glucosamine is a natural chemical compound in your body. But it also comes in the form of a supplement. 
There are two main types: hydrochloride and sulfate.

What Does It Do?
The glucosamine in your body helps keep up the health of your cartilage -- the rubbery tissue that cushions bones at your joints. 
But as you get older, your levels of this compound begin to drop, which leads to the gradual breakdown of the joint.
There's some evidence that glucosamine sulfate supplements help counteract this effect, although experts aren't sure how.
Some people have also used glucosamine to try to treat rheumatoid arthritis and other conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease, asthma, allergies, chronic venous insufficiency, sports injuries, temporomandibular joint problems (TMJ), and long-term low back pain. So far, though, there's not much scientific evidence that it works for those problems.

How much glucosamine should you take?
In most studies on treating osteoarthritis, the typical dose was 500 milligrams of glucosamine sulfate, three times a day. 
Ask your doctor what they recommend for you. Some experts suggest you take it with meals to prevent an upset stomach.

Can you get glucosamine naturally from foods?
Although glucosamine sulfate supplements are often manufactured from the shells of shellfish, there aren't any natural food sources of glucosamine.

What are the risks of taking glucosamine?
On the whole, glucosamine seems to be a fairly safe supplement. Side effects are generally mild. You're more likely to get them if you take high doses. 
They may include things like:

Upset stomach

Risks. If you have a shellfish allergy, be cautious about using glucosamine because you could have a reaction. Also, check with your doctor before taking supplements if you have diabetes, kidney disease, heart disease, bleeding disorders, or high blood pressure.

Check with your doctor before you use glucosamine if you take other medicines, including heart drugs, blood thinners, and diabetes drugs. 
Also, glucosamine isn't recommended for children or women who are pregnant or breastfeeding, because there isn't enough evidence yet about whether it's safe for those groups.

GLUCOSAMINE PLUS is a food supplement developed for active people and athletes in capsule form containing glucosamine sulfate, chondroitin sulfate and vitamin C.

Glucosamine and chondroitin are the main components that make up the joint and cartilage tissue of the body. 
Individuals engaged in sports need to consume sufficient amounts of glucosamine and chondroitin in order to maintain their joints and joint flexibility.

The body weight and muscle mass of people who are interested in weight sports increase. 
The pressure exerted by the increased muscle mass on the joints also increases. 
In addition, repetitive movements with high weights put pressure on the wrists and joints. 
For this reason, it is very important to take glucosamine and chondroitin support for athletes who have been interested in weight sports for many years.

It is important not only for individuals who do sports, but also for people who have joint disorders to use glucosamine and chondroitin supplements to protect their joints.

The addition of Vitamin C in the content of the product is important because it has an active role in the synthesis of collagen, which is the main protein of joint tissue and bones, as well as supporting immunity. 

What Are the Side Effects of Glucosamine?
Hundreds of studies and articles have been published on glucosamine (glucosamine) to date. 
Many people are more or less familiar with this dietary supplement, which is widely recommended for joint ailments. 
So really, glucosamine, diabetes, blood pressure and cardiovascular patients can not be used by? Or is there any particular side effect?

Before learning whether glucosamine has side effects or not, it should be known that there are many glucosamine derivatives. 
Glucosamine; glucosamine monomer (D-glucosamine), glucosamine sulfate (chondroitin), glucosamine hydrochloride, N-acetyl glucosamine or acetyl glucosamine can be found. 
In the digestive system, foods are broken down by enzymes and mixed into the blood as their smallest molecules. 
Glucosamine monomer contains only simple glucosamine content and there is no enzyme to break this glucosamine into smaller structures in the digestive system. Therefore, glucosamine (D-glucosamine) in monomer reaches directly to the liver and from there to the cartilage tissue through the blood from the intestines.

Chitosamine , 

Purity    99.72%
Molecular Weight    179.17
Formula    C6H13NO5
CAS No.    3416-24-8

Glucosamine monomer in liquid and vegetable form does not cause a change in the blood-glucose ratio since it is not broken down into glucose. 
Diabetic patients can use it easily as it does not affect blood sugar values. 
Since scientific studies have not found any negative effects in those using monomer glucosamine supplements, they have been included in the class of food supplements without side effects. However, other glucosamine derivatives may have mild or, albeit rare, serious side effects.

Diabetic patients should only use glucosamine sulfate supplements under medical supervision, with the exception of glucosamine monomer (D-glucosamine). 
Because some studies show that glucosamine sulfate can increase insulin resistance. 
Patients allergic to shellfish should consult their physician before taking glucosamine sulfate supplements. 
However, glucosamine supplements from shellfish are not suitable for use by those allergic to animal products. 
Herbal glucosamines should be preferred to avoid side effects.

There is insufficient information and research available to determine whether taking glucosamine supplements by pregnant and/or breastfeeding or pregnant women, as well as children, has adverse effects on young children or fetuses. 
Patients taking blood thinners or daily aspirin should not take chondroitin sulfate as it may cause bleeding. 
Patients who experience any adverse reactions or unusual effects from the use of glucosamine (glucosamine) and/or chondroitin sulfate supplements should immediately discontinue use and consult their physician.


As a result of clinical studies, it has been proven that glucosamine supplements in liquid and herbal form are safe for use by type I-type II diabetes patients, blood pressure patients and cardiovascular patients. 
It is also known that it does not interact with other drugs and foods. 
However, it has been stated that glucosamine derivatives such as glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin used in joint disorders may cause some mild and serious side effects. 
For this reason, glucosamine supplements in liquid and herbal form, also known as glucosamine monomer, should be preferred to support your joints without any side effects and health problems. 

WEIDER Glucosamine + Chondroitin + MSM + Hyaluronic Acid helps you overcome joint problems that occur especially during intense training periods, thanks to the ingredients listed below.

Glucosamine: It is a type of sugar molecule. It is the basic substance used in the production of cartilage by the cells (chondrocytes) found in the joint cartilages and forming the cartilage tissue.

Chondroitin: It helps to preserve the joint fluid by drawing fluid into the joint cells, thus allowing the bone to glide easily during movement.

MSM: To protect the cartilage structure, connective tissues, tendons and joint fluid; It helps to reduce joint inflammation and pain caused by arthritis.

Supports Comfortable Movement; Glucosamine supports mobility, range of motion and flexibility; It helps ease occasional joint stress due to exercise or physical activity
Cartilage & Joint Function; Chondroitin supports cartilage and joint function; This formulation also provides Hyaluronic Acid
Joint Comfort; MSM (Methylsulfonylmethane) provides a natural, bioavailable source of sulfur and promotes joint comfort; MSM works synergistically to support the benefits of glucosamine and chondroitin
The Gold Standard: For over 70 years, Solgar has been committed to quality, health, and well-being. Our mission is to create the finest nutritional supplements in small batches, through tireless research, using only the finest raw materials
During the summer months products may arrive warm but Amazon stores and ships products in accordance with manufacturers' recommendations, when provided.

Glucosamine (C6H13NO5) is an amino sugar and a prominent precursor in the biochemical synthesis of glycosylated proteins and lipids. 
Glucosamine is part of the structure of two polysaccharides, chitosan and chitin. 
Glucosamine is one of the most abundant monosaccharides.
Produced commercially by the hydrolysis of shellfish exoskeletons or, less commonly, by fermentation of a grain such as corn or wheat, glucosamine has many names depending on country.

Although a common dietary supplement, there is little evidence that it is effective for relief of arthritis or pain, and is not an approved prescription drug.

Dietary supplement
Oral glucosamine is a dietary supplement and is not a prescription drug.
Glucosamine is marketed as a supplement to support the structure and function of joints, and the marketing is targeted to people suffering from osteoarthritis.

Commonly sold forms of glucosamine are glucosamine sulfate,glucosamine chondroitin, glucosamine hydrochloride, and N-acetylglucosamine. 
Of the three commonly available forms of glucosamine, only glucosamine sulfate is given a "likely effective" rating for treating osteoarthritis.
Glucosamine is often sold in combination with other supplements such as chondroitin sulfate and methylsulfonylmethane.[citation needed]

Glucosamine, along with commonly used chondroitin, is not routinely prescribed to treat people who have symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee, as there is insufficient evidence that this treatment is helpful.

As is common with heavily promoted dietary supplements, the claimed benefits of glucosamine are based principally on clinical and laboratory studies. 
Clinical studies on glucosamine efficacy are divided, with some reporting relief from arthritic pain and stiffness, while others report no benefit above placebo.

As of 2015, there is no evidence that consumption of glucosamine by sport participants prevents or limits joint damage after injury.

Adverse effects and drug interactions
Glucosamine with or without chondroitin elevates the international normalized ratio (INR) in individuals who are taking the blood thinner, warfarin. It may also interfere with the efficacy of chemotherapy for treating cancer symptoms.

Adverse effects are mild and infrequent and may include stomach upset, constipation, diarrhea, headache, and rash.

Since glucosamine is usually derived from the shells of shellfish, it may be unsafe for those with shellfish allergy. 
Many manufacturers of glucosamine derived from shellfish include a warning that those with a seafood allergy should consult a healthcare professional before taking the product. 
Alternatively, non-shellfish-derived forms of glucosamine are available.
Another concern has been that the extra glucosamine could contribute to diabetes by interfering with the normal regulation of the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway,but several investigations found no evidence that this occurs.
Other studies conducted in lean or obese subjects concluded that oral glucosamine at standard doses does not affect insulin resistance.

Glucosamine is naturally present in the shells of shellfish, animal bones, bone marrow, and fungi. D-Glucosamine is made naturally in the form of glucosamine-6-phosphate, and is the biochemical precursor of all nitrogen-containing sugars. 
Specifically in humans, glucosamine-6-phosphate is synthesized from fructose 6-phosphate and glutamine by glutamine—fructose-6-phosphate transaminase as the first step of the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway. 
The end-product of this pathway is uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), which is then used for making glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans, and glycolipids.

As the formation of glucosamine-6-phosphate is the first step for the synthesis of these products, glucosamine may be important in regulating their production; however, the way that the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway is actually regulated, and whether this could be involved in contributing to human disease remains unclear.

Most glucosamine is manufactured by processing chitin from the shells of shellfish including shrimp, lobsters, and crabs. 
To meet the demands of vegetarians and others with objections to shellfish, manufacturers have brought glucosamine products to market made using fungus Aspergillus niger and from fermenting corn.

Glucosamine was first prepared in 1876 by Georg Ledderhose by the hydrolysis of chitin with concentrated hydrochloric acid.
The stereochemistry was not fully determined until the 1939 work of Walter Haworth.

Legal status
United States
In the United States, glucosamine is not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for medical use in humans. 
Since glucosamine is classified as a dietary supplement in the United States, evidence of safety is required by FDA regulations, but evidence of efficacy is not required so long as it is not advertised as a treatment for a medical condition.

Main article: Clinical trials on glucosamine and chondroitin
Because glucosamine is a precursor for glycosaminoglycans, and glycosaminoglycans are a major component of cartilage, research has focused on the potential for supplemental glucosamine to improve cartilage structure and alleviate arthritis, but there is little evidence from clinical trials that it is effective for alleviating arthritis pain.[failed verification]

Two studies measured the concentrations of glucosamine in the synovial fluid and plasma after oral administration of glucosamine sulfate to both healthy volunteers and people with osteoarthritis.

In the first study, glucosamine sulfate was given to healthy volunteers in doses of 750, 1,500, or 3,000 mg once daily. 
In the second study, oral glucosamine sulfate capsules (1,500 mg) were given daily for two weeks to 12 people with osteoarthritis. 
Glucosamine concentrations in plasma and synovial fluid increased significantly from baseline levels, and the levels in the two fluids were highly correlated. 
The authors interpreted that these levels could be biologically advantageous to articular cartilage, but the levels are still ten- to one hundredfold lower than required to positively influence the cartilage (chondrocytes) to build new tissue. Glucosamine sulfate uptake in synovial fluid may be as much as 20%, or it could be negligible, indicating no biological significance.

Veterinary medicine
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (December 2013)
Some studies have shown efficacy of glucosamine supplementation for dogs with osteoarthritis pain, particularly in combination with other nutraceuticals like chondroitin, while others have not.
A trial of oral combination capsules (glucosamine, chondroitin, and manganese ascorbate) in dogs with osteoarthritis found no benefit on either gait analysis or subjective assessments by the veterinarian or owner.

The use of glucosamine in equine medicine exists, but one meta-analysis judged extant research too flawed to be of value in guiding treatment of horses.

A number of studies have measured the bioavailability of glucosamine after oral administration to horses. 
When given as a single oral dose (9 g) with or without chondroitin sulfate (3 g) to ten horses, glucosamine (hydrochloride) was detected in the blood with a maximum level of 10.6±6.9 μg/mL at two hours after dosing.
Another study examined both the serum and the joint synovial fluid after nasogastric (oral) or intravenous administration of 20 mg/kg glucosamine hydrochloride to eight adult horses. 
Although joint fluid concentrations of glucosamine reached 9–15 μmol/L following intravenous dosing, it was only 0.3–0.7 μmol/L with nasogastric dosing. 
The authors calculated that these glucosamine synovial fluid levels achieved by the oral route were 500 times lower than that required to have a positive effect on the metabolism of cartilage cells. 
A follow up study by the same research group compared glucosamine sulfate with glucosamine hydrochloride at the same dose (20 mg/kg) in eight horses and found a higher fluid concentration with the sulfate preparation (158 ng/mL compared to 89 ng/mL one hour post oral dose).
They concluded that these higher synovial fluid levels obtained with the sulfate derivative were still too low to have a relevant biological effect on articular cartilage.

A three-month trial of an oral dosage regime of a commercial preparation of glucosamine sulfate, chondroitin sulfate and methylsulfonylmethane was performed in veteran horses with no effect on gait stiffness, with exercise alone in the control group being effective.
The intravenous use of a combination of N-acetylglucosamine, pentosan polysulfate and sodium hyaluronate in horses with surgically-induced osteoarthritis saw improvements in X-ray changes to the cartilage but not histologically or in biochemical outcomes, suggesting more evidence is needed for this combination and route of administration.

IUPAC name: (3R,4R,5S)-3-Amino-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-2,4,5-triol
Other names: 2-Amino-2-deoxy-glucose

CAS Number:3416-24-8 
Beilstein Reference:    1723616
ChEMBL    :ChEMBL181132 
ECHA InfoCard    :100.020.284 
EC Number:222-311-2
Gmelin Reference:    720725
MeSH    Glucosamine
PubChem CID:439213
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)    :DTXSID4023098 

Chemical formula:    C6H13NO5
Molar mass:    179.172 g·mol−1
Density:    1.563 g/mL
Melting point:    150 °C (302 °F; 423 K)
log P:    -2.175
Acidity (pKa):    7.5
Basicity (pKb)    :4.5

ATC code:     M01AX05 (WHO)
Glucosamine Chondroitin MSM
Contains Nature's Supreme Glucosamine Chondroitin, MSM and Hyaluronic acid. OptiMSM®, a patented raw material, is highly efficient and stands out as the purest MSM in the world. Hyaluronic acid, one of its 4 active components, is found in high concentration in the eye and joint fluids in the body. 

Detailed Description
Glucosamine and chondroitin are essential molecules found in the joint and cartilage tissue of the body.

It is important that individuals who have increased sensitivity to joint flexibility or who have been involved in weight sports for a long time can synthesize enough glucosamine in order to achieve the required flexibility and joint protection.

It is a highly efficient, complex glucosamine formula supplementing the glucosamine, chondroitin and MSM formula with hyaluronic acid. 
OptiMSM® in its formula originates from the United States and is the only patented raw material that offers 99.9% pure MSM (methyl-sulfonyl-methane).

Glucosamine and chondroitin are essential molecules found in the joint and cartilage tissue of the body. 
Glucosamine can be produced in the body or can be obtained from shellfish. MSM is a source of sulfur. 
Hyaluronic acid is a naturally occurring polysaccharide substance in the human body. 

in 2 tablets
Glucosamine Sulfate: 1500 mg
Chondroitin Sulfate: 1200 mg
Opti MSM: 700mg
Hyaluronic Acid: 30mg
Health Statement
There is no health declaration.
4 active ingredients
Optimum values advanced formula
Patented OptiMSM raw material
Production in ISO 9001, 22000, GMP and halal certified facilities
Free of sweeteners, preservatives, pork additives, gluten, lactose and GMO
Usage Information
For adults, it is recommended to consume 2 tablets a day, preferably with food. 

Hardline Glucosamine Msm 120 Tablet
Hardline Glucosamine is a product used to protect the joint structures of people who have suffered from joint problems in the past or after long-term weight training. Its main purpose is to minimize the pain and joint discomfort that may occur after training.

How to Use Hardline Glucosamine Msm 120 Tablet?
Beginner Level: 3 tablets a day with meals
Intermediate Level: 3 tablets a day with meals
Advanced: 3 tablets a day with meals

Service Values
Energy 0 kcal
Fat 0 g
Carbs 0 g
Protein 0 g
Arginine 0mg
Glucosamine 1500mg
MSM 2200mg

What's Not Included
GMO - Aspartane - Preservative - Meat Product - Pig Additive - Sweetener 

What is Hardline Glucosamine Chondroitin Msm?
It is a joint product of the Hardline brand that contains glucosamine, chondroitin and msm. 
Glucosamine and chondroitin are the main molecules in the cartilage tissue of the body's cartilage tissue. 
MSM (methylsulfonylmethane) is a source of sulfur necessary for the formation of collagen, which provides elasticity to the joints and cartilage. 
It is very important for people who have been doing weight training for a long time or who have had joint disorders in the past to protect their joints.
Notable Features of Hardline Glucosamine MSM:
- In tablet form- Each serving contains 1.500 mg Glucosamine, 1200 mg MSM, 900 mg Chondroitin 

Glucosamine plays a vital role in building and repairing cartilage. Many people take glucosamine supplements in the hope of boosting their joint health. Do they work?
Glucosamine is a natural sugar that exists in the fluid around the joints, as well as in animal bones, bone marrow, shellfish, and fungi.
The glucosamine in supplements usually comes from the shells of shellfish, though there is also a synthetic form.
According to the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, around 2.6%Trusted Source of adults in the United States used supplements of glucosamine, chondroitin, or both in 2012. Chondroitin is similar to glucosamine and also occurs naturally in joints.
These were the second most popular dietary supplement after fish oil and other types of omega-3 fatty acids.
However, experts have questioned whether glucosamine supplements are useful, citing a lack of scientific evidence.
In this article, we explain what glucosamine is, why people take it, and whether research indicates that the supplements can help. We also look at some possible side effects and other risks.

What is glucosamine?
There is no conclusive evidence that glucosamine supplements can prevent or treat any conditions.
Glucosamine supplements typically come as tablets or capsules, but they are also available as injections.

Also, there are various types of glucosamine, and it is not clear whether they have different effects.

The types include:

glucosamine sulfate
glucosamine hydrochloride
N-acetyl glucosamine
Some supplements combine glucosamine with other ingredients, such as chondroitin sulfate, shark cartilage, or methylsulfonylmethane, known as MSM.

Some people say that these supplements help with joint pain, but there is not enough scientific evidence to confirm this.

The American College of Rheumatologists and the Arthritis FoundationTrusted Source advise people not to use glucosamine or chondroitin sulfate supplements for osteoarthritis. While they are likely to be safe for most people, experts have not confirmed that they work.

It is important to keep in mind that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) do not regulate the production of glucosamine products or any other supplements. 
As a result, it is not possible to know exactly what they contain.

Supplements do not always, for example, contain the ingredients listed on their labels. 
Tests have shown that the glucosamine content in supplements can range from zero to over 100% of the amount advertised.

Also, in some cases, labels listed glucosamine hydrochloride when the supplements contained glucosamine sulfate.

The body uses glucosamine to build and repair cartilage. 
Cartilage is a flexible, tough, rubbery connective tissue that protects the bones in the joints. 
It provides padding and prevents the bones from rubbing together.

As people age, their cartilage can become less flexible and start to break down. 
This can lead to pain, inflammation, and tissue damage, which, for example, occurs in osteoarthritis.

There is some evidence that glucosamine might slow this process and benefit cartilage health.

Glucosamine occurs naturally in the body, but levels fall as people get older. 
In time, the reduction could contribute to joint deterioration.

People take glucosamine sulfate supplements for many reasons, including:

weight loss
jaw pain
joint pain
back pain
interstitial cystitis, a bladder condition
multiple sclerosis (MS)
heart disease
However, there is not enough evidence to show that it is effective in treating or preventing any of these conditions.

Does glucosamine help with osteoarthritis?
Many people take glucosamine supplements for osteoarthritis, especially that of the hip or knee. Some studiesTrusted Source have indicated that it might help reduce pain and improve function.
However, results have varied, and scientists have not been able to identify how glucosamine supplements work, if indeed they do.
Some expertsTrusted Source have suggested that any success could be due to a placebo effect, in which simply taking a supplement makes a person feel better.
Current guidelinesTrusted Source do not recommend using glucosamine or chondroitin for osteoarthritis. 
This is because there is not enough evidence to show that they are safe or effective.
Can a placebo help people with chronic pain?
Other uses and evidence
People use glucosamine to help treat or prevent a range of conditions, but scientific investigations into these uses have tended to be inconclusive or have found the supplement to be ineffective.

Some research in animals or human participants has indicated that specific forms of glucosamine may help:

suppress changes that trigger irritable bowel disease
dampen the immune response that leads to MS
improve knee mobilityTrusted Source after a sports injury
There is no evidence, however, that glucosamine has any effect on chronic lower back pain, for example.

Side effects
Side effects of glucosamine appear to be mild and infrequent, but they can include:

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) note that oral glucosamine supplements are “likely safe” when taken correctly and by adults, but that some people have experienced mild side effects, including drowsiness, skin reactions, and headaches.
They report that the injectable form is “possibly safe” when administered into muscle twice a week for up to 6 weeks.

Glucosamine may not be suitable for everyone, particularly for people who are dealing with:
Pregnancy and breastfeeding: It is not advisable to use glucosamine at these times, as its effect is unknown.
Cancer: Some supplements reduce the effectiveness of cancer treatment. 
If you are undergoing this type of treatment and wish to use glucosamine, speak to a doctor first.
Diabetes: One studyTrusted Source found that glucosamine supplements might affect glucose levels in the body. 
This could make them unsuitable for people with diabetes or glucose intolerance.
Asthma: In 2008, authors of a study warned that glucosamine might trigger various adverse effects, including shortness of breath in people with asthma.
Allergies: Glucosamine products derived from shellfish may trigger allergic reactions.
Blood and circulation issues: Glucosamine may also affect blood pressure and blood clotting. 
People who take it should:
avoid using glucosamine with warfarin (Coumadin) and other blood thinners
monitor their blood pressure if they are using glucosamine
Oral glucosamine supplements appear to be relatively safe for adults without asthma, allergies, or diabetes, and for those who are not pregnant or breastfeeding.

However, conclusive evidence that it can treat joint complaints and other health issues is currently lacking.

What’s the Bottom Line?
How much do we know about glucosamine and chondroitin supplements?
We have some information about the safety and usefulness of glucosamine and chondroitin from large, high-quality studies in people.
What do we know about the effectiveness of glucosamine and chondroitin supplements?
Research results suggest that chondroitin isn’t helpful for pain from osteoarthritis of the knee or hip.
It’s unclear whether glucosamine helps with osteoarthritis knee pain or whether either supplement lessens osteoarthritis pain in other joints.
What do we know about the safety of glucosamine and chondroitin supplements?
Studies have found that glucosamine and chondroitin supplements may interact with the anticoagulant (blood-thinning) drug warfarin (Coumadin). 
Overall, studies have not shown any other serious side effects.
If you take glucosamine or chondroitin supplements, tell your health care providers. 
They can do a better job caring for you if they know what dietary supplements you use.
What Are Glucosamine and Chondroitin?
Glucosamine and chondroitin are structural components of cartilage, the tissue that cushions the joints. 
Both are produced naturally in the body. 
They are also available as dietary supplements. 
Researchers have studied the effects of these supplements, individually or in combination, on osteoarthritis, a common type of arthritis that destroys cartilage in the joints.

More information
Cartilage is the connective tissue that cushions the ends of bones within the joints. 
In osteoarthritis, the surface layer of cartilage between the bones of a joint wears down. 
This allows the bones to rub together, which can cause pain and swelling and make it difficult to move the joint. 
The knees, hips, spine, and hands are the parts of the body most likely to be affected by osteoarthritis.

For more information on complementary health approaches for osteoarthritis, see the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) fact sheet Osteoarthritis and Complementary Health Approaches.

What the Science Says About Glucosamine and Chondroitin for Osteoarthritis
For the Knee or Hip
Major studies of glucosamine for osteoarthritis of the knee have had conflicting results.

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A large National Institutes of Health (NIH) study, called the Glucosamine/chondroitin Arthritis Intervention Trial (GAIT), compared glucosamine hydrochloride, chondroitin, both supplements together, celecoxib (a prescription drug used to manage osteoarthritis pain), or a placebo (an inactive substance) in patients with knee osteoarthritis. 
Most participants in the study had mild knee pain.
Those who received the prescription drug had better short-term pain relief (at 6 months) than those who received a placebo.
Overall, those who received the supplements had no significant improvement in knee pain or function, although the investigators saw evidence of improvement in a small subgroup of patients with moderate-to-severe pain who took glucosamine and chondroitin together.
For more information on the trial, see the NCCIH Web page.
In several European studies, participants reported that their knees felt and functioned better after taking glucosamine. 
The study participants took a large, once-a-day dose of a preparation of glucosamine sulfate sold as a prescription drug in Europe.
Researchers don’t know why the results of these large, well-done studies differ. 
It may be because of differences in the types of glucosamine used (glucosamine hydrochloride in the NIH study vs. glucosamine sulfate in the European studies), differences in the way they were administered (one large daily dose in the European studies vs. three smaller ones in the NIH study), other differences in the way the studies were done, or chance.
In general, research on chondroitin has not shown it to be helpful for pain from knee or hip osteoarthritis.

More information
More than 20 studies have looked at the effect of chondroitin on pain from knee or hip osteoarthritis. 
The quality of the studies varied and so did the results. 
However, the largest and best studies (including the NIH study discussed under the heading “Glucosamine” above) showed that chondroitin doesn’t lessen osteoarthritis pain.
Joint Structure
A few studies have looked at whether glucosamine or chondroitin can have beneficial effects on joint structure. 
Some but not all studies found evidence that chondroitin might help, but the improvements may be too small to make a difference to patients. 
There is little evidence that glucosamine has beneficial effects on joint structure.

Experts’ Recommendations
Experts disagree on whether glucosamine and chondroitin may help knee and hip osteoarthritis. 
The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) has recommended that people with knee or hip osteoarthritis not use glucosamine or chondroitin.
 But the recommendation was not a strong one, and the ACR acknowledged that it was controversial.

For Other Parts of the Body
Only a small amount of research has been done on glucosamine and chondroitin for osteoarthritis of joints other than the knee and hip. 
Because there have been only a few relatively small studies, no definite conclusions can be reached.

More information
Chondroitin for osteoarthritis of the hand
A 6-month trial of chondroitin in 162 patients with severe osteoarthritis of the hand showed that it may improve pain and function.
Glucosamine for osteoarthritis of the jaw
One study of 45 patients with osteoarthritis of the jaw showed that those given glucosamine had less pain than those given ibuprofen. But another study, which included 59 patients with osteoarthritis of the jaw, found that those taking glucosamine did no better than those taking a placebo (pills that don’t contain the active ingredient).
Glucosamine for chronic low-back pain and osteoarthritis of the spine
A Norwegian trial involving 250 people with chronic low-back pain and osteoarthritis of the lower spine found that participants who received glucosamine fared the same at 6 months as those who received placebo.
What the Science Says About Safety and Side Effects
No serious side effects have been reported in large, well-conducted studies of people taking glucosamine, chondroitin, or both for up to 3 years.
However, glucosamine or chondroitin may interact with the anticoagulant (blood-thinning) drug warfarin (Coumadin).
A study in rats showed that long-term use of moderately large doses of glucosamine might damage the kidneys. 
Although results from animal studies don’t always apply to people, this study does raise concern.
Glucosamine might affect the way your body handles sugar, especially if you have diabetes or other blood sugar problems, such as insulin resistance or impaired glucose tolerance.
More information
If you use dietary supplements, such as glucosamine and chondroitin, read and follow the label instructions, and recognize that “natural” does not always mean “safe.”

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulates dietary supplements, but the regulations for dietary supplements are different and less strict than those for prescription or over-the-counter drugs.

Some dietary supplements may interact with medications or pose risks if you have medical problems or are going to have surgery. 
Most dietary supplements have not been tested in pregnant women, nursing mothers, or children.

For more information, see Using Dietary Supplements Wisely.

More to Consider
If your joints hurt, see your health care provider. It’s important to find out what’s causing your joint pain. 
Some diseases that cause joint pain—such as rheumatoid arthritis—may need immediate treatment.
If you take warfarin or have blood sugar problems, make sure you talk to your doctor about potential side effects if you are considering or taking glucosamine or chondroitin supplements.
If you’re pregnant or nursing a child, it’s especially important to see your health care provider before taking any medication or supplement, including glucosamine or chondroitin.
Help your health care providers give you better coordinated and safe care by telling them about all the health approaches you use. 
Give them a full picture of what you do to manage your health.

What is it?
Glucosamine is a naturally occurring chemical found in the human body. It is in the fluid around joints. 
Glucosamine also exists in other places in nature. For example, glucosamine used in dietary supplements is often obtained from the shells of shellfish. 
Glucosamine can also be made in a laboratory.

There are different forms of glucosamine including glucosamine sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride, and N-acetyl glucosamine. 
These different chemicals have some similarities, but they may not have the same effects when taken as a dietary supplement. 
Most of the scientific research on glucosamine has involved glucosamine sulfate.

Some glucosamine products are not labeled accurately. 
In some cases, the amount of glucosamine actually in the product has varied from none to over 100% of the amount stated on the product's label. 
Some products have contained glucosamine hydrochloride when glucosamine sulfate was listed on the label.

Glucosamine sulfate and glucosamine hydrochloride are most commonly used for osteoarthritis. 
Glucosamine is also used for many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses.

How effective is it?
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.

The effectiveness ratings for GLUCOSAMINE are as follows:
Likely effective for...
Osteoarthritis. Most research shows that taking glucosamine sulfate can provide some pain relief for people with osteoarthritis, especially those with osteoarthritis of the knees. 
For some people, glucosamine sulfate might work as well as over-the-counter and prescription pain medications such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen. 
But pain medications work quickly, while glucosamine sulfate can take 4-8 weeks before it provides pain relief. 
Also, people who take glucosamine sulfate often still need to take pain medications for pain flare-ups.

There are several kinds of glucosamine products. The research showing the most benefit is for products that contain glucosamine sulfate. 
Products that contain glucosamine hydrochloride do not seem to work as well unless they are taken in combination with other ingredients. 
Many products contain glucosamine with chondroitin, but there is no good evidence that these products work any better than glucosamine sulfate by itself.

Glucosamine sulfate does not seem to prevent people from getting osteoarthritis.
Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for...
Joint pain caused by drugs called aromatase inhibitors (aromatase inhibitor-induced arthralgias). 
Early research suggests that taking a combination of glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate in two or three divided doses daily for 24 weeks reduces pain in women taking drugs that lower estrogen levels for early stage breast cancer.
Heart disease. People who take glucosamine might have a lower risk of developing heart disease. 
But it's unclear what dose or form of glucosamine might work best. 
It's also unclear if this lower risk is from glucosamine or from following healthier lifestyle habits.
Early research shows that taking glucosamine hydrochloride for 4 weeks might improve symptoms of depression in some people with depression.
People who take glucosamine might have a lower risk of developing diabetes. 
But it's unclear what dose or form of glucosamine might work best. It's also unclear if this lower risk is from glucosamine or from following healthier lifestyle habits.
High levels of cholesterol or other fats (lipids) in the blood (hyperlipidemia). 
Early research suggests that glucosamine hydrochloride does not affect cholesterol or triglyceride levels in people with high cholesterol.
Long-term swelling (inflammation) in the digestive tract (inflammatory bowel disease or IBD). 
There is some early evidence that N-acetyl glucosamine taken by mouth or rectally might decrease symptoms of IBD in children with Crohn disease or ulcerative colitis.
A disorder that affects the bones and joints, usually in people with selenium deficiency (Kashin-Beck disease). 
Early evidence shows that taking glucosamine hydrochloride along with chondroitin sulfate reduces pain and improves physical function in adults with this condition. 
Taking glucosamine hydrochloride alone might work as well as over-the-counter pain medications.
Knee pain. Early research shows that taking 1500 mg of glucosamine sulfate daily for 28 days does not reduce knee pain in athletes following a knee injury. 
But it does seem to improve knee movement. 
There is some early evidence that glucosamine hydrochloride might relieve pain for some people with frequent knee pain.
Multiple sclerosis (MS). 
Early research shows that taking glucosamine sulfate by mouth daily for 6 months might reduce the relapse of multiple sclerosis.
Recovery after surgery. 
Early research shows that taking glucosamine sulfate does not improve function, pain, and performance in male athletes who had surgery to fix a torn ACL. The ACL is a ligament that holds the knee in place during movement.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA). 
Early research shows that taking glucosamine hydrochloride might reduce pain but not the number of swollen and painful joints.
Early research has found that people who take glucosamine might have a slightly lower risk of having a stroke. 
But it's unclear what dose or form of glucosamine might work best. 
But it is unclear if this lower risk is from glucosamine or from healthier lifestyle habits.
A group of painful conditions that affect the jaw joint and muscle (temporomandibular disorders or TMD). 
Early research disagrees on whether glucosamine sulfate reduces pain in people with osteoarthritis of the jaw joint.
Aging skin.
Back pain.
Non-cancerous growths in the large intestine and rectum (colorectal adenoma).
Death from any cause.
Joint pain.
Painful bladder syndrome (Interstitial cystitis).
Wound healing.
Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate glucosamine sulfate for these uses.

How does it work?
Glucosamine is a chemical found in the human body. 
It is used by the body to produce other chemicals that are involved in building tendons, ligaments, cartilage, and the thick fluid that surrounds joints.

Joints are cushioned by the fluid and cartilage that surround them. 
In some people with osteoarthritis, the cartilage breaks down and becomes thin. 
This results in more joint friction, pain, and stiffness. 
Researchers think that taking glucosamine supplements may either increase the cartilage and fluid surrounding joints or help prevent breakdown of these substances, or maybe both.

Are there safety concerns?
When taken by mouth: Glucosamine sulfate is LIKELY SAFE in most adults. Glucosamine hydrochloride is POSSIBLY SAFE for most adults when taken appropriately for up to 2 years. N-acetyl glucosamine is also POSSIBLY SAFE when taken in doses of 3-6 grams daily. 
Glucosamine can cause some mild side effects including nausea, heartburn, diarrhea, and constipation. Uncommon side effects are drowsiness, skin reactions, and headache.

When applied to the skin: N-acetyl glucosamine is POSSIBLY SAFE when used for up to 10 weeks.

When given as an enema (rectally): N-acetyl glucosamine is POSSIBLY SAFE when used in doses of 3-4 grams daily.

When given as a shot: Glucosamine sulfate is POSSIBLY SAFE when injected into the muscle as a shot twice weekly for up to 6 weeks.
Special precautions & warnings:
Pregnancy or breast-feeding: There isn't enough reliable information to know if glucosamine sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride, or N-acetyl glucosamine is safe to use when pregnant or breast-feeding. 
Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Asthma: There is one report linking an asthma attack with taking glucosamine. 
It is not known for sure if glucosamine was the cause of the asthma attack. 
Until more is known, people with asthma should be cautious about taking products that contain glucosamine.

Diabetes: Some early research suggested that glucosamine might raise blood sugar in people with diabetes. 
But more recent and more reliable research now shows that glucosamine does not seem to affect blood sugar control in people with type 2 diabetes. 
Glucosamine appears to be safe for most people with diabetes, but blood sugar should be monitored closely.

Glaucoma: Glucosamine might increase the pressure inside the eye and could worsen glaucoma. 
If you have glaucoma, talk to your healthcare provider before taking glucosamine.

High cholesterol: Some early research suggested that glucosamine may increase cholesterol levels. 
But more recent and reliable research now shows that glucosamine does not seem to increase cholesterol levels.

High blood pressure: Some early research suggested that glucosamine may increase insulin levels. 
But more recent and reliable research shows that glucosamine does not increase blood pressure.
To be on the safe side, monitor your blood pressure closely if you take glucosamine sulfate and have high blood pressure.

Shellfish allergy: There is some concern that glucosamine products might cause allergic reactions in people who are sensitive to shellfish. 
Glucosamine is produced from the shells of shrimp, lobster, and crabs. 
Allergic reactions in people with shellfish allergy are caused by the meat of shellfish, not the shell. 
But some people have developed an allergic reaction after using glucosamine supplements. 
It is possible that some glucosamine products might be contaminated with the part of the shellfish meat that can cause an allergic reaction. 
If you have a shellfish allergy, talk to your provider before using glucosamine.

Are there interactions with medications?
Do not take this combination.
Warfarin (Coumadin)
Warfarin is used to slow blood clotting. 
There are several reports showing that taking glucosamine with or without chondroitin increases the effect of warfarin, making blood clot even slower. 
This can cause bruising and bleeding that can be serious. 
Don't take glucosamine if you are taking warfarin. 
Many natural medicines can interact with warfarin.
Be cautious with this combination.
Medications for cancer (Topoisomerase II Inhibitors)
Some medications for cancer work by decreasing how fast cancer cells can copy themselves. 
Some scientists think that glucosamine might block these medications from decreasing how fast tumor cells can copy themselves. 
Taking glucosamine along with some medications for cancer might decrease the effectiveness of these medications.

Some medications used for cancer include etoposide (VP16, VePesid), teniposide (VM26), mitoxantrone, daunorubicin, and doxorubicin (Adriamycin).
Be watchful with this combination.
Acetaminophen (Tylenol, others)
There is some concern that taking glucosamine SULFATE and acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) together might affect how well each works. 
But more information is needed to know if this interaction is a big concern. For now, most experts say it is okay to use both together.
Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)
Some early research suggested that glucosamine might raise blood sugar in people with diabetes. 
But more recent and more reliable research now shows that glucosamine does not seem to affect blood sugar control in people with type 2 diabetes. 
Therefore, glucosamine probably does not interfere with diabetes medications.

Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol), tolbutamide (Orinase), and others.
Are there interactions with herbs and supplements?
Chondroitin sulfate
Taking chondroitin sulfate together with glucosamine HYDROCHLORIDE might reduce blood levels of glucosamine. 
But it's not clear if this will change the effects of glucosamine hydrochloride.
Are there interactions with foods?
There are no known interactions with foods.
What dose is used?
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

Glucosamine is a compound that occurs naturally in the human body and is classified as an amino sugar. 
It is found in the gel-like protective cartilage layers that prevent the joints from hitting and rubbing against each other. 
It is taken as a dietary supplement because it is not found naturally in foods. 
Supplements are mostly produced in the laboratory environment from the shells of shellfish such as shrimp, crabs, and lobsters. 
Although more studies are needed on the benefits of glucosamine, which is used in the treatment and protection of bone and joint diseases, it is recommended to people over middle age.

Glucosamine is the gel tissue found in the cartilages that prevents the joints from rubbing against each other. 
Supplements are usually produced from the shells of shellfish. 
It can also be synthesized in vitro from glucose and the amino acid glutamine. 
There are forms such as glucosamine sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride and n-acetyl glucosamine, and they cannot be substituted for the other.

People; uses glucosamine sulfate supplementation orally to relieve painful conditions caused by infection, cartilage loss (osteoarthritis) and fragmentation. 
The supplement, which has anti-inflammatory properties, helps to regenerate cartilage. 
It can be used orally, as a cream or ointment. (one)

What does glucosamine do?
Diseases that glucosamine helps to treat:

Age-related joint and bone diseases: A decrease in glucosamine secreted by the body occurs in advancing ages. 
For this reason, the oral supplement helps to treat joint and bone diseases, especially diseases such as osteoarthritis (calcification) and osteoporosis.
Irritable bowel syndrome: Some studies show that glucosamine can help regulate bowel movements in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.
Multiple Sclerosis (MS): Some studies show that n-acetyl glucosamine can delay the onset or progression of MS symptoms. 
It is also frequently used to treat inflammation in the body.

Temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMJ): TMJ is a problem that occurs in the temporomandibular joint located in the jaw. 
Affecting adults and middle-aged people, TJM affects the joint connecting the jaw to the skull and causes jaw pain. 
Individuals with temporomandibular joint dysfunction cannot move their heads up and down or to the left or right without pain, unlike normal ones. 
The use of glucosamine in TMJ patients helps alleviate the disease, reduce pain, and provide faster results for the treatment.
Interstitial cystitis: Interstitial cystitis occurs due to the deficiency of glycosaminoglycan, one of the structural components of glucosamine. 
For this reason, regular supplementation can facilitate the treatment of interstitial cystitis.

Other diseases that glucosamine helps:
It can treat irritations in the stomach, bladder and intestines.
It reduces joint inflammation around the back and neck.
It repairs tissue and bone trauma resulting from fractured and injured accidents.
It reduces the pain and swelling that appear as a result of rheumatism.
What are the benefits of glucosamine?
Glucosamine, together with a lubricating fluid called synovial fluid, helps the joints move freely on each other. 
It minimizes the friction between the joints and allows the bones to move painlessly. 
For this reason, it is used regularly by many athletes.

Besides being a powerful anti-inflammatory, it also has an anti-aging effect. 
It can reduce wrinkles and prevent age spots.

Effect of glucosamine on osteoarthritis
In osteoarthritis, the most common form of osteoarthritis, there is a rapidly progressive degeneration of cartilage glycosaminoglycan. 
For this reason, the supplements taken; It can help reduce pain in patients with knee, hip and spine osteoarthritis. 
It shows positive results at high rates, especially when used in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

A 6-year study found that when adults with knee osteoarthritis regularly took chondroitin with glucosamine, their cartilage loss was slowed.

How is glucosamine used?
There is no standard dose for the use of glucosamine. The appropriate dose for each patient is determined by the doctor. 
It can be used as 1500 mg once a day, 750 mg twice a day, or 500 mg 3 times a day, especially in the treatment of osteoarthritis.

Glucosamine sulfate
Glucosamine sulfate is the type found in the human body and most used in clinical research. 
Most studies show that this supplement supports joint health and helps slow the breakdown of fluid between joints.

Glucosamine sulfate is mostly obtained from the shells of shellfish such as shrimp, crab, and lobster, but there are also types that are synthesized in the laboratory for people who are allergic to seafood or who do not consume seafood.

Glucosamine hydrochloride
Glucosamine hydrochloride binds to chloride molecules. 
Unlike sulfate, it is not usually produced from shellfish, but it also has positive effects on joint health. 
This form of glucosamine is a good alternative for vegetarians, vegans, non-seafood eaters, and individuals with seafood allergies.

N-acetyl glucosamine
N-acetyl glucosamine, which can be used to support joint tissue like other types, can also be used as an anti-aging ingredient for the skin. 
There are also studies showing that it is beneficial for digestive health. 

Glucosamine, chondroitin, and MSM
Just like glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate is a natural component found in cartilage. 
Chondroitin, a complex carbohydrate that helps cartilage retain water, when combined with glucosamine, helps support joint cushions, stabilize lubrication in the joints, and increase joint mobility.

Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is a naturally occurring form of sulfur that helps support muscles and tendons throughout the body. 
Chondroitin, glucosamine, and MSM is a drug combination used as an adjunct in alternative medicine, thought to be effective in the treatment of arthritis, muscle damage from exercise, and other joint disorders.

It is not known exactly how effective it is in the treatment of any medical condition. 
More research is needed on this. 
This product, which is usually sold as a herbal supplement, should not be used instead of the medications recommended by the doctor.

What foods is glucosamine found in?
Glucosamine sulfate supplements are usually produced from shellfish shells. 
It is not found naturally in foods. Therefore, it is used as a supplement.

Glucosamine side effects and harms
Glucosamine sulfate is a very safe ingredient when taken in appropriate amounts. 
However, some of the side effects that can be caused as a result of misuse and excessive use:

nausea or heartburn
diarrhea or constipation
skin spots
allergic reaction
Although in small amounts, glucosamine has the potential to worsen asthma and cause fluctuations in blood sugar for diabetics. 
Diabetes and asthma patients should consult their doctor before using glucosamine. 
Also talk to your doctor if you are allergic to shellfish.

Glucosamine drug interaction
Blood thinners: Glucosamine, Warfarin (Coumadin) can cause bleeding or bruising when taken together with blood thinners. 
Therefore, they should not be used together.
Glucosamine may also decrease the effectiveness of some medications:
Acetaminophen: Tylenol
Some chemotherapy drugs: Doxorubicin, etoposide, teniposide etc.
Diabetes medications: Glimepiride, glyburide, insulin, pioglitazone and rosiglitazone

What Is Glucosamine?
Glucosamine is a naturally occurring compound that is chemically classified as an amino sugar.
It serves as a building block for a variety of functional molecules in your body but is primarily recognized for developing and maintaining cartilage within your joints.
Glucosamine is also found in some animal and other non-human tissues, including shellfish shells, animal bones and fungi. 
Supplemental forms of glucosamine are often made from these natural sources.
Glucosamine is frequently used to both treat and prevent joint disorders, such as osteoarthritis. 
It may be taken orally or applied topically in a cream or salve.

What is it?
Glucosamine sulphate and glucosamine hydrochloride are nutritional supplements. 
Animal studies have found that glucosamine can both delay the breakdown of and repair damaged cartilage. 
The results for the use of glucosamine for osteoarthritis are mixed and the size of the effect is modest. 
There’s some evidence that more recent trials and those using higher-quality methods are less likely to show a benefit. 
Evidence from trials on glucosamine hydrochloride is scarce and not convincing.

Family: Nutritional supplement
Scientific name: Glucosamine sulphate, glucosamine hydrochloride
Other names: GS, amino monosaccharide, sulfated monosaccharide, chitosamine, D-glucosamine


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