Quick Search



EC / List no.: 232-317-7
CAS no.: 8002-80-0

Gluten is a structural protein naturally found in certain cereal grains. 
Although, strictly speaking, "gluten" pertains only to wheat proteins, in the medical literature it refers to the combination of prolamin and glutelin proteins naturally occurring in all grains that have been demonstrated capable of triggering celiac disease. 
These include any species of wheat (such as common wheat, durum, spelt, khorasan, emmer and einkorn), barley, rye and some oat cultivars, as well as any cross hybrids of these grains (such as triticale).
Gluten comprises 75–85% of the total protein in bread wheat.

Glutens, especially Triticeae glutens, have unique viscoelastic and adhesive properties, which give dough its elasticity, helping it rise and keep its shape and often leaving the final product with a chewy texture.
These properties, and its relatively low cost, make gluten valuable to both food and non-food industries.

Wheat gluten is composed of mainly two types of proteins: the glutenins and the gliadins, which in turn can be divided into high molecular and low molecular glutenins and α/β, γ and Ω gliadins. 
Its homologous seed storage proteins in barley, are referred to as hordeins; in rye, secalins; and in oats, avenins.
These protein classes are collectively referred to as "gluten".
The storage proteins in other grains, such as maize (zeins) and rice (rice protein), are sometimes called gluten, but they do not cause harmful effects in people with celiac disease.

Gluten can trigger adverse inflammatory, immunological and autoimmune reactions in some people. 
The spectrum of gluten related disorders includes celiac disease in 1–2% of the general population, non-celiac gluten sensitivity in 0.5–13% of the general population, as well as dermatitis herpetiformis, gluten ataxia and other neurological disorders.

Bread products
Gluten forms when glutenin molecules cross-link via disulfide bonds to form a submicroscopic network attached to gliadin, which contributes viscosity (thickness) and extensibility to the mix.
If this dough is leavened with yeast, fermentation produces carbon dioxide bubbles, which, trapped by the gluten network, cause the dough to rise. 
Baking coagulates the gluten, which, along with starch, stabilizes the shape of the final product. 
Gluten content has been implicated as a factor in the staling of bread, possibly because it binds water through hydration.

The formation of gluten affects the texture of the baked goods.
Gluten's attainable elasticity is proportional to its content of glutenins with low molecular weights, as this portion contains the preponderance of the sulfur atoms responsible for the cross-linking in the gluten network.
Further refining of the gluten leads to chewier doughs such as those found in pizza and bagels, while less refining yields tender baked goods such as pastry products.

Generally, bread flours are high in gluten (hard wheat); pastry flours have a lower gluten content. 
Kneading promotes the formation of gluten strands and cross-links, creating baked products that are chewier (as opposed to more brittle or crumbly). 
The "chewiness" increases as the dough is kneaded for longer times. 
An increased moisture content in the dough enhances gluten development, and very wet doughs left to rise for a long time require no kneading (see no-knead bread). Shortening inhibits formation of cross-links and is used, along with diminished water and less kneading, when a tender and flaky product, such as a pie crust, is desired.

The strength and elasticity of gluten in flour is measured in the baking industry using a farinograph.
This gives the baker a measurement of quality for different varieties of flours when developing recipes for various baked goods.

Added gluten
In industrial production, a slurry of wheat flour is kneaded vigorously by machinery until the gluten agglomerates into a mass.
This mass is collected by centrifugation, then transported through several stages integrated in a continuous process. 
About 65% of the water in the wet gluten is removed by means of a screw press, the remainder is sprayed through an atomizer nozzle into a drying chamber, where it remains at an elevated temperature for a short time to allow the water to evaporate without denaturing the gluten.
The process yields a flour-like powder with a 7% moisture content, which is air cooled and pneumatically transported to a receiving vessel. In the final step, the processed gluten is sifted and milled to produce a uniform product.

This flour-like powder, when added to ordinary flour dough, may help improve the dough's ability to increase in volume. The resulting mixture also increases the bread's structural stability and chewiness.
Gluten-added dough must be worked vigorously to induce it to rise to its full capacity, an automatic bread machine or food processor may be required for high-gluten kneading.
Generally, higher gluten levels are associated with higher overall protein content.

Imitation meats
Gluten, especially wheat gluten, is often the basis for imitation meats resembling beef, chicken, duck (see mock duck), fish and pork.
When cooked in broth, gluten absorbs some of the surrounding liquid (including the flavor) and becomes firm to the bite.
This use of gluten is a popular means of adding supplemental protein to many vegetarian diets. 
In home or restaurant cooking, wheat gluten is prepared from flour by kneading the flour under water, agglomerating the gluten into an elastic network known as a dough, and then washing out the starch.

Other consumer products
Gluten is often present in beer and soy sauce, and can be used as a stabilizing agent in more unexpected food products, such as ice cream and ketchup. 
Foods of this kind may therefore present problems for a small number of consumers because the hidden gluten constitutes a hazard for people with coeliac disease and gluten sensitivities. 
The protein content of some pet foods may also be enhanced by adding gluten.

Gluten is also used in cosmetics, hair products and other dermatological preparations.

Special breakfast foods and other cereals and foods, cattle food, adhesives, production of certain amino acids.

Gluten is a protein complex formed when water is kneaded with wheat flour which brings about the removal of a large portion of the starch. 
It forms the elastic framework of dough, entrapping the gas produced by the fermentation of leavening action which results in a risen dough of desired loaf volume and structure. 
gliadin is of lower molecular weight and provides extensibility as compared to glutenin, which is of higher molecular weight and contributes elas- ticity. 
gluten is available as wheat gluten, corn gluten, and zein. vital wheat gluten is the most widely used.

Wheat Gluten is the water-insoluble complex protein fraction sepa- rated from wheat flours. gum gluten is wheat gluten in its freshly extracted wet form. 
dry gluten is approximately 70–80% protein but is deficient in the amino acid lysine. 
It absorbs two to three times its weight in water. 
the differences in properties of wheat glu- ten in comparison to almost all other food proteins are largely due to the low polarity level of the total amino acid structure. 
most food proteins have polar group levels of 30–45% and have a net negative charge, while wheat gluten has a polar group level of approximately 10% with a net positive charge.
this results in the repulsion of excess water and the close association of the wheat gluten molecules and resistance to dispersion. 
in baked goods, this results in the ability to form adhesive, cohesive masses, films, and three-dimensional net- works. gluten formation is utilized in the baking industry to impart dough strength, gas retention, structure, water absorption, and retention with breads, cakes, doughnuts, and so on. 
It is also used as a formulation aid, binder, filler, and tableting aid. see gluten; vital wheat gluten.
Definition    A mixture of many proteins in which gliadin, glutenin, globulin, and albumin predominate. 
It occurs in highest percentage in wheat (Manitoba wheat contains approximately 12%) and also to some extent in other cereal grains, usually associated with starch.

General Description    
Gluten forms the chief storage protein fraction in a mature wheat grain. 
Gluten proteins can be divided into three main groups: high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS), and gliadins. 
Gluten has a great impact on the quality of a whole range of cereal-based foods.

Gluten is a family of storage proteins (formally known as prolamins)  that are naturally found in certain grains, such as wheat, barley, and rye.

Many prolamins fall under the gluten umbrella, but they’re most commonly identified by the specific grains in which they’re found. 
For instance, glutenins and gliadins are the prolamins in wheat, secalins are found in rye, and hordeins are found in barley .

In foods, gluten has a variety of functional culinary benefits. 
It gives many grain-based foods their soft chewy texture.

In bread, for instance, gluten proteins form an elastic network that stretches and traps gas, allowing the bread to rise and retain moisture.

Because of these unique physical properties, gluten is also frequently added to processed foods to improve texture and promote moisture retention.

Foods that contain gluten
Gluten may be found in a variety of whole and processed foods, including:

Grains: whole wheat, wheat bran, barley, rye, triticale, spelt, kamut, couscous, farro, semolina, bulgur, farina, einkorn, durum, wheat germ, cracked wheat, matzo, mir (a cross between wheat and rye)
Processed grain-based products: crackers, bread, breadcrumbs, pasta, seitan, wheat-containing soba noodles, some veggie burgers and other meat substitutes, cookies, pastries
Other foods and beverages: barley malt, malt vinegar, soy sauce, certain salad dressings, sauces or gravies thickened with flour, bouillon and some broths, certain spice blends, flavored chips, beer, certain kinds of wine and liquor, some processed meats.
Because gluten is often used in food production as a thickener or stabilizer, it’s not always clear whether a particular food contains it.

What’s more, many commercial food operations share preparation equipment with gluten-containing foods. 
Thus, even if a food is inherently gluten-free, it could be contaminated with gluten during processing.

If you follow a strict gluten-free diet and are unsure about a particular food’s gluten status, check the package for a gluten-free label or contact the manufacturer prior to purchasing it.

When it comes to gluten-free diets, oats are a bit of a conundrum.

One of the main issues with oats is that they’re frequently transported and processed with equipment that’s also used to process wheat. 
This leads to the widespread gluten contamination of oats, even if there isn’t mention of wheat or gluten on the product label.

Still, it’s easy to find oats that are certified and labeled gluten-free. Gluten-free oats are simply regular oats that have been processed using equipment and facilities that are free of gluten contamination.

However, some experts argue that there’s no such thing as gluten-free oats — even if they’re labeled as such.

That’s because oats contain a protein called avenin, whose structure is very similar to those of the proteins in gluten.

That said, the vast majority of current evidence suggests that most people with gluten-related disorders can tolerate gluten-free oats without issues.

In fact, uncontaminated oats are often encouraged for gluten-free diets due to their rich supply of fiber and essential nutrients.

Ultimately, more research is needed to better understand how the avenin in oats affects digestion and immune function in people with gluten-related disorders.

If you suspect that you may be intolerant to oats, talk with your healthcare professional.

Gluten is a family of proteins found in grains, including wheat, rye, spelt, and barley.

Of the gluten-containing grains, wheat is by far the most common.

Glutenin and gliadin are the two main proteins in gluten. 
Gliadin is responsible for most of the adverse health effects of gluten.

When flour mixes with water, the gluten proteins form a sticky network that has a glue-like consistency.

This glue-like property makes the dough elastic and gives bread the ability to rise during baking. 
It also provides a chewy, satisfying texture.

Interestingly, the name gluten derives from this glue-like property of wet dough.

Gluten is a storage protein found in wheat, barley and rye. 
Gluten can also be found in derivatives of wheat, barley and rye grains such as malt and brewer’s yeast. 
Gluten gives dough its elasticity, acting like a glue and giving bread its chewy, soft texture.

What Foods Contain Gluten?

Wheat Products (Triticum):
- Breads
- Pastas
- Cereals
- Sauces
- Candy Bars
- Flour
- Soups
- Bakery Items
- All species of wheat contain gluten, including durum, semolina, spelt, kamut, einkorn, faro and triticale (a hybrid of wheat and rye).

Barley Products (Hordeum vulgare):
- Soups
- Beer
- Malt
- Brewer’s Yeast
- Cereals

Rye Products (Secale):
- Certain Breads
- Cereals
- Beer
- Rye Flour
- Rye Milk
Any products containing triticale (a hybrid of wheat and rye).
Gluten is found in a wide variety of foods, even those you wouldn’t expect, such as soy sauce and even some french fries. 
Gluten can also be hidden in many foods as an additive, especially processed foods. 
Gluten can also sometimes be found in certain medications, personal hygiene products and more.

Gluten is a protein naturally found in some grains including wheat, barley, and rye. 
It acts like a binder, holding food together and adding a “stretchy” quality—think of a pizza maker tossing and stretching out a ball of dough. Without gluten, the dough would rip easily.

Other grains that contain gluten are wheat berries, spelt, durum, emmer, semolina, farina, farro, graham, khorasan wheat, einkorn, and triticale (a blend of wheat and rye). 
Oats—though naturally gluten free—often contain gluten from cross-contamination when they are grown near, or  processed in the same facilities as the grains listed above. 
Gluten is also sold as wheat gluten, or seitan, a popular vegan high-protein food. 
Less obvious sources of gluten include soy sauce and modified food starch, however gluten-free options of these products are available and labeled as such to comply with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s gluten-free labeling rule.

Gluten and Health Benefits
Gluten is most often associated with wheat and wheat-containing foods that are abundant in our food supply. 
Negative media attention on wheat and gluten has caused some people to doubt its place in a healthful diet. 
There is little published research to support these claims, in fact published research suggests the opposite.

In a 2017 study of over 100,000 participants without celiac disease, researchers found no association between long-term dietary gluten consumption and heart disease risk. 
In fact, the findings also suggested that non-celiac individuals who avoid gluten may increase their risk of heart disease, due to the potential for reduced consumption of whole grains.

Many studies have linked whole grain consumption with improved health outcomes. 
For example, groups with the highest intakes of whole grains including wheat (2-3 servings daily) compared with groups eating the lowest amounts (less than 2 servings daily) were found to have significantly lower rates of heart disease and stroke, development of type 2 diabetes, and deaths from all causes.

General description
Gluten forms the chief storage protein fraction in a mature wheat grain. 
Gluten proteins can be divided into three main groups: high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS), and gliadins. 
Gluten has a great impact on the quality of a whole range of cereal-based foods.
Gluten, a cohesive, visco-elastic proteinaceous material, is produced as a by-product of the isolation of starch from wheat flour. 
It is generally supplied in a dried state called vital wheat gluten.

Gluten from wheat has been used:
as a source of the total gluten protein to produce a gluten film to assess its viscoelastic properties at the mesostructure level
to study its effect on metabolic homeostasis in a murine model of diet-induced obesity
as a nitrogen source in gluten agar/gliadin agar (Glu-A/Gli-A) medium for gluten and gliadin hydrolysis assays

Biochem/physiol Actions
Gluten exhibits visco-elastic properties, which helps in preparing synthetic cheese with the texture and eating quality of natural cheese. 
It helps in fortifying low-protein bread flours. 
Gluten is majorly used in non-bakery foods as a meat replacement in vegetarian foods. 
It is also used in the production of seafood and crab analogs. 
Vital wheat gluten has a unique visco-elastic property that enhances dough strength, mixing tolerance, and handling properties.


Gluten (wheat)
gluten crude
gluten from wheat
Gluten (derivation unspecified)
75%vital wheat gluten
wheat Peptide
Top sale food grade Vital wheat gluten
Wheat peptide USP/EP/BP


  • Share !