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CAS NO.: 56-81-5
EC/LIST NO.:  200-289-5

Glycerin is an organic compound more formally known as glycerol. 
Common sources are animal fat and vegetable oil.
Glycerin is a clear, odorless liquid at room temperature and has a sweet taste. 
Glycerin is commonly used in soaps and is a common ingredient in many pharmaceutical fields.

The molecular formula of glycerin is C3H5 (OH) 3. 
Glycerin consists of a chain of three carbon atoms in which each carbon atom is attached to a hydrogen atom (H+) and a hydroxyl group (OH-). 
Each of the two terminal carbon atoms has an additional hydrogen atom so that all three carbon atoms form a total of four bonds. 
Carbon has a valence of four, meaning it has a tendency to form four bonds.

Glycerol (/ˈɡlɪsərɒl/),[6] also called glycerine in British English and glycerin in American English is a simple polyol compound. 
Glycerin is a colorless, odorless, viscous liquid that is sweet-tasting and non-toxic. 
The Glycerin backbone is found in lipids known as glycerides. 
Due to having antimicrobial and antiviral properties it is widely used in FDA approved wound and burn treatments. 
Conversely, it is also used as a bacterial culture medium.
Glycerin can be used as an effective marker to measure liver disease. 
Glycerin is also widely used as a sweetener in the food industry and as a humectant in pharmaceutical formulations. 
Owing to the presence of three hydroxyl groups, Glycerin is miscible with water and is hygroscopic in nature.

Although achiral, Glycerin is prochiral with respect to reactions of one of the two primary alcohols. 
Thus, in substituted derivatives, the stereospecific numbering labels the molecule with a "sn-" prefix before the stem name of the molecule

Glycerine (otherwise known as glycerin or glycerol) is a small, naturally occurring molecule that is used in a wide range of products including cosmetics, medicine and food. 
Glycerin is a thick, colourless, odourless, sweet tasting liquid that is used in cosmetics as thickener, and humecant or moisturiser. 
Glycerin is often recommended for people with very dry skin.

When you think ‘fat’, a lot of the fat you’re thinking of is actually three fatty acid molecules stuck on to a glycerine molecule. 
By getting rid of the fatty acids,  a pure glycerine can be produced. 
Glycerin can be made from either animal or plant fat so products containing it can still be vegan friendly.

This removal of fatty acids is the same process used to make soaps, and unless it is removed afterwards, soap will contain it. 
This is sometimes labelled as ‘glycerine soap’. 
Some manufacturers do remove it from their soap so that it can be used in other products.

Glycerin, also known as glycerol or glycerine, is a naturally occurring sugar alcohol compound. 
Sources of glycerin can include animal and plant fats. 
Manufacturers can also synthetically produce Glycerin. 
For vegetable glycerin, common sources include triglyceride-rich vegetable fats, such as soy, coconut, and palm oils.

Most vegetable glycerin comes as a byproduct of industrial chemical reactions. 
For example, vegetable oils can either undergo a process known as saponificationTrusted Source or transesterification to produce vegetable glycerin. 
These are common steps in the soap and biodiesel manufacturing processes. 
They involve heating the oils under pressure or together with either an alkaline or alcohol solution.

This process causes glycerin to split away from the fatty acids. 
Manufacturers can then extract the oderless, sweet tasting, syrup-like liquid known as glycerin.

Glycerine was traditionally a co-product of soap making, a process known as saponification. Historically it was of animal and fossil origin. 
Today we use 100% vegetable glycerine. 
Glycerin is produced from vegetable oils such as rapeseed, sunflower or palm oil rich in fatty acids, using a process that complies with the principles of green chemistry*. 
Glycerin is biodegradable and renewable. 

process using minimum energy and water and generating minimum waste

Glycerine, also often called glycerol or glycerin, is a colorless, odorless, syrupy liquid with a sweet flavor. 
In terms of chemical composition, glycerine is a trihydroxy sugar alcohol. 
The name Glycerin comes from the Greek word "glykys," which means "sweet."

Glycerine can be natural or synthetic. Natural glycerine is produced as a result of hydrolysis of animal or vegetable fats. 
Hydrolysis is when a substance reacts to water and a chemical bond breaks down as a result. 
Synthetic glycerine is produced through chemical processes involving petroleum, propylene and chlorine.

Chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele first discovered glycerine in 1778. 
However, glycerine had been around far before the 18th century. 
For example, soap-making using animal fats is described in Sumerian clay tablets dating back to the third millennium B.C. Today, glycerine has more than 1500 known end uses and can be found in products from cosmetics to foods.

Glycerine is found in many moisturizing skin care products and soaps. 
Glycerine is well-loved as a lotion and soap ingredient because it's a humectant. 
A humectant is a substance that pulls water from the second layer of the skin and brings it to the top layer of the skin. 
If the humidity is high, humectants also draw moisture from the air. 
As a result, glycerine hydrates skin, helps you shed dead skin cells and gives your skin a smooth, youthful glow.

Glycerin, also called glycerol, happens to be a colourless, odourless, sweet-tasting liquid that has a very thick, viscous consistency. 
A by-product of the soap-making process, this sugar and alcohol organic compound, is derived from both plant and animal sources and is used extensively in the beauty and pharmaceutical industry for its many benefits for health and beauty.

Glycerin is classified as a humectant which is basically a substance that helps retain moisture. 
Humectants help keep everything nice and moisturized without mucking up any of the other ingredients in the product. 
They’re like the people who stand at the sidelines of a marathon and hand cups of water to the participants—they keep everyone hydrated while staying out of the way of the runners.

This clear, odor-free liquid is a compound that has a sweet taste to it. 
In fact, you may know glycerin from food ingredients where it’s sometimes used as a sweetener or to keep food moist. 
Although there is such a thing as synthetic glycerin, the natural version, which is the one we use in our products, like our Crème de la Cream, is entirely plant-based.

Because of its versatility and ability to moisturize, it’s used in everything from lotions to soaps to toners.

Glycerin is a non-toxic, odorless and colorless alcoholic liquid usually found in animal fats and vegetable oils. 
A natural humectant or a skin-conditioner, glycerin keeps your skin hydrated, soft and supple. 
Glycerin also protects your skin from harmful environmental aggressors, while improving its texture.

Glycerin also treats several skin disorders, ranging from dry skin to wound healing. 
The ingredient has the potential of improving your overall internal health as well.

Glycerin, also known as glycerol, is a colorless, odorless sugar alcohol. 
Glycerin is a primary component of triglycerides, naturally-occurring fats present in most lipid-rich substances. 
Glycerin was first identified in 1779 by a Swedish scientist who inadvertently isolated the compound while making soap from olive oil. 
Though glycerin was historically derived from plant and animal fats, it can also be chemically synthesized. 
Glycerin non-toxic and has a thick, viscous texture, making it a popular ingredient in a wide range of products, including food, medications, and skincare. 
Here, we’ll just be focusing on the latter use.

In skincare, glycerin’s most popular use is as a humectant. 
Humectants are moisturizing ingredients that work by drawing water from the atmosphere to hydrate and soften the skin (other well-known humectants include hyaluronic acid and d-panthenol). 
Studies show that glycerin can penetrate the skin barrier and remain within the skin for continuous hydration for several days.
Glycerin also been shown to be the most effective humectant ingredient commonly used in skincare formulations. 
However, because of its thick texture, glycerin can leave a sticky or tacky residue on the skin if used excessively. 
As such, it’s often diluted with other moisturizing ingredients, like hyaluronic acid, which has a lightweight, almost watery texture (but can only penetrate the skin barrier effectively if the molecules are small enough).

Beyond consistency, glycerin and hyaluronic acid differ in their benefits, too: 
While both are hydrating, glycerin is also a particularly useful ingredient for those with sensitive or reactive skin.
Learn more about the differences between both of these popular ingredients for dry skin in our article Glycerin vs. Hyaluronic Acid: Which Should You Use?.

Back to glycerin specifically, it’s the primary ingredient in our best-selling Hydro-Plumping Re-Texturizing Serum Concentrate. 
This lightweight formula contains 15% glycerin and epidermal hydration filler to plump the look of dull skin and minimize the appearance of fine lines. 
The intensely hydrating formula is suitable for all skin types and can be used morning and night to promote a smoother, healthier-looking appearance.

Glycerin (C3H8O3), also known as glycerol and glycerine, is an odorless, colorless, oily, viscous liquid that has a sweet taste.

Synthetic glycerin is used in food products, nutritional supplements, pharmaceutical products, personal-care products, and oral-care products. 
In the pharmaceutical industry, glycerin is used as a sweetener in syrups, lozenges, and as an excipient in eyewash solutions. 
Glycerin my also be found in eardrop products, jellies and creams for topical use, in expectorants for congestion, suppositories, and gel capsules.

As an individual prescription product, glycerin has uses as a hyperosmotic, osmotic diuretic, and ophthalmic agent. 
Glycerin may be used as eye drop in the treatment of glaucoma to reduce intraocular pressure, as a solution or suppository for short-term treatment of constipation, to evacuate the bowel prior to colonoscopy, and in some ocular surgeries. 
Glycerin may be given intravenously to reduce pressure inside the brain, and used externally on the skin as a moisturizer. 
Glycerin has many other uses in the agricultural, food and pharmaceutical industry.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) classify glycerin as “generally recognized as safe” (GRAS). 
The overall risk of toxicity from glycerin found in pharmaceutical products is low. 
If one were to come into contact with large, bulk quantities of glycerin, eye irritation may occur. 
Skin irritation is unlikely unless the skin is damaged where contact occurs. 
Inhalational toxicity is low due to low volatility, but prolonged, excessive ingestion can cause elevated blood sugar or fat levels in the blood

Glycerin is an organic compound known more formally as glycerol. 
Glycerin common sources are animal fat and vegetable oil. 
Glycerin is a clear, odorless liquid at room temperature, and it has a sweet taste. 
Glycerin most commonly used in soap and is also a common ingredient in many pharmaceuticals.

Glycerin has the molecular formula C3H5(OH)3. 
Glycerin consists of a chain of three carbon atoms such that each carbon atom is bonded to a hydrogen atom (H+) and a hydroxyl group (OH-). 
Each of the two terminal carbon atoms has an additional hydrogen atom so that all three carbon atoms have a total of four bonds. 
Carbon has a valence of four, meaning that it has a tendency to form four bonds.

Glycerin is a moisturizing compound naturally found in all fats. 
Glycerin can also be made from vegetable oil or the fermentation of sugars, and can also be synthetically created in a lab.

Glycerin is a type of carbohydrate called a sugar alcohol, or polyol.  
Glycerin contains slightly more calories per gram than sugar and is 60–75% as sweet.  
Glycerin occurs naturally in fermented foods and beverages, including beer, honey, vinegar, wine and wine vinegar. 
Glycerin is also commercially produced from fats and oils or through the fermentation of yeast, sugar or starch. 
Glycerin is used in a variety of food and drink products, including various beverages, nutrition and energy bars, cake icings, soft candies, chewing gum, condiments, creams, diet foods, dried fruits, fondant, fudge and marshmallows. 
Glycerin’s safety has been confirmed by multiple global health authorities, including the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.  

Glycerine, also spelled as glycerin and known as glycerol, is an odorless and colorless liquid that can be found in nature. 
Glycerin typically made from vegetable or animal fat, but can be made synthetically as well.
However, at Camille Beckman we pride ourselves in using all natural, kosher glycerine in our products. 

Glycerine is an exceptionally good moisturising, emollient and protective agent.

Glycerin ability to capture and retain water slows down the evaporation of water from the surface of the skin.

The skin is better hydrated, more supple and protected. 
Glycerine is also a humectant (wetting agent), which promotes scalp hydration, disciplines the hair and improves curl definition.

Glycerine works as a humectant thanks to its chemical structure. 
Humectants are moisturising chemicals that grab and hold onto water. 
This improves the water retention ability of the skin when applied topically – helping to moisturise it. 
Glycerin has three water holding ‘hydroxyl’ groups on each molecule making it a great moisture magnet. 
Glycerin increases your skin’s ability to retain water and can help prevent dry and cracked skin.

Glycerin is also very viscous so it can increase the thickness of products it’s mixed into. 
Glycerin is used in liquid products to give them a better consistency and also in some icing for cakes to keep them soft.

Glycerin is generally obtained from plant and animal sources where it occurs in triglycerides, esters of glycerol with long-chain carboxylic acids . 
The hydrolysis, saponification, or transesterification of these triglycerides produces glycerol as well as the fatty acid derivative

Typical plant sources include soybeans or palm. 
Animal-derived tallow is another source. 
Approximately 950,000 tons per year are produced in the United States and Europe; 350,000 tons of glycerol were produced per year in the United States alone from 2000 to 2004.[
The EU directive 2003/30/EC set a requirement that 5.75% of petroleum fuels are to be replaced with biofuel sources across all member states by 2010. 
Glycerin was projected in 2006 that by the year 2020, production would be six times more than demand, creating an excess of glycerol 

Glycerin from triglycerides is produced on a large scale, but the crude product is of variable quality, with a low selling price of as low as 2-5 U.S. cents per kilogram in 2011.
Glycerin can be purified, but the process is expensive. 
Some Glycerin is burned for energy, but its heat value is low. 

Crude Glycerin from the hydrolysis of triglycerides can be purified by treatment with activated carbon to remove organic impurities, alkali to remove unreacted Glycerinesters, and ion exchange to remove salts.
High purity Glycerin (> 99.5%) is obtained by multi-step distillation; a vacuum chamber is necessary due to its high boiling point (290 °C).

In food and beverages, Glycerin serves as a humectant, solvent, and sweetener, and may help preserve foods. 
Glycerin is also used as filler in commercially prepared low-fat foods (e.g., cookies), and as a thickening agent in liqueurs. 
Glycerin and water are used to preserve certain types of plant leaves.
As a sugar substitute, it has approximately 27 kilocalories per teaspoon (sugar has 20) and is 60% as sweet as sucrose. 
Glycerin does not feed the bacteria that form a dental plaque and cause dental cavities.
As a food additive, Glycerin is labeled as E number E422. 
Glycerin is added to icing (frosting) to prevent it from setting too hard.

As used in foods, Glycerin is categorized by the U.S. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics as a carbohydrate. 
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) carbohydrate designation includes all caloric macronutrients excluding protein and fat. 
Glycerin has a caloric density similar to table sugar, but a lower glycemic index and different metabolic pathway within the body, so some dietary advocates  accept Glycerin as a sweetener compatible with low-carbohydrate diets.

Glycerin is also recommended as an additive when using polyol sweeteners such as erythritol and xylitol which have a cooling effect, due to its heating effect in the mouth, if the cooling effect is not wanted.

Glycerin is mildly antimicrobial and antiviral and is an FDA approved treatment for wounds. 
The Red Cross reports that an 85% solution of glycerin shows bactericidal and antiviral effects, and wounds treated with glycerin show reduced inflammation after roughly 2 hours. 
Due to this it is used widely in wound care products, including glycerin based hydrogel sheets for burns and other wound care. 
Glycerin is approved for all types of wound care except third degree burns, and is used to package donor skin used in skin grafts. 
There is no topical treatment approved for third degree burns, and so this limitation is not exclusive to glycerin. ]

Glycerin is used in medical, pharmaceutical and personal care preparations, often as a means of improving smoothness, providing lubrication, and as a humectant.

Ichthyosis and xerosis have been relieved by the topical use of glycerin.
Glycerin is found in allergen immunotherapies, cough syrups, elixirs and expectorants, toothpaste, mouthwashes, skin care products, shaving cream, hair care products, soaps, and water-based personal lubricants. 
In solid dosage forms like tablets, glycerol is used as a tablet holding agent. 
For human consumption, Glycerin is classified by the U.S. FDA among the sugar alcohols as a caloric macronutrient. 
Glycerin is also used in blood banking to preserve red blood cells prior to freezing.

Glycerin is a component of glycerin soap. 
Essential oils are added for fragrance. 
This kind of soap is used by people with sensitive, easily irritated skin because it prevents skin dryness with its moisturizing properties. 
Glycerin draws moisture up through skin layers and slows or prevents excessive drying and evaporation. 

Taken rectally, Glycerin functions as a laxative by irritating the anal mucosa and inducing a hyperosmotic effect, expanding the colon by drawing water into it to induce peristalsis resulting in evacuation.
Glycerin may be administered undiluted either as a suppository or as a small-volume (2–10 ml) enema. 
Alternatively, it may be administered in a dilute solution, e.g., 5%, as a high volume enema. 

Taken orally (often mixed with fruit juice to reduce its sweet taste), Glycerin can cause a rapid, temporary decrease in the internal pressure of the eye. 
This can be useful for the initial emergency treatment of severely elevated eye pressure. 

Research on the effects of probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri on Clostridium difficile grown in a laboratory found that when the probiotic was supplemented with glycerol, it converted it into the broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound reuterin. 
The reuterin acted as an antimicrobial agent, and worked as well as vancomycin to inhibit C. difficile growth. 
In addition, the researchers found that Glycerin or L. reuteri alone were not effective against C. difficile, and that the reuterin did not harm the good bacteria in the complex gut community. 

Glycerin has also been incorporated as a component of bio-ink formulations in the field of bioprinting.
The Glycerin content acts to add viscosity to the bio-ink without adding large protein, carbohydrate, or glycoprotein molecules.

When utilized in "tincture" method extractions, specifically as a 10% solution, Glycerin prevents tannins from precipitating in ethanol extracts of plants (tinctures). 
Glycerin is also used as an "alcohol-free" alternative to ethanol as a solvent in preparing herbal extractions. 
Glycerin is less extractive when utilized in a standard tincture methodology. 
Alcohol-based tinctures can also have the alcohol removed and replaced with Glycerin for its preserving properties. 
Such products are not "alcohol-free" in a scientific or FDA regulatory sense, as Glycerin contains three hydroxyl groups. 
Fluid extract manufacturers often extract herbs in hot water before adding Glycerin to make glycerites. 

When used as a primary "true" alcohol-free botanical extraction solvent in non-tincture based methodologies, Glycerin has been shown to possess a high degree of extractive versatility for botanicals including removal of numerous constituents and complex compounds, with an extractive power that can rival that of alcohol and water–alcohol solutions.
That Glycerin possesses such high extractive power assumes it is utilized with dynamic (i.e. critical) methodologies as opposed to standard passive "tincturing" methodologies that are better suited to alcohol. 
Glycerin possesses the intrinsic property of not denaturing or rendering a botanical's constituents inert like alcohols (i.e. ethyl (grain) alcohol, methyl (wood) alcohol, etc.) do. 
Glycerin is a stable preserving agent for botanical extracts that, when utilized in proper concentrations in an extraction solvent base, does not allow inverting or mitigates reduction-oxidation of a finished extract's constituents, even over several yers.
Both Glycerin and ethanol are viable preserving agents. 
Glycerin is bacteriostatic in its action, and ethanol is bactericidal in its action

Glycerin, along with propylene glycol, is a common component of e-liquid, a solution used with electronic vaporizers (electronic cigarettes). 
This Glycerin is heated with an atomizer (a heating coil often made of Kanthal wire), producing the aerosol that delivers nicotine to the user.

Like ethylene glycol and propylene glycol, Glycerin is a non-ionic kosmotrope that forms strong hydrogen bonds with water molecules, competing with water-water hydrogen bonds. 
This interaction disrupts the formation of ice. 
The minimum freezing point temperature is about −36 °F (−38 °C) corresponding to 70% Glycerin in water.

Glycerin was historically used as an anti-freeze for automotive applications before being replaced by ethylene glycol, which has a lower freezing point. 
While the minimum freezing point of a glycerol-water mixture is higher than an ethylene glycol-water mixture, Glycerin is not toxic and is being re-examined for use in automotive applications. 

In the laboratory, Glycerin is a common component of solvents for enzymatic reagents stored at temperatures below 0 °C due to the depression of the freezing temperature. 
Glycerin is also used as a cryoprotectant where the Glycerin is dissolved in water to reduce damage by ice crystals to laboratory organisms that are stored in frozen solutions, such as fungi, bacteria, nematodes, and mammalian embryos.

Glycerin is  used  to  produce  nitroglycerin,  which is an essential ingredient of various  explosives such as dynamite, gelignite, and propellants like cordite.
Reliance on soap-making to supply co-product  Glycerin made it difficult to increase production to meet wartime demand. 
Hence, synthetic  Glycerin processes were national defense priorities in the days leading up to World War II. 
Nitroglycerin, also known as glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) is commonly used to relieve angina  pectoris, taken in the form of sub-lingual tablets, patches, or as an aerosol spray. 
Trifunctional polyether polyols are produced from  Glycer in  and  propylene oxide.  
An oxidation of Glycerin affords mesoxalic acid.[
Dehydrating  Glycerin  affords  hydroxyacetone

Glycerin is used as a humectant, solvent and sweetener in food and beverages and helps preserve food.
Glycerin fixes the structure in ice cream.
Glycerin is used as a thickener in low-fat foods and as a thickener in liqueurs.
Glycerin is used instead of sugar. Its sweetness corresponds to 60% of sucrose, its calories are equivalent to that of table sugar, but it does not raise the level of sugar in the blood.
Glycerin  is used in cough syrups.
Glycerin is found in ointments applied externally to the skin in diabetes.
Glycerin is used as a suppository in constipation.
Glycerin is used as a solvent and lubricant in personal care products. Most toothpastes, mouthwashes, skin care products, shaving creams, hair care products contain glycerin.
Glycerin is used as a second ingredient in soap making.
Glycerin is used in candle making.
Glycerin is used as a humectant in hookah tobacco.
Because of its glucogenic effect, glycerin is an effective treatment tool in the ketosis of cattle. 
In ketosis, it is given orally at a dose of 225 g twice a day, then 115 g once a day.
Glycerin, which is a suitable vehicle for most pharmaceutical forms in animals, creates a drag effect by increasing intestinal contractions when used rectally as an enema or suppository. 
For this purpose, 25-30 g of glycerin is mixed with 250-500 ml of water and used as an enema.
Glycerin is used to prevent difficult stains such as ink from drying out and to remove the stain.
Glycerin is used in making dynamite. Dynamite can be made by combining triniglycerin and nitric acid.
Only when combined with nitric acid, it is used to make nitro glycerin, which is very strong.
Glycerin has anti-freeze properties.

This medication is used as a moisturizer to treat or prevent dry, rough, scaly, itchy skin and minor skin irritations (such as diaper rash, skin burns from radiation therapy). 
Emollients are substances that soften and moisturize the skin and decrease itching and flaking. 
Some products (such as zinc oxide, white petrolatum) are used mostly to protect the skin against irritation (such as from wetness).
Dry skin is caused by a loss of water in the upper layer of the skin. Emollients/moisturizers work by forming an oily layer on the top of the skin that traps water in the skin. 
Petrolatum, lanolin, mineral oil and dimethicone are common emollients. 
Humectants, including glycerin, lecithin, and propylene glycol, draw water into the outer layer of skin. 
Many products also have ingredients that soften the horny substance (keratin) that holds the top layer of skin cells together (including urea, alpha hydroxy acids such as lactic/citric/glycolic acid, and allantoin). 
This helps the dead skin cells fall off, helps the skin keep in more water, and leaves the skin feeling smoother and softer.

Glycerine is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry. 
In cosmetics, glycerine is one of the most frequently used ingredients for its moisturising and emollient properties.


1.2.3 propanetriol


1,2,3-Propanetriol [ACD/Index Name]
200-289-5 [EINECS]
203-809-9 [EINECS]
56-81-5 [RN]
635685 [Beilstein]
8043-29-6 [RN]
Bulbold [Trade name]
Cristal [Trade name]
Glicerol [Spanish] [INN]


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