THIOSULFURIC ACID = SODIUM THIOSULFATE
EC / LIST NUMBER: 231-867-5
CAS NUMBER: 7772-98-7
MOLECULAR FORMULA: NA2S2O3
Sodium thiosulfate (sodium thiosulphate) is an inorganic compound with the formula Na2S2O3.xH2O.
Typically Sodium thiosulfate is available as the white or colorless pentahydrate, Na2S2O3·5H2O.
The solid is an efflorescent (loses water readily) crystalline substance that dissolves well in water.
Sodium thiosulfate is an inorganic sodium salt composed of sodium and thiosulfate ions in a 2:1 ratio.
Sodium thiosulfate has a role as an antidote to cyanide poisoning, a nephroprotective agent and an antifungal drug.
Sodium thiosulfate contains a thiosulfate.
Sodium thiosulfate is used in gold mining, water treatment, analytical chemistry, the development of silver-based photographic film and prints, and medicine.
The medical uses of sodium thiosulfate include treatment of cyanide poisoning and pityriasis.
Sodium thiosulfate is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system.
Sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3, STS) is an industrial compound which has a long history of medical use.
Since Sodium thiosulfate is employed as a food preservative, the general population is widely exposed to this non-toxic compound.
For example, Sodium thiosulfate is typically added to table salt at less than 0.1% and to alcoholic beverages at less than 0.0005%.
Sodium thiosulfate is generally available as a non-prescription oral product.
Sodium thiosulfate may be used to lessen some of the side effects of cisplatin (a cancer medicine).
Sodium thiosulfate is also used with another medicine in the emergency treatment of cyanide poisoning.
Sodium thiosulfate (sodium hyposulfite), Na2S2O3, is used by photographers to fix developed negatives and prints; Sodium thiosulfate acts by dissolving the part of the silver salts coated onto film which remain unchanged by exposure to light.
This substance is registered under the REACH Regulation and is manufactured in and / or imported to the European Economic Area, at ≥ 1 000 to < 10 000 tonnes per annum.
Sodium thiosulfate is a commonly used chemical material, as the fixing agent in photography, film and printing plate-making industry, as a reducing agent used in tanning.
Sodium thiosulfate is used as a bleaching agent for removing residual and a mordant in the paper and textile industries, as antidotes of cyanide poisoning in medicine, as dechlorination agent and fungicides of drinking water and wastewater in water treatment, as a copper corrosion inhibitor of circulating cooling water and a deoxidizer of boiler water systems.
Sodium thiosulfate is also used for Cyanide wastewater treatment.
Soda ash and sulfur are generally used as raw materials in industry, soda ash reacts with sulfur dioxide produced by the combustion of sulfur to produce sodium sulfite, then add sulfur for boiling reactions, and then filter, bleach, concentrate and crystallize, etc, can obtain sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate.
Other production waste containing sodium sulfide, sodium sulfite, sulfur and sodium hydroxide can also be used, after appropriate treatment to the product.
Sodium thiosulphate is a colourless monoclinic crystal or a crystalline white powder which is odourless and salty.
The relative density for this is 1.667. Water-soluble, Its solubility at 100° C is 231 g/100 ml of vapour.
Insoluble in spirits.
Thiosulfuric acid (as sodium thiosulfate) has the chemical name thiosulfuric acid, disodium salt, pentahydrate.
The chemical formula is Na2S2O3•5H2O and the molecular weight is 248.17.
Sodium Thiosulfate Injection is a cyanide antidote which contains one 50 mL glass vial containing a 25% solution of Sodium Thiosulfate Injection.
Sodium thiosulfate has been indicated as antidote for cyanide poisoning.
Sodium thiosulfate is also used as adjunct agent for patients taking cisplatin chemotherapy.
This substance is used by consumers, by professional workers (widespread uses), in formulation or re-packing, at industrial sites and in manufacturing.
-Sodium thiosulfate is used in manufacture of the fixing powder and preparation of the photographic industry fixer, desiccant.
-Sodium thiosulfate is used as a reducing agent of dichromate in leather tanning industry.
-Sodium thiosulfate is an important inorganic chemical raw material.
-Sodium thiosulfate can be used in the synthesis of pesticides Bisultap, Thiosultap disodium, CARTAP and so on.
-Sodium thiosulfate is used as analytical reagents, mordant and fixer.
-Sodium thiosulfate is used as new insecticides, with stomach poisoning, uptake and contact action effects, Sodium thiosulfate can prevent and treat rice yellow stem borer, stem borer, leaf roller, rice thrips and vegetables, fruit pests.
-With uptake and strong contact, stomach poisoning effects, Sodium thiosulfate can prevent and treat various rice pests and vegetables, fruit pests.
-Sodium thiosulfate is used as the chlorine removal agent for Pulp and cotton fabric bleached, as chelating agents, anti-oxidants in the food industry, as detergents, disinfectants in the pharmaceutical industry.
-Sodium thiosulfate is used as chelating agents, antioxidants, anti-browning agent, as the dechlorination agent of chlortetracycline hydrochloride (or chlortetracycline) chilled with ice, dechlorination reaction is as follows:
-More chlorine content will cause side reactions of free sulfur, so only used for very dilute concentrations of chlorine.
-Sodium thiosulfate is used as salt chelating agent, limited content is 0.1% or less.
Sodium thiosulfate is used in the treatment of cyanide poisoning.
Other uses include topical treatment of ringworm and tinea versicolor, and treating some side effects of hemodialysis and chemotherapy.
Sodium thiosulfate is used in the following products: washing & cleaning products, pH regulators and water treatment products, adsorbents, metals, coating products, fillers, putties, plasters, modelling clay, metal surface treatment products, non-metal-surface treatment products, hydraulic fluids, leather treatment products, lubricants and greases, metal working fluids, photo-chemicals, polishes and waxes, textile treatment products and dyes, water treatment chemicals and welding & soldering products.
Sodium thiosulfate is used in the following areas: health services and scientific research and development.
Release to the environment of this substance can occur from industrial use: formulation of mixtures, in processing aids at industrial sites, as processing aid, formulation in materials, in the production of articles, manufacturing of the substance and of substances in closed systems with minimal release.
Other release to the environment of this substance is likely to occur from: indoor use (e.g. machine wash liquids/detergents, automotive care products, paints and coating or adhesives, fragrances and air fresheners) and outdoor use.
Sodium thiosulfate is a common analytical reagent used in iodometric titration to analyze chlorine, bromine, and sulfide.
Other uses are in bleaching paper pulp, bleaching straw, ivory, and bones, for removing chlorine from solutions, silver extraction from its ores, a mordant in dyeing and printing textiles, and as an antidote to cyanide poisoning.
Another major application is in photography, where it is used as a fixer to dissolve unchanged silver salts from exposed negatives.
Sodium Thiosulfate is used primarily as a medicament against cyanide poisoning, able to convert cyanide into thiocyanate, a reaction which is catalyzed by the enzyme Rhodanese.
Sodium Thiosulfate is a sequestrant, antioxidant, and formulation aid that is a powder soluble in water. it can be used in alcoholic bev- erages at 5 ppm and in table salt at 0.1%.
Sodium thiosulfate is also termed sodium hyposulfite.
Sodium thiosulfate (thiosulfate) Known simply as “hypo,” an abbreviated form of the incorrect form hyposulfite, this white crystal was made by boiling calcium thiosulfate with sodium sulfate.
Sodium thiosulfate is soluble in water and oil of turpentine but not in alcohol. The property of sodium thiosulfate to dissolve silver halides was discovered in 1819 by Sir John Herschel and was probably first used to fix photographic images by L. J. M. Daguerre. After Daguerre published its use in his 1839 manual W. H. F. Talbot finally used it to fix calotype negatives and silver chloride prints, although he continued to stabilize them with potassium iodide and sodium chloride presumably for the variety of colors possible. Sodium thiosulfate was the primary fixing agent throughout the 19th century and is still used today.
Na2S2O3 is a very important chemical compound in the medical treatment of cyanide poisoning cases.
Sodium thiosulfate is also used medically to treat dermatophytosis (ringworm) and tinea versicolor.
The side effects of chemotherapy and hemodialysis (purification of blood) are treated with Na2S2O3.
Sodium thiosulfate is a very important compound in analytical chemistry since it stoichiometrically reacts with iodine to reduce it to the iodide ion while it is oxidized to the S4O62- (tetrathionate) ion.
Sodium thiosulfate salts are used as photographic fixers due to the ability of the thiosulfate ions to react with silver halides, which make up photographic emulsions.
Ammonium thiosulfate and sodium thiosulfate make up lixiviants (liquid mediums used in hydrometallurgy) which are used in the extraction of gold from its ores.
In order to reduce the chlorine levels in water bodies, Sodium thiosulfate is used in the dechlorination process.
-Sodium thiosulfate is used in the following products: fillers, putties, plasters, modelling clay and photo-chemicals.
-Other release to the environment of this substance is likely to occur from: indoor use (e.g. machine wash liquids/detergents, automotive care products, paints and coating or adhesives, fragrances and air fresheners) and outdoor use in long-life materials with low release rate (e.g. metal, wooden and plastic construction and building materials).
USES AT INDUSTRIAL SITES:
-Sodium thiosulfate has an industrial use resulting in manufacture of another substance (use of intermediates).
-Sodium thiosulfate is used in the following areas: formulation of mixtures and/or re-packaging, mining, health services, printing and recorded media reproduction, building & construction work and municipal supply (e.g. electricity, steam, gas, water) and sewage treatment.
-This substance is used for the manufacture of: chemicals, textile, leather or fur, pulp, paper and paper products, mineral products (e.g. plasters, cement), metals, fabricated metal products, electrical, electronic and optical equipment and machinery and vehicles.
-Release to the environment of this substance can occur from industrial use: formulation of mixtures, in processing aids at industrial sites, as processing aid, formulation in materials, in the production of articles, of substances in closed systems with minimal release and manufacturing of the substance.
-Other release to the environment of this substance is likely to occur from: indoor use (e.g. machine wash liquids/detergents, automotive care products, paints and coating or adhesives, fragrances and air fresheners) and outdoor use.
-Sodium thiosulfate, commonly known as sodium thiosulphate, is a medicine that is used to treat cyanide poisoning, pityriasis versicolor, and cisplatin side effects.
-Sodium thiosulfate is frequently used after the drug sodium nitrite for cyanide poisoning and is usually only prescribed in severe situations.Sodium Thiosulfate is a toxin with a modest toxicity level.
-Large dosages may produce nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhoea, metabolic acidosis, and hypernatremia, as well as gastrointestinal discomfort.
-Sodium thiosulfate has two forms as anhydrous sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3) and sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate (Na2S2O3 · 5H2O), the latter is also known as soda and Hyperion. A molecular weight is 158.11 and 248.18 respectively.
-Anhydrous sodium thiosulfate is an opaque crystalline powder.
-The relative density is 1.667. It is odorless, salty taste, soluble in water, insoluble in ethanol.
-Sodium thiosulfate decomposes in acidic solution, has a strong reduction, easily absorbs moisture.
-Sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate is odorless, colorless and transparent monoclinic crystals or granules.
-The relative density is 1.685. The melting point is 48 ℃.
-Sodium thiosulfate loses all crystal water at 100 ℃, and decomposes above 100 ℃.
-Sodium thiosulfate is easily weathered in dry and hot air, slightly deliquescence in the hot and humid air.
-Sodium thiosulfate is soluble in water and turpentine, insoluble in ethanol, decomposes in case of strong acid.
-Prolonged exposure in the air, Sodium thiosulfate is easily oxidated and carbonized by oxygen and carbon dioxide.
-Anhydrous thiosulfate is a white powder; soluble in water; insoluble in ethanol.
-Sodium pentahydrate is a colorless, odorless, crystalline solid; density 1.69 g/cm3; decomposes around 50°C; effloresces in dry air above 33°C; very soluble in water and oil of turpentine; insoluble in ethanol.
-In its anhydrous form, sodium thiosulfate has a molar mass of 158.11 grams per mole. The more commonly available pentahydrate from, Na2S2O3.5H2O has a molar mass of 248.18 g/mol.
-Sodium thiosulfate has a white, crystalline appearance as a solid and is odourless.
-The density of sodium thiosulfate corresponds to 1.667 grams per cubic centimetres.
-The pentahydrate of this salt has a melting point of 321.4 K and a boiling point of 373 K.
-The solubility of sodium thiosulfate in water is 70.1g/100 mL at 20oC and 231g/100mL at 100o
-The crystal structure of Na2S2O3 crystals is monoclinic.
-Sodium thiosulfate is colorless monoclinic crystal or white crystalline powder, Odorless, salty ignorant.
-The relative density is 1.667.
-Soluble in water, the solubility is 231 g/100 ml of water at 100 ℃.
-Insoluble in alcohol.
-Deliquescence easily in air.
-With a strong reductibility, decomposition in acidic solution.
-Sodium thiosulfate, Na2S203·5H20, also known as sodium hyposulfite, hypo,andsodium subsulfite, is a white crystalline solid that has a melting point of 48 °C(118 °F).
-Water soluble, Sodium thiosulfate is used as a fixing agent for photographic films, plates, and papers.
-Sodium thiosulfate is used in medicine, as a germicide, in manufacturing leather, as a mordant in dyeing, and for extracting silver from ore.
-The sodium thiosulfate salt is neutral in charge.
-However, Sodium thiosulfate dissociates in water and some other polar solvents to yield Na+ and S2O32-
-Despite being stable at standard conditions, the sodium thiosulfate salt decomposes at high temperatures to yield sodium sulfate along with sodium polysulfide.
-Melting point: 48°C
-Boiling point: 100°C
-Density: 1.01 g/mL at 25 °C
-Storage temperature: 2-8°C
-Solubility: Immiscible with alcohol.
-Specific Gravity: 1.667
-PH: 6.0-8.5 (25℃, 50mg/mL in H2O)
-Water Solubility: Soluble in water. Insoluble in alcohol.
-Release to the environment of this substance can occur from industrial use: manufacturing of the substance, formulation of mixtures, formulation in materials, in processing aids at industrial sites, in the production of articles, as processing aid, as an intermediate step in further manufacturing of another substance (use of intermediates) and of substances in closed systems with minimal release.
-Other release to the environment of this substance is likely to occur from: indoor use (e.g. machine wash liquids/detergents, automotive care products, paints and coating or adhesives, fragrances and air fresheners).
-Two polymorphs are known of the pentahydrate.
-The anhydrous salt exists in several polymorphs.
-In the solid state, the thiosulfate anion is tetrahedral in shape and is notionally derived by replacing one of the oxygen atoms by a sulfur atom in a sulfate anion.
-The S-S distance indicates a single bond, implying that the terminal sulfur holds a significant negative charge and the S-O interactions have more double-bond character.
On an industrial scale, sodium thiosulfate is produced chiefly from liquid waste products of sodium sulfide or sulfur dye manufacture.
In the laboratory, this salt can be prepared by heating an aqueous solution of sodium sulfite with sulfur or by boiling aqueous sodium hydroxide and sulfur.
Sodium thiosulphate is an important chemical commodity that is known to photographers as "hypo".
Sodium thiosulfate can be prepared by the reaction of sodium sulphite and the bisulphite with H2S:
2Na2S03 + 2NaHS03 + 2H2S -> 3Na2S203 + 3H20
Sodium thiosulfate can also be prepared by the reaction of sulphur with sodium sulphite above 60 °C
Na2SO3 + S -> Na2S2O3 and by the reaction of H2S and permanganate.
Sodium thiosulphate decomposes at 310°C to form sulphur and Na2S03 , and at 400°C to form Na2S4 and Na2S.
Sodium thiosulfate absorbs S02 to form free sulphur and Na2S04 . Sodium thiosulphate forms many hydrates and their solubility relationships are quite complex.
Sodium thiosulfate is generated by heat of a solution of sodium sulfite and sulfur powder.
There are more synthesis methods of sodium thiosulfate, such as sodium sulfite method, sodium sulfide method and so on.
A raw material liquid formulated from sodium sulfide evaporation residue, barium sulfide wastewater (containing sodium carbonate and sodium sulfide) reacts with sulfur dioxide, sulfur powder was added after clarification, heated to react, evaporation, cooling crystallization, washing, separation, screening to obtain sulfur thiosulfate products.
Reaction equation: 2Na2S + Na2CO3 + 4SO2 = 3Na2S2O3 + CO2 ↑
2Na2S + 3Na2CO3 + 6SO2 + 2S = 5Na2S2O3 + 3CO2 ↑
Dehydration method is that heat sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate crystalline indirect with steam, Sodium thiosulfate dissolves into itself crystal water, concentration, centrifugal dewatering, drying, screening, to obtain the finished product of anhydrous sodium thiosulfate.
Na2S2O3 · 5H20 → Na2S2O3 + 5H2O.
Thiosulfuric acid, disodium salt
Sodium thiosulfate, anhydrous
Thiosulfuric acid (H2S2O3), disodium salt
disodium sulfanidesulfonate pentahydrate
Sodio Tiosulfato 5-hidrato