TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL = THC = MARINOL
CAS Number: 1972-08-3
EC Number: 625-153-6
MDL number: MFCD00083207
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the principal psychoactive constituent of cannabis and one of at least 113 total cannabinoids identified on the plant.
Although the chemical formula for Tetrahydrocannabinol (C21H30O2) describes multiple isomers, the term THC usually refers to the Delta-9-THC isomer with chemical name (−)-trans-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol.
Like most pharmacologically active secondary metabolites of plants, Tetrahydrocannabinol is a lipid found in cannabis, assumed to be involved in the plant's evolutionary adaptation, putatively against insect predation, ultraviolet light, and environmental stress.
Tetrahydrocannabinol, along with its double bond isomers and their stereoisomers, is one of only three cannabinoids scheduled by the UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances (the other two are dimethylheptylpyran and parahexyl).
The pharmaceutical formulation dronabinol is an oily and viscous resin provided in capsules available by prescription in the United States, Canada, Germany, and New Zealand.
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), better known as Tetrahydrocannabinol, is the marijuana plant's primary component for causing psychoactive effects.
Tetrahydrocannabinol was first discovered and isolated by Bulgarian-born chemist Raphael Mechoulam in Israel in 1964.
When smoked, tetrahydrocannabinol is absorbed into the bloodstream and travels to the brain, attaching itself to the naturally-occurring endocannabinoid receptors located in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and basal ganglia.
These are the parts of the brain responsible for thinking, memory, pleasure, coordination and movement.
Tetrahydrocannabinol is an active ingredient in Nabiximols, a specific extract of Cannabis that was approved as a botanical drug in the United Kingdom in 2010 as a mouth spray for people with multiple sclerosis to alleviate neuropathic pain, spasticity, overactive bladder, and other symptoms.
In 2021, Tetrahydrocannabinol was approved for medical use in Ukraine.
Cannabinol was isolated and identified from Cannabis sativa in 1940, and Tetrahydrocannabinol was isolated and
Tetrahydrocannabinol's structure elucidated by synthesis in 1964.
As with many aromatic terpenoids, Tetrahydrocannabinol has a very low solubility in water, but good solubility in lipids and most organic solvents, specifically hydrocarbons and alcohols.
A total synthesis of Tetrahydrocannabinol was reported in 1965; that procedure called for the intramolecular alkyl lithium attack on a starting carbonyl to form the fused rings, and a tosyl chloride mediated formation of the ether.
In the Cannabis plant, Tetrahydrocannabinol occurs mainly as tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA, 2-COOH-THC).
Geranyl pyrophosphate and olivetolic acid react, catalysed by an enzyme to produce cannabigerolic acid, which is cyclized by the enzyme Tetrahydrocannabinol acid synthase to give THCA.
Over time, or when heated, THCA is decarboxylated, producing Tetrahydrocannabinol.
The pathway for THCA biosynthesis is similar to that which produces the bitter acid humulone in hops.
Tetrahydrocannabinol can also be produced in genetically modified yeast.
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the psychoactive substance that produces the “high” associated with smoking marijuana.
Tetrahydrocannabinol(THC), active constituent of marijuana and hashish that was first isolated from the Indian hemp plant (Cannabis sativa) and synthesized in 1965.
Tetrahydrocannabinol stands for delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol or Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ-9-THC).
Tetrahydrocannabinol is a cannabinoid molecule in marijuana (cannabis) that's long been recognized as the main psychoactive ingredient—that is, the substance that causes people who use marijuana to feel high.
Tetrahydrocannabinol is just one of more than 500 different substances—and 100 different cannabinoid molecules—in marijuana.
Tetrahydrocannabinol acts much like the cannabinoid chemicals made naturally by the body.
Cannabinoid receptors are concentrated in certain areas of the brain associated with thinking, memory, pleasure, coordination and time perception.
Tetrahydrocannabinol attaches to these receptors and activates them and affects a person's memory, pleasure, movements, thinking, concentration, coordination, and sensory and time perception.
Tetrahydrocannabinol is one of many compounds found in the resin secreted by glands of the marijuana plant.
More of these glands are found around the reproductive organs of the plant than on any other area of the plant.
Other compounds unique to marijuana, called cannabinoids, are present in this resin.
One cannabinoid, CBD is nonpsychoactive, according to the National Center for Biotechnology Information, and actually blocks the high associated with Tetrahydrocannabinol.
Tetrahydrocannabinol is a light yellow resinous oil.
Tetrahydrocannabinol can be extracted from marijuana, or synthesized.
Delta-8 tetrahydrocannabinol, also known as delta-8 Tetrahydrocannabinol, is a psychoactive substance found in the Cannabis sativa plant, of which marijuana and hemp are two varieties.
Delta-8 tetrahydrocannabinol is one of over 100 cannabinoids produced naturally by the cannabis plant but is not found in significant amounts in the cannabis plant.
Concentrated amounts of delta-8 tetrahydrocannabinol are typically manufactured from hemp-derived cannabidiol (CBD).
Tetrahydrocannabinol is a chemical in cannabis (marijuana) plants and cannabis smoke.
Tetrahydrocannabinol is the main psychoactive ingredient in cannabis.
Tetrahydrocannabinol is present in cannabis concentrates known as Tetrahydrocannabinol extractions, and informally called dabs, honey oil, budder, or wax.
Tetrahydrocannabinol is also found in a wide range of other products, such as Tetrahydrocannabinol-containing vaping liquids and edible cannabis-containing items, including candy and baked goods.
Tetrahydrocannabinol is a compound that is present in cannabis
Delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol is an analogue of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), with potential antiemetic, anxiolytic, appetite-stimulating, analgesic, and neuroprotective activities.
Delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-8-THC) binds to the cannabinoid G-protein coupled receptor CB1, located in the central nervous system; CB1 receptor activation may inhibit adenyl cyclase, increase mitogen-activated protein kinase activities, modulate several potassium channel conductances and inhibit N- and P/Q-type Ca2+ channels.
Delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol exhibits a lower psychotropic potency than delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC), the primary form of THC found in cannabis.
Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol is the principle active ingredient derived from the cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa).
Dronabinol is the INN for the pure, synthetically produced (-)-trans-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol isomer of tetrahydrocannabinol.
Tetrahydrocannabinol is one of the 113 chemical compounds found only in the plant genus Cannabis, which scientists call cannabinoids.
Tetrahydrocannabinolis unique among all the rest for one, massively important reason:
Tetrahydrocannabinol is the most potently psychoactive.
THC is an acronym for the unwieldy and eight-syllable full name of the chemical compound in weed that makes you high Tetrahydrocannabinol.
Tetrahydrocannabinol's chemical name is (–)-trans-delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol if you want to get really technical.
Delta-9 Tetrahydrocannabinol Is Psychoactive.
Tetrahydrocannabinol stimulates or “activates” specific psychological responses generally, but not always, associated with euphoria.
Tetrahydrocannabinol is psychoactive because Tetrahydrocannabinol affects the mind.
Of course, the mind and body are connected, and therefore the psychoactive effects of Tetrahydrocannabinol are both psychological and physiological.
Tetrahydrocannabinol or THC, as Tetrahydrocannabinol is abbreviated, is the psychoactive substance in cannabis which is also known as weed, marijuana, ganja, hash, pot, mary jane or the various other names that people have given Tetrahydrocannabinol.
Tetrahydrocannabinol itself has very low toxicity.
The researchers concluded that Tetrahydrocannabinol is not a drug of addiction when compared to morphine.
Tetrahydrocannabinol is the psychoactive ingredient in marijuana that produces the feeling of being high.
Tetrahydrocannabinol, also called tetrahydrocannabinol, is the compound in cannabis that is psychoactive and gives you the feeling of being high.
Tetrahydrocannabinol's chemical make-up, C₂₁H₃₀O₂, is very similar to its counterpart, CBD, which actually combats the effects of Tetrahydrocannabinol.
Tetrahydrocannabinol has the chemical formula C₂₁H₃₀O₂, with a molecular mass of 314.464 g/mol.
Tetrahydrocannabinol is very similar in structure and molecular mass to Tetrahydrocannabinol's counterpart CBD, which dilutes the effects of Tetrahydrocannabinol.
Tetrahydrocannabinol, also known as THC, Δ9-THC, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol), Δ1-tetrahydrocannabinol (using an older numbering scheme), or dronabinol, is the main psychoactive substance found in the Cannabis plant.
Tetrahydrocannabinol was isolated by Raphael Mechoulam, Yechiel Gaoni, and Habib Edery from the Weizmann Institute in Rehovot, Israel in 1964.
In pure form, Tetrahydrocannabinol is a glassy solid when cold, and becomes viscous and sticky if warmed.
An aromatic terpenoid, Tetrahydrocannabinol has a very low solubility in water, but good solubility in most organic solvents such as butane or hexane.
As is the case with nicotine and caffeine, the role of Tetrahydrocannabinol in Cannabis is to protect the plant from herbivores or pathogens.
Tetrahydrocannabinol also possesses high UV-B (280-315 nm) absorption properties, protecting the plant from harmful radiation.
In the cannabis plant Tetrahydrocannabinol occurs mainly as tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid (THC-COOH).
The enzymatic condensation of geranyl pyrophosphate and olivetolic acid gives cannabigerolic acid which is cyclized by the enzyme Tetrahydrocannabinol acid synthase to give Tetrahydrocannabinol-COOH.
Heating decarboxylates the acid to Tetrahydrocannabinol.
Tetrahydrocannabinol is better known by Tetrahydrocannabinol's abbreviated name THC.
The Cannabis sativa plant manufactures and secretes a resin, primarily through glands called trichomes.
This resin contains many compounds.
In and around the flowers of the plant you can find a concentration of trichomes.
They are more abundant than in any other area with one of the most plentiful being called cannabinoids.
Tetrahydrocannabinol is also called dronabinol.
Tetrahydrocannabinol was first isolated by Raphael Mechoulam, Yechiel Goani, and Habib Edery.
All came from the Weizmann Institute in Rehovot, Israel, in 1964.
Tetrahydrocannabinol has very low solubility in water in Tetrahydrocannabinol's pure form.
Tetrahydrocannabinol has good solubility in most organic solvents and oils.
When cold, Tetrahydrocannabinol is a glassy solid.
Tetrahydrocannabinol becomes viscous and sticky when warmed.
Tetrahydrocannabinol is mainly metabolized to 11-OH-Tetrahydrocannabinol (11-hydroxy-THC) by the human body with metabolization occurring in the liver.
There, Tetrahydrocannabinol is processed by cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4.
These metabolites are still psychoactive and are further oxidized to 11-nor-9-carboxy-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH).
More than 100 metabolites have so far been identified.
11-OH-TTetrahydrocannabinol and Tetrahydrocannabinol-COOH are the primary ones.
Tetrahydrocannabinol has a long history of being used for medicinal purposes.
Archaeological records for Tetrahydrocannabinol stretch back as far as 3,000 years.
In recent years, the scientific and medical community have also increased their research into the benefits of medical Tetrahydrocannabinol.
Tetrahydrocannabinol has great potential for helping patients treat and manage a range of symptoms and diseases.
Tetrahydrocannabinol, in short THC, is one of the naturally occurring phytocannabinoids found in the Cannabis plant, known for Tetrahydrocannabinol's psychoactive properties.
Tetrahydrocannabinol in Cannabis seems to protect the plant from herbivores or pathogens.
Tetrahydrocannabinol is a chemical shield that protects the plant from Ultraviolet ( UV) light
Tetrahydrocannabinol is a self-defense mechanism that protects the plant from environmental stress
Tetrahydrocannabinol is found in the trichomes of the Cannabis plant.
Capitate stalked trichomes (large) contains tetrahydrocannabinol acid ( THCA), cannabidiolic acid ( CBDA), cannabigerolic acid ( CBGA) including their decarboxylated derivatives Tetrahydrocannabinol, THC, cannabidiol, CBD, and cannabigerol, CBG.
Tetrahydrocannabinol produces most of the classical pharmacological effects that include changes in mood, perception, and motivation.
The discovery of the two most important compounds of Cannabis, Tetrahydrocannabinol, and CBD led to the discovery of the endocannabinoid system.
The role of Tetrahydrocannabinol in Cannabis is that Tetrahydrocannabinol seems to protect the plant from herbivores or pathogens.
Capitate stalked trichomes contain abundant cannabinoids.
They include THCA, CBDA, CBGA, and their decarboxylated derivatives Tetrahydrocannabinol, CBD, and CBG.
Cannabis contains the active ingredient delta-9 TetraHydroCannabinol (THC), which affects brain function.
The flowers and leaves of the cannabis plant are dried, then smoked or eaten for the psychoactive effects of TetraHydroCannabinol, which can alter perception and mood.
The dried flowers (heads) of the cannabis plant have a high TetraHydroCannabinol concentration.
Cannabis oil, which can be extracted from the heads or leaves of the plant, is a concentrated form of cannabis and also has high levels of TetraHydroCannabinol.
Delta 9 is the form of Tetrahydrocannabinol that most people are familiar with.
Tetrahydrocannabinol is a cannabinoid molecule that is found in hemp and marijuana plants alike.
The full scientific name for Delta 9 is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol.
Some people choose to just call delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol ‘delta 9.’
Delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol is one of many significant cannabinoids that can be found in abundance within cannabis plants.
Extracting Delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol is usually relatively cheap and easy.
Tetrahydrocannabinol is well known by many that use medicinal marijuana and hemp plant products daily, and Tetrahydrocannabinol is perhaps most well known for its psychoactive properties in high doses.
Tetrahydrocannabinol is just one of 400 active substances and compounds derived from hemp and medical cannabis plants more commonly known as marijuana.
Tetrahydrocannabinol is one of the 124 known cannabinoids that are commonly sought after for Tetrahydrocannabinol's medicinal properties.
THCV is similar to Tetrahydrocannabinol in that they look the same; however, a subtle chemical difference makes this compound behave a little differently from the better-known Tetrahydrocannabinol counterpart.
When people smoke marijuana get get high, they are feeling the effects of mainly the delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol variant.
The isolation of the Tetrahydrocannabinol compound from others has proven easy for chemists.
Just as scientists are able to isolate CBD from the hemp plant, they can also isolate delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol from the marijuana plant.
The future of Tetrahydrocannabinol is a little better than bright; Tetrahydrocannabinol has shown the remarkable possibility for Tetrahydrocannabinol's use in everyday life.
Researchers and the medical field are showing a lot of interest in Tetrahydrocannabinol.
Like the THCV compound, Tetrahydrocannabinol's features and properties mean that Tetrahydrocannabinol will be beneficial for a long time compared to the other cannabinoids that exist.
Tetrahydrocannabinol's mixture with other cannabinoids and reactions at receptors CB1 and CB2 are still relatively unknown.
We know that Tetrahydrocannabinol is a receptor antagonist at CB1 and a partial receptor agonist at CB2.
Tetrahydrocannabinol works with the human endocannabinoid system (ECS).
Tetrahydrocannabinol influences how we experience stress and anxiety.
Tetrahydrocannabinol impacts how we sleep, eat, and even the levels of hormones in the body.
We do know Tetrahydrocannabinol has a strong binding affinity, which is most likely why people get high when consuming Tetrahydrocannabinol.
Tetrahydrocannabinol is most known for Tetrahydrocannabinol's ability to offer psychoactive effects through how Tetrahydrocannabinol responds to the ECS and interacts with it.
The way Tetrahydrocannabinol interacts with the ECS means that the compound offers a wide range of benefits for the user.
The possible therapeutic benefits of Tetrahydrocannabinol are still unknown, and we don’t know Tetrahydrocannabinol's effects and functions in the body.
Tetrahydrocannabinol's formula is C19H24O4.
Tetrahydrocannabinol's molar mass is 330.4 g/mol.
Delta-9 Tetrahydrocannabinol does have an ability to produce high psychoactive effects in high doses.
Delta-9 Tetrahydrocannabinol is considered to be more potent when compared to Delta-8 Tetrahydrocannabinol.
When using any delta-9 Tetrahydrocannabinol products, you will need to start with a low dose and work your way up to a higher dose.
How you consume Tetrahydrocannabinol will also depend on how you feel.
Smoked Tetrahydrocannabinol products go straight into your lungs and you tend to feel the effects a little faster.
The different ways that Tetrahydrocannabinol affects you is also dependent on how much you consume and whether you have consumed Tetrahydrocannabinol on a full or empty stomach.
Tetrahydrocannabinol products are sold in several different forms, from vape products, tinctures to edibles and drops; you will find many different forms in which you will find your favorite CBD products.
Weed describes the whole plant, while delta 9 is just one type of Tetrahydrocannabinol within that plant.
Delta-8-Tetrahydrocannabinol smells just like marijuana, but it is legal for sale in all smoke, CBD shops and dispensaries across Minnesota.
Delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol – Tetrahydrocannabinol – is a cannabis product in which the chemical makeup is far less potent in making consumers high than delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol.
Delta-9 Tetrahydrocannabinol is the compound found in marijuana that produces the high people experience while smoking or consuming marijuana.
Delta-9 Tetrahydrocannabinol is also the active chemical ingredient found in medically prescribed marijuana.
Delta-8 Tetrahydrocannabinol differs from delta-9 Tetrahydrocannabinol in that it is a molecular isomer of delta-9Tetrahydrocannabinol, meaning Delta-8 Tetrahydrocannabinol has the same number of atoms of each element, but they are arranged differently and therefore have a different chemical effect.
While delta-8 Tetrahydrocannabinol might smell like regular marijuana, Delta-8 Tetrahydrocannabinol has a much milder impact on consumers.
Currently, delta-8 Tetrahydrocannabinol is legal for sale in 32 states.
Any hemp product that does not contain more than 0.3% of delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol can be sold legally.
Delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC) is the main psychoactive element of cannabis.
Delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol is one of many dozens of cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant, although at this point, by far the best known and most studied.
Delta 8 Tetrahydrocannabinol is the less potent cousin of Delta 9Tetrahydrocannabinol.
Female cannabis plants contain at least 113 cannabinoids – most of which have not been studied at all – either independently or in conjunction with Tetrahydrocannabinol.
The research that has been done on cannabinoid interaction so far seems to suggest that Cannabidiol (CBD), the second-best-known cannabinoid, has a moderating impact on the psychoactive impact of Tetrahydrocannabinol.
Tetrahydrocannabinol impacts cannabinoid receptors found in the brain and body in many different ways.
In the brain, Tetrahydrocannabinol stimulates brain cells to release dopamine, which has euphoric effects.
Tetrahydrocannabinol can cause relaxation, both anxiety and anxiety relief, psychomotor impairment and freedom and pain relief.
Tetrahydrocannabinol is produced and found mostly near the reproductive areas of the cannabis plant.
Once consumed, Tetrahydrocannabinol can be detected in blood, urine, hair, saliva, and sweat.
Tetrahydrocannabinol requires the application of heat to release Tetrahydrocannabinol's properties.
Until heat is applied to the raw plant, Tetrahydrocannabinol exists as a compound known as THCa (or tetrahydrocannabinolic acid).
THCa is not psychoactive, which is why users do not get “high” by eating the raw and untreated plant.
THCa possesses some of the same therapeutic benefits of Tetrahydrocannabinol but not all of them.
THCa is converted to Tetrahydrocannabinol through a process called decarboxylation when exposed to high temperatures.
When smoked, the effects of Tetrahydrocannabinol are felt almost instantaneously and last for up to three hours.
If Tetrahydrocannabinol is eaten, the effects of the drug will usually kick in within two hours of consumption and last as long as five to eight hours.
While ongoing use creates “tolerance” – requiring users to use more of Tetrahydrocannabinol to feel the same “high”.
USES and APPLICATIONS of TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL:
-Tetrahydrocannabinol has various therapeutic properties.
-Tetrahydrocannabinol has ability to reduce chronic pain, nausea, as well as vomiting caused by chemotherapy.
-There are positive Tetrahydrocannabinol effects against spasticity from MS.
-FDA has approved a synthetic form of Tetrahydrocannabinol as an appetite stimulant and an antiemetic for AIDS and chemotherapy patients.
-Other conditions for which Tetrahydrocannabinol shows great promise include:
*Appetite loss and eating disorders such as anorexia
*Cancer and controlling tumor growth
*Mental health conditions like post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
*Wasting syndrome (cachexia)
-Tetrahydrocannabinol has been approved by the FDA as an appetite stimulant for people with AIDS and an antiemetic for people receiving chemotherapy under the trade names Marinol and Syndros.
-Tetrahydrocannabinol is used recreationally, but Tetrahydrocannabinol has a number of medicinal uses as well.
-Marijuana has been used for medicinal purposes for thousands of years, although scientific research on its use to alleviate and treat illness is still relatively recent.
-Some of the ailments that Tetrahydrocannabinol may help include:
*Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
*Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
*Opioid use disorder
*Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
*Symptoms associated with HIV/AIDS
-The FDA has also approved the synthetic Tetrahydrocannabinol medication dronabinol and a drug containing a synthetic substance similar to Tetrahydrocannabinol known as nabilone.
-Tetrahydrocannabinol is used to treat vomiting and nausea caused by chemotherapy and low appetite and weight loss caused by HIV/AIDS.
-Tetrahydrocannabinol is also used to treat nausea and vomiting.
-According to the National Cancer Institute, marijuana has been used for medicinal purposes for more than 3,000 years.
-Tetrahydrocannabinol is used to treat or prevent the nausea and vomiting associated with cancer medicines and to increase the appetites of people with AIDS, according to the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
-Studies are showing more evidence that, when used properly, Tetrahydrocannabinol has many additional medical benefits.
-Tetrahydrocannabinol may be able to improve memory when taken in small doses.
-Today, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is used in the medical field to deal with certain types of pain, muscle cramps, dizziness and loss of appetite.
-Tetrahydrocannabinol is the main ingredient in a pill that is currently used to treat nausea in cancer chemotherapy patients and to stimulate appetite in patients with wasting due to AIDS.
-Tetrahydrocannabinol can treat a range of psychological disorders related to trauma.
-Tetrahydrocannabinol may help ease things like:
*Multiple sclerosis pain
*Parkinson's disease tremors
Tetrahydrocannabinol is a powerful anti-inflammatory drug.
Inflammation is an underlying factor that contributes to or complicates a wide range of diseases, which means tetrahydrocannabinol has a role to play in treating all of them.
From autoimmune diseases to neuro-degenerative disorders like multiple sclerosis to depression, cannabis has demonstrated its potency as a therapeutic treatment.
The potential to use cannabis as part of a cancer treatment is one of the most promising of Tetrahydrocannabinol's benefits.
-Tetrahydrocannabinol’s far more likely that a physician will prescribe cannabis as a treatment for the harsh side-effects of cancer treatments like chemotherapy and radiation.
Studies are beginning to identify the “cancer-killing” properties of tetrahydrocannabinol.
Tetrahydrocannabinol can cause cancer cells to eat themselves.
Tetrahydrocannabinol can cause shrunken tumors and a reduction in the prevalence of cancer cells.
In addition to helping people with PTSD process and forget traumatic memory associations, tetrahydrocannabinol’s short-term effects can improve mood disorders like depression and anxiety.
Tetrahydrocannabinol can help people with ADHD.
One of the most popular medical uses for Tetrahydrocannabinol is as a pain-reliever.
Compared to the dangerous and addictive opioids that are flooding the pharmaceutical market in the United States, cannabis is incredibly safe.
From temporary muscle soreness to constant neuropathic pain, Tetrahydrocannabinol's ability to reduce information and stimulate the release of dopamine—just like opioids—make Tetrahydrocannabinol such a powerful medicine for treating pain and related symptoms.
Inducing euphoria and relaxation, two effects associated with Tetrahydrocannabinol's recreational use, are also helpful for treating sleep disorders.
Around 1 out of every 3 people experience some form of insomnia.
While prescription sleep aids can help in the short term, they’re ineffective and sometimes dangerous with long-term use.
Cannabis relaxes both mind and body.
Certain strains have stronger sedative effects than others.
Even the FDA has recognized Tetrahydrocannabinol's ability to soothe pain and reduce nausea and other symptoms related to gastrointestinal distress.
Thanks to endocannabinoid receptors in the digestive tract, cannabis can help folks suffering from severe GI-tract diseases like Crohn’s and irritable bowel syndrome.
-Tetrahydrocannabinol’s new strains boasting previous unheard of Tetrahydrocannabinol concentrations, new devices for obtaining and consuming cannabis concentrates, or new techniques for produces the highest quality edibles, the recreational market is no doubt one of the most exciting emerging horizons in the cannabis industry worldwide.
-Tetrahydrocannabinol has shown anti-proliferative activity to certain types of brain tumour and prostate cancer cells.
-Synthetic Tetrahydrocannabinol- called dronabinol - and Tetrahydrocannabinol's analogue nabilone have been used for many years in the US and Canada to treat vomiting and nausea induced by cancer chemotherapy.
-When taken in conjunction with other drugs, cannabis has been shown to alleviate some symptoms of multiple sclerosis and arthritis.
-Tetrahydrocannabinol actually brags several health benefits that have been shown to help treat depression, PTSD, epilepsy, and even eating disorders.
-Tetrahydrocannabinol has a variety of uses, both medicinal and recreational.
-Tetrahydrocannabinol can be used in syrups, edibles, oils used via tinctures, drops, in medicines, and topicals including lotions and balms used for anti-inflammation.
-Tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabis can also be used on animals like dogs for pain relief and calming anxiety.
-A number of studies indicate that Tetrahydrocannabinol may provide medical benefits for cancer and AIDS patients by increasing appetite and decreasing nausea.
-Tetrahydrocannabinol is used in the form of cannabis by a number of multiple sclerosis patients to relieve the spasms and pain associated with their condition.
-Tetrahydrocannabinol can prevent Alzheimer's Disease by counteracting the activation of microglia and thus inducing the inflammation of microglia binding to amyloid protein.
-Preliminary research on synthetic Tetrahydrocannabinol has been conducted on patients with Tourette syndrome, with results suggesting that Tetrahydrocannabinol may help in reducing nervous tics and urges by a significant degree.
-Recent studies with synthetic Tetrahydrocannabinol show that activation of CB1 receptors can facilitate neurogeneration, as well as neuroprotection, and can even help prevent natural neural degradation from neurodegenerative diseases such as MS, Parkinson's, and Alzheimer's.
-Tetrahydrocannabinol at extremely high concentrations, which could not be reached with commonly-consumed doses, caused inhibition of plaque formation, the cause of Alzheimer's disease, better than currently-approved drugs.
-Tetrahydrocannabinol may also be an effective anti-cancer treatment.
-Tetrahydrocannabinol compound can treat neurological ailments, help bone growth, and is a stimulant and offers the user euphoria.
-Tetrahydrocannabinol is a psychoactive drug.
-THC (delta 9) is used to treat several different conditions, including:
*Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
*Reducing opioid use
*Symptoms associated with HIV/AIDS
WHAT is TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL:
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta-9-THC) is the primary psychoactive ingredient in marijuana; depending on the particular plant, either Tetrahydrocannabinol or cannabidiol is the most abundant cannabinoid in marijuana.
The effects of Tetrahydrocannabinol are included among the effects of marijuana, but not all the effects of marijuana are necessarily due to Tetrahydrocannabinol.
Cannabinoids are produced in epidermal glands on the leaves (especially the upper ones), stems, and the bracts that support the flowers of the marijuana plant.
Although the flower itself has no epidermal glands, cannabis has the highest cannabinoid content anywhere on the plant, probably because of the accumulation of resin secreted by the supporting bracteole (the small leaf-like part below the flower).
Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Delta-8-Tetrahydrocannabinol are the only compounds in the marijuana plant that produce all the psychoactive effects of marijuana.
Because Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol is much more abundant than Delta-8-Tetrahydrocannabinol , the psychoactivity of marijuana has been attributed largely to the effects of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol.
All recent studies have indicated that the behavioral effects of Tetrahydrocannabinol are receptor mediated.
Neurons in the brain are activated when a compound binds to its receptor, which is a protein typically located on the cell surface.
Thus, Tetrahydrocannabinol will exert its effects only after binding to its receptor.
Binding to a receptor triggers an event or a series of events in the cell that results in a change in the cell’s activity, its gene regulation, or the signals that it sends to neighboring cells.
Tetrahydrocannabinol is created in nature when a plant-produced precursor, a cannabinolic acid, loses a carboxyl group due to heat (the sun, cooking, burning, etc.) and becomes tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) – a cannabis plant’s natural defense against predators and disease. At maturity, the Tetrahydrocannabinol-rich brachs (seed coverings) fall off, and birds eat the hard seeds inside.
Some seeds inevitably pass through the birds’ bodies, thus propagating the plant.
Many neurological effects are ascribed to Tetrahydrocannabinol, but a major aspect appears to be rapid release and uptake of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine.
Pure Tetrahydrocannabinol, a greasy yellow substance, was first identified and characterized by Hebrew University chemist Raphael Mechoulam in 1964.
Tetrahydrocannabinol was later synthesized by Czech chemist Theodor Petrzilka who reacted olivitol with paramenthadyanol and isolated Tetrahydrocannabinol using a chromatography column.
In 1985, synthetic Tetrahydrocannabinol called Marinol was approved as a medicine by the FDA.
Tetrahydrocannabinol finds brain cells, or neurons, with specific kinds of receptors called cannabinoid receptors.
Tetrahydrocannabinol binds to these receptors.
When Tetrahydrocannabinol attaches to a neuron, Tetrahydrocannabinol interferes with normal communication between neurons.
Certain parts of the brain have high concentrations of cannabinoid receptors.
These areas are: the hippocampus, the cerebellum, the basal ganglia, and the cerebral cortex.
Tetrahydrocannabinol also does a number on the basal ganglia, another part of the brain that’s involved in movement control.
Tetrahydrocannabinol , the main active ingredient in marijuana, produces effects that potentially can be useful for treating a variety of medical conditions.
Scientists are continuing to investigate potential medical uses for cannabinoids.
IMPACTS of TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL:
Tetrahydrocannabinol's effects come from binding to the cannabinoid receptors – CB1 in the central nervous system and CB2 in the immune system.
Partial activation of CB1 leads to Tetrahydrocannabinol's psychoactive effects.
These receptors are involved in a range of physiological functions, from memory retention to blood pressure, controlled by endocannabinoids.
These naturally occurring signalling molecules, endocannabinoids bear relatively little structural resemblance to THC.
They are mostly derivatives of arachidonic acid - a long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid, whereas Tetrahydrocannabinol is an aromatic terpenoid containing three rings.
People who have used any of the derivatives of cannabis have been exposed to its multiple effects, one of which is appetite stimulation.
Tetrahydrocannabinol stimulates the release of a neurotransmitter called dopamine in the brain, which is what causes feelings of euphoria.
People using Tetrahydrocannabinol may experience:
-Altered perception of time
-Feelings of relaxation
-Heightened sensory perception
Tetrahydrocannabinol stimulates cells in the brain to release dopamine, creating euphoria, according to NIDA.
Tetrahydrocannabinol also interferes with how information is processed in the hippocampus, which is part of the brain responsible for forming new memories.
On average, the effects last about two hours, and kick in 10 to 30 minutes after ingestion.
Tetrahydrocannabinol is the main psychoactive compound in cannabis, which triggers a response to the main psychoactive component in cannabis—turns on our CB1 receptor.
This causes the release of hunger hormones.
There is currently no record to tell when, how, or who discovered the Tetrahydrocannabinol compound.
Tetrahydrocannabinol is formed from the THCA compound after being exposed to heat, light, and/or time.
Tetrahydrocannabinol undergoes the chemical reaction known as decarbonization, just like other cannabinoids.
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol), CBN (Cannabinol), CBT (Cannabidiol), THCV (tetrahydrocannabivarin), and other constituents of the cannabis plant are said to stem from the continuous oxidation of CBGVA.
When you consume cannabis, you introduce its cannabinoids into your body.
Once inside, they’re metabolized and enter the bloodstream.
From there, they bind to receptors CB1 and CB2, which are concentrated in the brain and central nervous system.
There are 10 times more CB1 receptors in the brain than μ-opioid receptors, which are responsible for the effects of morphine.
CB2 receptors hang out exclusively on the cells of the immune system.
Cannabis has significant medicinal applications, in addition to its more popular recreational uses.
Tetrahydrocannabinol isn’t the only cannabinoid that can bind to CB1 and CB2 receptors.
When Tetrahydrocannabinol does, the ECS stimulates the release of dopamine in the brain, creating a sense of euphoria and relaxation.
CB1 receptors throughout the brain and nervous system modulate movement, memory, cognition, sensory perceptions, and even time perception.
Tetrahydrocannabinol “over activates” the functions typically regulated by the ECS, like mood, appetite, cognition, and perception.
It’s the sum total of all of these changes that creates the overall sensation we love to call “being high”.
It accounts for why everyone’s high is unique, and why highs can vary from buzzed to baked to way, way too high.
Tetrahydrocannabinol doesn’t just bind to receptors in your brain.
Cannabinoids can also act on ECS receptors all through the body, creating a range of beneficial effects.
There are receptors in the immune system, which is why Tetrahydrocannabinol can act as a powerful anti-inflammatory, but can also reduce the immune system’s effectiveness.
In the digestive tract, Tetrahydrocannabinol can stimulate the release of the “hunger hormone” ghrelin and help ease nausea.
There are even CB2 receptors in our skin.
Cannabis topical creams are quickly becoming popular as pain relievers and skincare products.
The ability to absorb Tetrahydrocannabinol into the skin means people can use the cannabinoid for therapeutic benefits without the psychotropic effects.
Tetrahydrocannabinol is considered a “neuroprotectant.”
Tetrahydrocannabinol can protect brain cells from damage caused by inflammation and stress.
Tetrahydrocannabinol can relieve pain and muscle spasticity.
Tetrahydrocannabinol can also promote the growth of new brain cells via neurogenesis.
Tetrahydrocannabinol also has noted anti-inflammatory impacts.
Since the beginning of the century, the medical impact of marijuana, starting with Tetrahydrocannabinol, has become a global phenomenon.
Most of this is because of the ability of Tetrahydrocannabinol to treat medical conditions better than existing “conventional” medications.
HEALTH BENEFITS of TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL:
Researchers are optimistic about Tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabis' health benefits.
There have also been countless reports of the many health benefits of Tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabis.
Although still speculative, Tetrahydrocannabinol has been shown to potentially help increase appetite in eating disorder patients, help with neurodegenerative diseases, and even potentially help cancer patients.
Studies have shown that Tetrahydrocannabinol may help patients with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, as well as provide pain relief for some patients.
Tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabis have several proven benefits, including relieving symptoms like vomiting for chemotherapy patients and providing pain relief.
While normal, FDA-approved pharmaceuticals actively change receptor processes in the body, Tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabis apparently work a bit differently by capitalizing on natural processes.
When we use Tetrahydrocannabinol, we are capitalizing on our own endocannabinoid system
We make endocannabinoids, and we have CB1 and CB2 receptors, so when you use cannabinoids, you're actually using those receptors, whereas traditional pharmaceuticals either block or stimulate processes. But modulation is what cannabinoids use, which is a much better process.
With small amounts of Tetrahydrocannabinol, the appetite can be controlled without unwanted side effects such as depression, sadness, and insomnia.
While the science is not fully formulated, Tetrahydrocannabinol shows promise.
Blood sugar regulation and lowering insulin resistance are all amazing effects of using Tetrahydrocannabinol for diabetes.
-Epilepsy and Other Seizures:
Tetrahydrocannabinol, and Tetrahydrocannabinol derivatives, have long been used within the medical community to reduce the severity of seizures.
The minor cannabinoid acts as an anti-convulsant, and Tetrahydrocannabinol has been shown to reduce the frequency and severity of seizures in many patients.
Tetrahydrocannabinol can also help reduce post-seizure brain fog leaving the patient clear-headed.
Studies have shown that doctors and health care professionals can treat cognitive decline and other negative mental impacts of schizophrenia using delta-9 Tetrahydrocannabinol and delta-8 Tetrahydrocannabinol.
Tetrahydrocannabinol is great at triggering the release of serotonin via the use of the endocannabinoid system.
Focus and clear-headed feelings can offer some relief for patients that are suffering from schizophrenia.
Delta-9 Tetrahydrocannabinol has shown promise in most people suffering from issues related to bones and bone health.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CBD AND TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL:
Firstly, cannabinoids are synthesized and accumulated as cannabinoid acids in the plant.
Only when the plant is dried, stored, and heated, the acids gradually decarboxylize and gets converted to CBD or Tetrahydrocannabinol.
In the same vein, it is noteworthy to mention that although both CBD, Tetrahydrocannabinol , CBG, CBN, and other cannabinoids are present in the cannabis plant, its biosynthesis occurs according to a genetically determined ratio.
Cannabis growers and research institutions grow different varieties for a multitude of purposes.
Tetrahydrocannabinol and CBD share the same molecular formula C21H30O2.
That is twenty-one atoms of carbon, thirty atoms of hydrogen, and two atoms of oxygen.
But the arrangement of these atoms is different and interact with the body differently.
But CBD does not affect locomotor activity, body temperature, or memory on its own.
Thus, CBD and Tetrahydrocannabinol have almost different and opposing effects.
Both CBD and Tetrahydrocannabinol interact with the endocannabinoid system.
But their interactions with the receptors ( CB1 & CB2) have different influences on the physiological and brain functions.
Tetrahydrocannabinol stimulates the CB1 receptors.
It is a partial agonist of CB1 and CB2 receptors impacting memory, concentration, and coordination, and leaves a euphoric effect.
Tetrahydrocannabinol is a partial agonist at CB1 and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2)
CBD alters the shape of the CB1 receptors, stopping THC or CB1 agonists to stimulate the receptor.
That is why CBD does not produce psychotropic effects.
CBD interacts with other receptors that connect with pain, inflammation, anxiety, and inhibits it.
CBD or Cannabidiol, is another cannabinoid found in abundance in the Cannabis plant.
Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabinol share a very similar chemical composition.
However, there is one slight difference, in their atomic arrangements.
Both Tetrahydrocannabinol and CBD are considered cyclic compounds.
One or more of the atoms in the compounds connect to form a ring.
So, while CBD has an open ring, Tetrahydrocannabinol has a closed ring.
This minor difference in their arrangements causes them to interact with our endocannabinoid systems in very different ways.
Tetrahydrocannabinol and CBD have very similar molecular structures.
They do have very different psychological and physiological effects.
Tetrahydrocannabinol is being defined by what cannabis makes you feel.
The effects of CBD are being defined by what you can’t feel.
This is because Tetrahydrocannabinol gets you ‘high’ while CBD won’t.
The reason for this is the different ways Tetrahydrocannabinol and CBD interact with our bodies.
CB1 and CBD 2 receptors are two components of our endocannabinoid system.
This is the body’s unique system that regulates homeostasis.
Controlling sleep, stress, as well as our immune system.
The “high” associated with Tetrahydrocannabinol is caused due to its strong binding affinity with cannabinoid receptors.
In particular with the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 receptors).
This is because Tetrahydrocannabinol starts its intoxicating and psychedelic effects via the CB1 receptors.
Those are found mainly in the central nervous system and the brain.
When CB1 receptors are activated, cells in the brain are stimulated to release dopamine.
CBD has no binding affinity with the CB1 receptors, in contrast to Tetrahydrocannabinol.
Therefore, CBD has no intoxicating effect on your perception or sensorial experiences.
When CBD is taken with Tetrahydrocannabinol, Research also suggests, it can block the “high” associated with Tetrahydrocannabinol.
This is possible because it suppresses Tetrahydrocannabinol’s CB1-activating qualities and protects you from getting too high.
Both Tetrahydrocannabinol and CBD are present in the Cannabis sativa plant.
CBD is the dominant cannabinoid found in the hemp plant.
Hemp plants contain only small amounts of Tetrahydrocannabinol (<0.3%).
Tetrahydrocannabinol is found most abundantly in other species of Cannabis.
Those species are bred in the first place, to maximize the Tetrahydrocannabinol content to produce more powerful intoxicating effects.
The concentration of Tetrahydrocannabinol in Cannabis, referes to its potency.
This explains the amount of Tetrahydrocannabinol in a Cannabis flower or product.
Tetrahydrocannabinol potency can be expressed in milligrams of Tetrahydrocannabinol per gram of product (mg/g).
Another way would be as a percentage of milligrams of Tetrahydrocannabinol per gram of Cannabis.
Dried flower Cannabis with 100% Tetrahydrocannabinol content is impossile.
Cannabis extracts (which have been distilled) can contain up to 90% Tetrahydrocannabinol.
As a natural product of course, the Tetrahydrocannabinol content in a dried flower Cannabis product may vary from product to product.
Tetrahydrocannabinol content will even vary between different lots of the same strain.
Despite the two compounds having almost exact chemical makeups and being part of those that make up cannabis, Tetrahydrocannabinol and CBD act rather differently.
Tetrahydrocannabinol is the psychoactive component in marijuana that gives you the feeling of being high - however, CBD acts as a counterbalance to the effects of Tetrahydrocannabinol .
While Tetrahydrocannabinol induces drowsiness and gives you that body-high, CBD can actually increase energy.
CBD can often help moderate Tetrahydrocannabinol's effects by reducing anxiety or stress.
CBD (cannabidiol) and Tetrahydrocannabinolare the most common cannabinoids found in cannabis products.
Tetrahydrocannabinol and CBD are in both marijuana and hemp.
Marijuana contains much more Tetrahydrocannabinol than hemp, while hemp has a lot of CBD.
As the legal use of hemp and other cannabis products grows, consumers are becoming more curious about their options.
This includes cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), two natural compounds found in plants of the Cannabis genus.
Hemp and cannabis come from the Cannabis sativa plant.
Legal hemp must contain 0.3 percent THC or less. CBD is sold in the form of gels, gummies, oils, supplements, extracts, and more.
Tetrahydrocannabinol is the main psychoactive compound in cannabis that produces the high sensation.
Tetrahydrocannabinol can be consumed by smoking cannabis.
Tetrahydrocannabinol is also available in oils, edibles, tinctures, capsules, and more.
Both compounds interact with your body’s endocannabinoid system, but they have very different effects.
CBD and Tetrahydrocannabinol are two of the most prominent cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant.
Both cannabis and hemp produce CBD and Tetrahydrocannabinol.
Cannabis has a higher concentration of Tetrahydrocannabinol.
Hemp has a higher concentration of CBD.
The average cannabis strain today contains about 12 percent Tetrahydrocannabinol.
CBD oil may contain small amounts of THC because it’s present at low levels in the hemp plant.
CBD and Tetrahydrocannabinol have the same chemical formula -- 21 carbon atoms, 30 hydrogen atoms, and two oxygen atoms.
The difference lies in the way the atoms are arranged.
That gives CBD and Tetrahydrocannabinol different chemical properties, and they affect your body differently.
Both CBD and Tetrahydrocannabinol work with receptors that release neurotransmitters in your brain.
They can affect things like pain, mood, sleep, and memory.
Both CBD and Tetrahydrocannabinol have the exact same molecular structure: 21 carbon atoms, 30 hydrogen atoms, and 2 oxygen atoms.
A slight difference in how the atoms are arranged accounts for the differing effects on your body.
Both CBD and Tetrahydrocannabinol are chemically similar to your body’s endocannabinoids.
This allows them to interact with your cannabinoid receptors.
The interaction affects the release of neurotransmitters in your brain.
Neurotransmitters are chemicals responsible for relaying messages between cells and have roles in pain, immune function, stress, and sleep, to name a few.
-How CBD and THC Affect the Body:
Tetrahydrocannabinol is the main psychoactive compound in marijuana.
Tetrahydrocannabinol is what makes people feel "high."
We have two types of cannabinoid receptors in our bodies.
Tetrahydrocannabinol binds with receptors -- mostly in the brain -- that control pain, mood, and other feelings.
Tetrahydrocannabinol can make you feel euphoric and give you that so-called high.
CBD doesn't cause that high.
Instead, CBD's thought to work with other elements in the body linked to feelings of well-being.
People take CBD products to help with everything from arthritis and Crohn's disease to diabetes and multiple sclerosis.
Some say CBD helps with anxiety, insomnia, and chronic pain. So far, there's little evidence that CBD helps with any of these.
The FDA has approved one CBD-based drug.
CBD is a hot topic for researchers.
The National Institutes of Health clinical trials database shows more than 160 trials involving CBD that are either active or recruiting.
Some states authorize the use of Tetrahydrocannabinol as part of medical marijuana, Tetrahydrocannabinol may help ease things like:
*Multiple sclerosis pain
*Parkinson's disease tremors
CBD and Tetrahydrocannabinol have many of the same medical benefits.
They can provide relief from several of the same conditions.
CBD is used to help with other various conditions, such as:
*psychosis or mental disorders
*inflammatory bowel disease
Tetrahydrocannabinol is used to help with the following:
Some states have made recreational marijuana with Tetrahydrocannabinol legal for personal use.
As part of the Farm Bill in December 2018, Congress legalized hemp.
Currently, Tetrahydrocannabinol is legal medically in 29 states, while recreational marijuana is legal in 9 states and Washington D.C.
Recent reports indicate legalization may begin becoming more widespread.
-CBD vs. Tetrahydrocannabinol: Psychoactive components
Despite their similar chemical structures, CBD and Tetrahydrocannabinol don’t have the same psychoactive effects.
CBD is psychoactive, just not in the same manner as Tetrahydrocannabinol.
CBD doesn’t produce the high associated with Tetrahydrocannabinol.
CBD is shown to help with anxiety, depression, and seizures.
Tetrahydrocannabinol binds with the cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptors in the brain.
Tetrahydrocannabinol produces a high or sense of euphoria.
CBD binds very weakly, if at all, to CB1 receptors.
Cannabinoids like Tetrahydrocannabinol and CBD are stored in the body’s fat.
They can show up on drug tests for several days or weeks after you use them.
Not every drug test will be able to detect CBD, but CBD-sensitive tests are available.
Most standard drug tests will look for chemicals related to Tetrahydrocannabinol.
Likewise, hemp can produce some Tetrahydrocannabinol in addition to CBD, so a test could be positive for Tetrahydrocannabinol even if you haven’t used Tetrahydrocannabinol.
CONCENTRATIONS of TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL in CANNABIS:
When Tetrahydrocannabinol is exposed to air, Tetrahydrocannabinol degrades into cannabinol, a cannabinoid that has its own psychological effects.
Tetrahydrocannabinol concentration also depends on the cultivation of the marijuana plant, known scientifically as Cannabis sativa L.
A type of cannabis that has a minimal amount of Tetrahydrocannabinol , as low as 0.5 percent, is hemp, according to the North American Industrial Hemp Council.
Hemp is used for industrial and medical purposes.
Some strains of cannabis can have as little as 0.3 percent Tetrahydrocannabinol by weight.
In other strains, Tetrahydrocannabinol makes up 20 percent of the weight in a sample.
The average Tetrahydrocannabinol concentration in marijuana is 1 to 5 percent; in hashish, Tetrahydrocannabinol concentration is 5 to 15 percent, and in hashish oil, Tetrahydrocannabinol concentration averages 20 percent.
Tetrahydrocannabinol in recreational doses of marijuana is highly variable and the lower the Tetrahydrocannabinol content in the marijuana, the more the user must consume to produce the desired effects.
Today's marijuana is much more potent, with tetrahydrocannabinol concentration levels increasing from 9.75% in 2009 to 13.88% in 2019.
For comparison purposes, the tetrahydrocannabinol content of marijuana back in the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s was under 2%, increasing to around 4% in the 1990s.
Some strains today have an even higher content, such as a strain called "Girl Scout Cookie" that contains as much as 28% tetrahydrocannabinol.
The amount of tetrahydrocannabinol contained in marijuana varies by the way that the cannabis is prepared for use, such as leaf/bud, hashish, or hashish oil.
Tetrahydrocannabinol levels may exceed 50% in products made from marijuana extracts.
There are a few methods for extracting cannabinoids from the herbaceous matter of dried cannabis flowers.
Some are safer than others.
But the objective for each of them is the same: extract the maximum amount of cannabinoids and terpenes from the cannabis plant.
Butane, CO2 and alcohol extraction methods each have their own merits.
And each is able to produce cannabis concentrates with Tetrahydrocannabinol concentration levels around 90 percent or higher.
Compare that to the average of 25-30 percent Tetrahydrocannabinol boasted by the most potent cannabis strains, and you can see why concentrates have become so popular among recreational users.
In final form, concentrates are rich and flavorful substances with an amber color and sticky, gooey texture.
They can be consumed purely, or mixed with edible waxes, oils and tinctures in the forms of beverages and tasty treats.
One method of consuming concentrates has catapulted to popularity among recreational users: dabbing.
Dabbing is the process of super-heating a glass or metallic element, placing a dab of concentrate on it, and inhaling the ensuing vapors.
Concentrate extraction removes all the bitter plant matter from the cannabis.
Yet it maintains the presence of the plant terpenes that give cannabis its taste and smell.
Hence, the experience of dabbing, or inhaling the vapor of sublimated concentrates, provides incomparably rich flavors compared to just smoking flowers.
Dabbing affords recreational users a massive dose of tetrahydrocannabinol, far greater than any herbaceous cannabis could provide.
In other words, dabbing will make you higher than you ever thought possible, and certainly higher than you could get otherwise.
Yet for some, inhaling vapors with upwards of 90 percent tetrahydrocannabinol creates too strong of an effect.
This can tip the euphoria of a good high into the anxiousness of a bad one.
In that case, recreational users seek out strains with high Tetrahydrocannabinol concentrations.
Here are some of the most potent Tetrahydrocannabinol-dominant strains around.
*Godfather OG // Indica // 34.04 percent Tetrahydrocannabinol
*Super Glue // Hybrid // 32.14 percent Tetrahydrocannabinol
*Strawberry Banana // Hybrid // 31.62 percent Tetrahydrocannabinol
*Venom OG Kush // Indica // 31.04 percent Tetrahydrocannabinol
RESEARCH on EFFECTS of TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL:
Cannabis is legalized for medical uses in more than half of the states of the United States.
In April 2014, the American Academy of Neurology found evidence supporting the effectiveness of the cannabis extracts in treating certain symptoms of multiple sclerosis and pain.
A 2015 review confirmed that medical marijuana was effective for treating spasticity and chronic pain.
-Multiple sclerosis symptoms:
Based on the results of 3 high quality trials and 5 of lower quality, oral cannabis extract was rated as effective, and Tetrahydrocannabinol as probably effective, for improving people's subjective experience of spasticity.
Oral cannabis extract and Tetrahydrocannabinol both were rated as possibly effective for improving objective measures of spasticity.
*Centrally mediated pain and painful spasms:
Based on the results of 4 high quality trials and 4 low quality trials, oral cannabis extract was rated as effective, and Tetrahydrocannabinol as probably effective in treating central pain and painful spasms.
Based on a single high quality study, oral cannabis extract and Tetrahydrocannabinol were rated as probably effective for controlling bladder complaints in multiple sclerosis.
FORMS of TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL:
Tetrahydrocannabinol is often smoked as marijuana (dried leaves of the Cannabis plant), but there are actually a number of different ways Tetrahydrocannabinol can be used.
Tetrahydrocannabinol can be consumed by:
This is the fastest method of delivery and produces the quickest psychoactive effects, often within minutes.
Tetrahydrocannabinol can be inhaled via smoking, vaping, or dabbing.
Tetrahydrocannabinol can be taken by mouth in the form of capsules, edibles, tinctures, or oils.
While this method of delivery takes longer to have an effect, the drug's effects tend to last longer.
Tetrahydrocannabinol can also be included in lotions, balms, salves, oils, and bath salts that are then applied to the skin.
The effects of this method are usually localized, which means that they are unlikely to have psychoactive effects.
Such products may be helpful for reducing pain and inflammation.
Tetrahydrocannabinol can also be consumed as lozenges, sprays, or dissolvable strips that are placed under the tongue and dissolved.
THE EFFECT of TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL WHEN HEATED:
Technically speaking, the cannabinoid that appears in cannabis is THCA.
The “A” designates its acidic form.
It takes heat to convert THCA to the psychoactive delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol.
That’s why you have to apply a flame to dried cannabis.
Not just to combust the buds to produce smoke to inhale, but to actually activate the Tetrahydrocannabinol.
That activation process is called decarboxylation, or “decarb” for short.
Decarbing your cannabis is an absolutely indispensable step when making edibles.
Without heat, you’re just eating a bunch of raw THCA.
But heating Tetrahydrocannabinol to the point of decarboxylation is challenging.
It’s too easy to apply too much heat, which results in boiling off the tetrahydrocannabinol completely.
TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL in CBD PRODUCTS:
With the popularity of CBD, there has been a major market shift toward producing a seemingly endless variety of CBD products.
Some of these products may contain traces of THC (around 0.3% to 0.9%), depending on how they're formulated.
This small concentration is highly unlikely to result in a high feeling, and some experts argue that the effectiveness of CBD is potentiated by small amounts of THC.
HOW TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL WORKS:
Tetrahydrocannabinol works by attaching to the body's cannabinoid receptors, which are found throughout the brain and nervous system.
Tetrahydrocannabinol can be detected in the body much longer than most other drug compounds, although the psychoactive effects only last a few hours.
Tetrahydrocannabinol is stored in body fat and organs for three to four weeks.
Hair follicle testing may identify Tetrahydrocannabinol after even longer periods of time, around 90 days.
HOW LONG DOES TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL STAY in YOUR BODY?
Although the effects of Tetrahydrocannabinol tend to be relatively short-lived, the time its metabolites stay in your body can last for weeks or months.
How long exactly is dependent on things like your body fat index, and how often you consume cannabis.
Generally, you can expect Tetrahydrocannabinol metabolites to stay:
In your blood for ± 3-4 hours
and in your urine for ± 3–30 days
In your saliva for ± 24 to 72 hours
the longest in your hair for ± 90 days
PHARMACOLOGICAL RESEARCH on TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL:
-Mechanism of action:
The actions of Delta-9-THC result from Tetrahydrocannabinol's partial agonist activity at the cannabinoid receptor CB1 (Ki = 40.7 nM), located mainly in the central nervous system, and the CB2 receptor (Ki = 36 nM), mainly expressed in cells of the immune system.
The psychoactive effects of Tetrahydrocannabinol are primarily mediated by the activation of cannabinoid receptors, which result in a decrease in the concentration of the second messenger molecule cAMP through inhibition of adenylate cyclase.
The presence of these specialized cannabinoid receptors in the brain led researchers to the discovery of endocannabinoids, such as anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl glyceride (2-AG).
Tetrahydrocannabinol is a lipophilic molecule and may bind non-specifically to a variety of entities in the brain and body, such as adipose tissue (fat).
Tetrahydrocannabinol, as well as other cannabinoids that contain a phenol group, possess mild antioxidant activity sufficient to protect neurons against oxidative stress, such as that produced by glutamate-induced excitotoxicity.
Tetrahydrocannabinol targets receptors in a manner far less selective than endocannabinoid molecules released during retrograde signaling, as the drug has a relatively low cannabinoid receptor affinity.
Tetrahydrocannabinol is also limited in Tetrahydrocannabinol's efficacy compared to other cannabinoids due to Tetrahydrocannabinol's partial agonistic activity, as Tetrahydrocannabinol appears to result in greater downregulation of cannabinoid receptors than endocannabinoids.
Furthermore, in populations of low cannabinoid receptor density, Tetrahydrocannabinol may even act to antagonize endogenous agonists that possess greater receptor efficacy.
While Tetrahydrocannabinol's pharmacodynamic tolerance may limit the maximal effects of certain drugs, evidence suggests that this tolerance mitigates undesirable effects, thus enhancing the drug's therapeutic window.
Tetrahydrocannabinol is metabolized mainly to 11-OH-THC by the body.
This metabolite is still psychoactive and is further oxidized to 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THC-COOH).
More than 100 metabolites could be identified, but 11-OH-THC and THC-COOH are the dominating metabolites.
Metabolism occurs mainly in the liver by cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4.
More than 55% of THC is excreted in the feces and ≈20% in the urine.
The main metabolite in urine is the ester of glucuronic acid and 11-OH-THC and free THC-COOH.
The pharmacological actions of Tetrahydrocannabinol result from Tetrahydrocannabinol's binding to the cannabinoid receptor CB1, located in the brain.
The presence of these specialized receptors in the brain implied to researchers that endogenous cannabinoids are manufactured by the body, so the search began for a substance normally manufactured in the brain that binds to these receptors, the so-called natural ligand or agonist, leading to the eventual discovery of anandamide, 2-arachidonyl glyceride (2-AG), and other related compounds.
This story resembles the discovery of the endogenous opiates (endorphins, enkephalins, and dynorphin), after the realization that morphine and other opiates bind to specific receptors in the brain. In addition, it has been shown that cannabinoids, through a presently-unknown mechanism, activate endogenous opioid pathways via the μ1 opioid receptor, precipitating a dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens.
The effects of Tetrahydrocannabinol can be suppressed by the CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist rimonabant (SR141716A) or, interesting to note, the opioid receptor antagonists (opioid blockers) naloxone and naloxonazine.
The mechanism of endocannabinoid synaptic transmission is understood by the following events:
An excitatory transmission of the neurotransmitter glutamate causes an influx of calcium ions into the post-synaptic neuron.
Through a mechanism not yet fully understood, the presence of calcium post-synaptically induces the production of endocannabinoids in the post-synaptic neuron.
These endocannabinoids (such as anandamide) are released into the synaptic cleft.
Once in the synaptic cleft, binding occurs at cannabinoid receptors present in pre-synaptic neurons where they can then modulate neurotransmission pre-synaptically.
This form of neurotransmission is termed retrograde transmission, as the signal is carried in the opposite direction of orthodox propagation; it provides an interesting insight into neurotransmission, which previously was thought to be exclusively one way.
Tetrahydrocannabinol has analgesic effects that, even at low doses, causes a high, thus leading to the fact that medical cannabis can be used to treat pain.
The mechanism for analgesic effects caused directly by Tetrahydrocannabinol or other cannabinoid agonists is not fully elucidated.
Other effects include relaxation; euphoria; altered space-time perception; alteration of visual, auditory, and olfactory senses; disorientation; fatigue; and appetite stimulation related to CB1 receptor activity in the central nervous system.
The mechanism for appetite stimulation in subjects is somewhat understood and explained through a gastro-hypothalamic axis.
CB1 activity in the hunger centers in the hypothalamus increases the palatability of food when levels of a hunger hormone, ghrelin, increase as food enters the stomach.
After chyme is passed into the duodenum, signaling hormones such as cholecystokinin and leptin are released, causing reduction in gastric emptying and transmission of satiety signals to the hypothalamus, respectively.
Cannabinoid activity is reduced through the satiety signals induced by leptin release.
Tetrahydrocannabinol also has anti-emetic properties, and also may reduce aggression in certain subjects.
Tetrahydrocannabinol has an active metabolite, 11-Hydroxy-THC, which may also play a role in the analgesic and recreational effects of the herb.
Synthetic Tetrahydrocannabinol, also known under the substance name dronabinol, is available as a prescription drug in several countries including the U.S. and Germany.
In the United States, available by prescription, considered to be non-narcotic and to have a low risk of physical or mental dependence.
As a result of the rescheduling of Marinol from Schedule II to Schedule III, refills are now permitted for this substance.
Marinol has been approved by the FDA in the treatment of anorexia in AIDS patients, as well as for refractory nausea and vomiting of patients undergoing chemotherapy.
HISTORY of TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL:
Cannabis has a long history of use that dates back thousands of years.
The first recorded use of cannabis has been traced to China, where cannabis was used for food, textiles, and medicine.
Hemp was eventually introduced to Europe and later to the Americas, where it was used for both recreational and ritual purposes.
Cannabis was introduced to what is now the United States during the 1600s.
Hemp was grown to produce textiles and sometimes even used as legal tender.
Hemp was used for a number of medical purposes as well, with hemp's recreational use beginning to grow during the 1930s and 1940s.
In 1970, the Controlled Substances Act classified marijuana as a Schedule I drug.
Many states have approved the use of cannabis and THC for medical and, in some states, recreational purposes.
Although the first known use of cannabis goes back about 5000 years, this molecule was isolated and characterised only in 1964.
Cannabis is a genus of flowering plants that contain Tetrahydrocannabinol, are native to central and southern Asia, and find their first reference in the Hindu Vedas in 1500BC.
Cannabis as a euphoriant finds mention in Roman literature only in AD160 and its widespread use in northern Europe, surprisingly, did not begin until the 1780s.
Tetrahydrocannabinol was first isolated and elucidated in 1969 by Raphael Mechoulam and Yechiel Gaoni at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel.
The Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018 allows any hemp derived product not exceeding 0.3% Δ-9 Tetrahydrocannabinol to be sold legally in the US.
Since the law counted only Δ-9 Tetrahydrocannabinol, Δ-8 Tetrahydrocannabinol was considered legal to sell under the farm bill and was sold online.
-Society and culture:
-Comparisons with medical cannabis:
Female cannabis plants contain at least 113 cannabinoids, including cannabidiol (CBD), thought to be the major anticonvulsant that helps people with multiple sclerosis; and cannabichromene (CBC), an anti-inflammatory which may contribute to the pain-killing effect of cannabis.
-Regulation in Canada
As of October 2018 when recreational use of cannabis was legalized in Canada, some 220 dietary supplements and 19 veterinary health products containing not more than 10 parts per million of Tetrahydrocannabinol extract were approved with general health claims for treating minor conditions.
While cannabis, including Tetrahydrocannabinol, has been used medically for thousands of years in many regions of the world.
Tetrahydrocannabinol was first “discovered” in the West at least, in 1964 thanks to the work of Israeli researcher Raphael
Mechoulam at the Weizmann Institute of Science.
Synthetic Tetrahydrocannabinol – known by its generic name as the drug Dronabinol, was rescheduled in the United States in 2010.
Germany has just become the first country in the world to completely reschedule cannabis, including Tetrahydrocannabinol, to a Schedule III.
PHYSICAL and CHEMICAL PROPERTIES of TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL:
Molar mass: 314.469 g·mol−1
Physical States: Liquid
Melting Point: No data.
Boiling Point: No data.
Flash Pt: 2.00 C Method Used: Closed Cup
Vapor Pressure (vs. Air or mm Hg): 73 MM_HG at 20.0 C
Vapor Density (vs. Air = 1): No data.
Evaporation Rate: No data.
pH: No data.
Appearance and Odor: Solution
Flammability (solid, gas): No data available.
Specific Gravity (Water = 1): No data.
Solubility in Water: No data.
Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient: No data.
Decomposition Temperature: No data.
Autoignition Pt: 524.00 C
Viscosity: No data.
Percent Volatile: No data.
Molecular Formula & Weight: C21H30O2 314.5
FIRST AID MEASURES of TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL:
-In Case of Inhalation:
Remove to fresh air.
Get immediate medical attention.
-In Case of Skin Contact:
Get medical attention if symptoms occur.
-In Case of Ingestion:
Wash out mouth with water provided person is conscious.
Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person.
Get medical attention.
ACCIDENTAL RELEASE MEASURES of TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL:
-Methods and Material For Containment and Cleaning Up:
Contain spill and collect, as appropriate.
FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES of TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL:
-Suitable Extinguishing Media:
Use alcohol-resistant foam, carbon dioxide, water, or dry chemical spray.
Use water spray to cool fire-exposed containers.
EXPOSURE CONTROLS/PERSONAL PROTECTION of TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL:
Eye Protection: Safety glasses
Protective Gloves: Compatible chemical-resistant gloves
Other Protective Clothing:Lab coat
STABILITY and REACTIVITY of TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL:
Reactivity: No data available
Polymerization: Will not occur