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CAS: 95-47-6

Xylene or xylol (C6H4(CH3))  is a mixture of three isomers – ortho (o), meta (m), and para (p).  Xylene is a clear, colourless, sweet-smelling liquid that is highly flammable with a flashpoint between 23° C and 61° C.

O-XYLENE; 1,2-Dimethylbenzene ;1,2-Xylene; 95-47-6; Ortho-Xylene; o-Xylol; o-Methyltoluene; 2-Xylene; Benzene, 1,2-dimethyl-; o-Dimethylbenzene; 3,4-Xylene; o-Xylenes; 1,2-Dimethylbenzol; Xylene, o-; Xylol; Benzene, o-dimethyl-; Benzene, dimethyl-, chloromethylated; NSC 60920; Benzene, dimethyl-; UNII-Z2474E14QP; ORTHO XYLENE; MFCD00008519; BENZENE,1,2-DIMETHYL; CHEMBL45005; CHEBI:28063; Z2474E14QP; ortho-dimethylbenzene; OXE; Dimethylbenzene; CCRIS 905; o-Xylene, 99%, Extra Dry, AcroSeal(R); HSDB 134; EINECS 202-422-2; orthoxylene; dimethyl benzene; dimethyl-benzene; AI3-08197; 2-Methyltoluene; Xylenes (mixed); Xylenes ACS; Xylene, o-isomer; 1,2-dimethyl-benzene; o-Xylene, HPLC Grade; Xylene mixture of isomers; o-Xylene, 99%, pure; DSSTox_CID_1807; ACMC-209rz0; bmse000526; EC 202-422-2; DSSTox_RID_76340; o-Xylene, anhydrous, 97%; DSSTox_GSID_21807; 68411-84-7; o-Xylene,, analytical standard; [C]C1=CC=CC=C1C; o-Xylene, for HPLC, 98%; WLN: 1R B1; DTXSID3021807; o-Xylene, for synthesis, 98%; 188l; o-Xylene, Spectrophotometric Grade; ZINC968282; NSC60920; o-Xylene 10 microg/mL in Methanol

Xylene (from Greek ξύλο, xylo, "wood"), xylol or dimethylbenzene is any one of three isomers of dimethylbenzene, or a combination thereof. With the formula (CH3)2C6H4, each of the three compounds has a central benzene ring with two methyl groups attached at substituents. They are all colorless, flammable liquids, some of which are of great industrial value. The mixture is referred to as both xylene and, more precisely, xylenes.
Xylenes are an important petrochemical produced by catalytic reforming and also by coal carbonisation in the manufacture of coke fuel. They also occur in crude oil in concentrations of about 0.5–1%, depending on the source. Small quantities occur in gasoline and aircraft fuels.
Xylenes are produced mainly as part of the BTX aromatics (benzene, toluene, and xylenes) extracted from the product of catalytic reforming known as reformate. The xylene mixture is a slightly greasy, colorless liquid commonly encountered as a solvent.
Several million tons are produced annually. In 2011, a global consortium began construction of one of the world's largest xylene plants in Singapore.

Xylene exists in three isomeric forms. The isomers can be distinguished by the designations ortho- (o-), meta- (m-) and para- (p-), which specify to which carbon atoms (of the benzene ring) the two methyl groups are attached. By counting the carbon atoms around the ring starting from one of the ring carbons bonded to a methyl group, and counting towards the second methyl group, the o-isomer has the IUPAC name of 1,2-dimethylbenzene, the m-isomer is 1,3-dimethylbenzene and the p-isomer is 1,4-dimethylbenzene. Of the three isomers, the p-isomer is the most industrially sought after since it can be oxidized to terephthalic acid
Xylenes are produced by the methylation of toluene and benzene.

Commercial or laboratory-grade xylene produced usually contains about 40-65% of m-xylene and up to 20% each of o-xylene, p-xylene and ethylbenzene. The ratio of isomers can be shifted to favor the highly valued p-xylene via the patented UOP-Isomar process[8] or by transalkylation of xylene with itself or trimethylbenzene. These conversions are catalyzed by zeolites.
ZSM-5 is used to facilitate some isomerization reactions leading to mass production of modern plastics.

The chemical and physical properties of xylene differ according to the respective isomers. The melting point ranges from −47.87 °C (−54.17 °F) (m-xylene) to 13.26 °C (55.87 °F) (p-xylene)—as usual, the para isomer's melting point is much higher because it packs more readily in the crystal structure. The boiling point for each isomer is around 140 °C (284 °F). The density of each isomer is around 0.87 g/mL (7.26 lb/U.S. gallon or 8.72 lb/imp gallon) and thus is less dense than water. Xylene in air can be smelled at concentrations as low as 0.08 to 3.7 ppm (parts of xylene per million parts of air) and can be tasted in water at 0.53 to 1.8 ppm
Terephthalic acid and related derivatives[.

p-Xylene is the principal precursor to terephthalic acid and dimethyl terephthalate, both monomers used in the production of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic bottles and polyester clothing. 98% of p-xylene production, and half of all xylenes produced is consumed in this manner. o-Xylene is an important precursor to phthalic anhydride. The demand for isophthalic acid is relatively modest so m-xylene is rarely sought (and hence the utility of its conversion to the o- and p-isomers).
Solvent applications and industrial purposes

Xylene is used as a solvent. In this application, with a mixture of isomers, it is often referred to as xylenes or xylol. Solvent xylene often contains a small percentage of ethylbenzene. Like the individual isomers, the mixture is colorless, sweet-smelling, and highly flammable. Areas of application include the printing, rubber, and leather industries. It is a common component of ink, rubber, and adhesives.[13] In thinning paints and varnishes, it can be substituted for toluene where slower drying is desired, and thus is used by conservators of art objects in solubility testing.[14] Similarly it is a cleaning agent, e.g., for steel, silicon wafers, and integrated circuits. In dentistry, xylene can be used to dissolve gutta percha, a material used for endodontics (root canal treatments). In the petroleum industry, xylene is also a frequent component of paraffin solvents, used when the tubing becomes clogged with paraffin wax. For similar reasons, it is often the active ingredient in commercial products for ear wax (cerumen) removal

Laboratory use
Xylene is used in the laboratory to make baths with dry ice to cool reaction vessels, and as a solvent to remove synthetic immersion oil from the microscope objective in light microscopy. In histology, xylene is the most widely used clearing agent. Xylene is used to remove paraffin from dried microscope slides prior to staining. After staining, microscope slides are put in xylene prior to mounting with a coverslip.

Precursor to other compounds
Although conversion to terephthalic acid is the dominant chemical conversion, xylenes are precursors to other chemical compounds. For instance chlorination of both methyl groups gives the corresponding xylene dichlorides (bis(chloromethyl)benzenes) whilst mono-bromination yields xylyl bromide, a tear gas agent used in World War I.

Xylene is both naturally occurring and manmade.  It can be refined from crude oil in a process known as alkylation.  It can also be produced from coal carbonisation as an extract from the benzole gas created by coke ovens.
A chemical wholesaler would have a bulk petrochemical storage facility to regulate this product.  Storage is normally in a cool, dry and well ventilated facility away from oxidising agents.  Xylene should be kept out of direct sunlight, heat and open flames.  Solvents such as xylene should be stored in drummed containers such as isotanks made of stainless steel, aluminium or carbon steel.
A bulk solvent exporter would normally distribute this chemical in bulk vessels or tank trucks.  For transportation purposes, xylene is classed as a flammable liquid with a fire hazard rating of 3.  A full bulk chemical distributor would export xylene throughout regions such

What is Xylene used for?
The majority of mixed xylene isomers are used for blending into petrol and gasoline.  It is also a key solvent in the printing, rubber, leather and pesticides industries.  It can also be used as a cleaning agent for steel, silicon and as a thinner for paint, varnishes, adhesives and inks.  Other applications ofxXylene include making certain types of plastic, as an inhalant drug and the manufacture of dyes, fibres, perfumes, and films.  The main end user markets are the petrochemical, printing, rubber, leather, cleaning, plastics and pesticides industries.

It appears as colorless transparent liquid with aromatic odor. It is miscible with ethanol, ethyl ether, acetone and benzene but insoluble in water.

(1)  It is mainly used in the production of phthalic anhydride
(2)  O-xylene is the raw material for the production of germicide fenramine, tetrachlorophenyl peptide and the herbicide bensulfuron-methyl. It is used as intermediate for the manufacture of o-methyl benzoic acid.
(3)  It is mainly used as chemical raw materials and solvents. It can be used to produce phthalic anhydride, dyes, pesticides and drugs, such as vitamins. It can also be used as aviation gasoline additives.
(4)  Used as chromatographic standards and solvents
(5)  As raw materials of synthesis of anhydride and other organic synthesis;

Industry Uses

Adhesives and sealant chemicals
Agricultural chemicals (non-pesticidal)
Corrosion inhibitors and anti-scaling agents
Fuels and fuel additives
Intercompany Shipment
Laboratory chemicals
Lubricants and lubricant additives
Optical screens
Paint additives and coating additives not described by other categories
Plastic additive
Plating agents and surface treating agents
Processing aids, not otherwise listed
Processing aids, specific to petroleum production
Solvents (for cleaning and degreasing)
Solvents (which become part of product formulation or mixture)
Surface active agents
Viscosity adjustors
making customer specific blends
repackaging into containers for distribution

Consumer Uses
Adhesives and sealants
Agricultural products (non-pesticidal)
Automotive care products
Building/construction materials not covered elsewhere
Chemical Feed Stock
Cleaning and furnishing care products
Fabric, textile, and leather products not covered elsewhere
Fuels and related products
Intercompany Shipment
Lubricants and greases
Metal products not covered elsewhere
Paints and coatings
Plastic and rubber products not covered elsewhere

Consumer Uses
This substance is used in the following products: lubricants and greases, anti-freeze products, biocides (e.g. disinfectants, pest control products), polishes and waxes and adhesives and sealants. 
Other release to the environment of this substance is likely to occur from: indoor use (e.g. machine wash liquids/detergents, automotive care products, paints and coating or adhesives, fragrances and air fresheners), outdoor use, indoor use in close systems with minimal release (e.g. cooling liquids in refrigerators, oil-based electric heaters) and outdoor use in close systems with minimal release (e.g. hydraulic liquids in automotive suspension, lubricants in motor oil and break fluids).

Article service life
Other release to the environment of this substance is likely to occur from: outdoor use in long-life materials with low release rate (e.g. metal, wooden and plastic construction and building materials), indoor use in long-life materials with low release rate (e.g. flooring, furniture, toys, construction materials, curtains, foot-wear, leather products, paper and cardboard products, electronic equipment), outdoor use in long-life materials with high release rate (e.g. tyres, treated wooden products, treated textile and fabric, brake pads in trucks or cars, sanding of buildings (bridges, facades) or vehicles (ships)) and indoor use in long-life materials with high release rate (e.g. release from fabrics, textiles during washing, removal of indoor paints).
This substance can be found in complex articles, with no release intended: Vehicles (e.g. personal vehicles, delivery vans, boats, trains, metro or planes)), machinery, mechanical appliances and electrical/electronic products e.g. refrigerators, washing machines, vacuum cleaners, computers, telephones, drills, saws, smoke detectors, thermostats, radiators, large-scale stationary industrial tools), vehicles and machinery, mechanical appliances and electrical/electronic products (e.g. computers, cameras, lamps, refrigerators, washing machines).

This substance can be found in products with material based on: metal (e.g. cutlery, pots, toys, jewellery), metal used for large surface area articles (e.g. construction and building materials used for roof sheets, pipes), metal used for packaging (excluding food packaging), metal used for furniture & furnishings (e.g. outdoor furniture, benches, tables), wood used for large surface area articles (e.g. construction and building materials for floors, claddings), wood used for furniture & furnishings and wood.
Widespread uses by professional workers
This substance is used in the following products: fuels, coating products, fillers, putties, plasters, modelling clay and plant protection products.
This substance is used in the following areas: building & construction work, agriculture, forestry and fishing, health services and scientific research and development.

This substance is used for the manufacture of: chemicals and fabricated metal products.
Other release to the environment of this substance is likely to occur from: outdoor use, indoor use (e.g. machine wash liquids/detergents, automotive care products, paints and coating or adhesives, fragrances and air fresheners), indoor use in close systems with minimal release (e.g. cooling liquids in refrigerators, oil-based electric heaters) and outdoor use in close systems with minimal release (e.g. hydraulic liquids in automotive suspension, lubricants in motor oil and break fluids).
Formulation or re-packing
This substance is used in the following products: coating products, polymers, explosives and plant protection products.

Release to the environment of this substance can occur from industrial use: formulation of mixtures, in processing aids at industrial sites, formulation in materials, manufacturing of the substance, in the production of articles and of substances in closed systems with minimal release.

Uses at industrial sites
This substance is used in the following products: coating products, polymers and plant protection products.

This substance has an industrial use resulting in manufacture of another substance (use of intermediates).
This substance is used in the following areas: formulation of mixtures and/or re-packaging.
This substance is used for the manufacture of: chemicals.
Release to the environment of this substance can occur from industrial use: in processing aids at industrial sites, of substances in closed systems with minimal release, manufacturing of the substance, formulation of mixtures, for thermoplastic manufacture, as an intermediate step in further manufacturing of another substance (use of intermediates) and as processing aid.

Release to the environment of this substance can occur from industrial use: manufacturing of the substance, in processing aids at industrial sites, as processing aid, formulation of mixtures, formulation in materials, in the production of articles and of substances in closed systems with minimal release.
The three isomeric xylenes (isomeric means that they have exactly the same number and kind of atoms but are arranged differently) occur together, and with them is another isomer, ethylbenzene, which has one ethyl group (―C2H5) replacing one of the hydrogen atoms of benzene. These isomers can be separated only with difficulty, but numerous separation methods have been worked out. The small letters o-, m-, and p- (standing for ortho-, meta-, and para-) preceding the name xylene are used to identify the three different isomers that vary in the ways the two methyl groups displace the hydrogen atoms of benzene. Ortho-xylene is used mostly to produce phthalic anhydride, an important intermediate that leads principally to various coatings and plastics. The least valued of the isomers is meta-xylene, but it has uses in the manufacture of coatings and plastics. Para-xylene leads to polyesters, which reach the ultimate consumer as polyester fibres under various trademarked names.
A volatile organic hydrocarbon is the sickly sweet-smelling chemical xylene. We can discover xylene and its compounds in many sectors, in medicine, in dentistry, and even in family products. People should look after xylene because of its inhalation and irritating hazards.
It is a liquid and vapour that is colourless. In addition, it is not water-soluble and will glide when coupled on the bottom of denser water. At room temperature, it is flammable.
Moreover, it was appointed after the Greek term for wood, xylong because it was discovered in the presence of coarse wood. C8H10 or more specifically (C6H4)(CH3)2 is its the chemical formula. Dimethyl benzene, methyl toluene, and xylol are other synonyms for it.
It comprises of two clusters of methyl connected to a six-carbon chain. There are three major isomers that we know as ortho-xylene, meta-xylene, and paraxylene. However, there is fourth isomer ethylbenzene.
Meta-xylene is a major element of xylene of commercial grade. In the polymer sector, paraxylene has a range of purposes.
It is heavier than water. It’s a fluid that gives off its gas. Also, it’s nauseatingly delicious smell acts as a clue to its toxic origin.
We can identify its smell as small as one portion per million (PPM) in water levels! It can respond with strong acids and oxidizers.

Uses of Xylene
It is one of the main chemicals that the U.S. generates and generally they obtain it from crude oil. We use it in many ways, both in its pure state and in compounds. Commonly we use it in various sectors as well as in dental and medical settings.
It is used for processing and staining tissues in histology. It is then possible to use these tissues in microscopy. This helps engineers in histopathology who look at tissues to determine disease existence.
Tissue must be integrated with a solvent (such as paraffin) in tissue preparation in order to promote it and enable it to be sliced without destroying the tissue. 
Fixed tissue is then dehydrated, by escalating alcohol levels, separating water from the tissue. However, alcohol is not miscible with paraffin (which is miscible may well be mixed with another ingredient).

Some Other Uses of Xylene
As it occurs with paraffin, it is extremely miscible. For tissue handling, the cause xylene operates so well is that it keeps tissues clear so that paraffin can fully envelop the tissue.
Moreover, it may extract any residual wax from specimens when preparation specimens for microscopy. In this situation, we use it as a wiping officer. This enables screen staining to make it easier to view tissue characteristics under a microscope.
Although tissue handling suggests solutions to it. But we still regard it as the finest chemicals for tissue handling and staining reasons.
One of its main applications is as a lubricant. Also, we use it in motor oil or brake fluid. Industries use its strong solvent characteristics in the production of graphics, gum, and leather.
It is an element of engine petroleum lubricants, colour and hair thinners, polishes, waxes, antifreeze, sealants, adhesives, petrol, and tobacco. Some glues have xylene in it. As well as we use it as a solvent too.

1,2 dimethylbenzene


1,2-dimethylbenzene, 1,3-dimethylbenzene, 1,4-dimethylbenzene

1,2-dimethylbenzene, 1,3-dimethylbenzene, 1,4-dimethylbenzene.

1,2-dimethylbenzene, 1,3-dimethylbenzene, 1,4-dimethylbenzene1,2-xylene; 1,3-xylene; 1,4-xylene; dimethylbenzeneBenzene, dimethylDimethyl Benzenedimethylbenzene, mixture of isomeresxylene mixture of isomersXylene (mixture of isomers)

1,2-dimethylbenzene: 1,3-dimethylbenzene ; 1,4-dimethylbenzene

1,2-dimethylbenzene; 1,3-dimethylbenzene; 1,4-dimethylbenzene

1,2-dimethylbenzene; 1,3-xylene; 1,4-xylene


1,2-xylene; 1,3-xylene; 1,4-xylene

1,2-xylene; 1,3-xylene; 1,4-xylene; dimethylbenzene



Benzene, dimethyl

Benzene, dimethyl-

Dimethyl Benzene

Dimethyl benzene





dimethylbenzene, mixture of isomeres







Mixed xylenes


Reaction mass of butanone and ethylbenzene and toluene and Solvent naphtha (petroleum), heavy arom.

Reaction mass of m-xylene, o-xylene, p-xylene and ethylbenzene

Reaction mass of o-xylene and ethylbenzene and m-xylene

Reaction mass of o-xylene and ethylbenzene and p-xylene and m-xylene

Reaction mass of o-xylene and p-xylene and m-xylene

Reaction mass of ortho-xylene, meta-xylene, para-xylene & Ethylbenzene

Reactionmass of ethylbenzene and xylene isomers









xylene (all isomers)

xylene (isomers)

Xylene (mixed isomers)

xylene (mixed isomers)

Xylene (mixture of isomers)

Xylene isomers

xylene mixture of isomers

xylene, isomers mixture

xylene, mixed isomeres

xylene, mixed isomers, pure

xylene, mixture of isomers



Xylol (Isomerengemisch)




Mixed Xylenes


Solvent Xylene

Tyranno Varnish




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