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1,4- dioxane = Dioxane = p-Dioxane ,
CAS Number: 123-91-1
Molecular Weight: 88.11
Beilstein: 102551
EC Number: 204-661-8
MDL number: MFCD00006571
PubChem CID    31275
Molecular Formula :C4H8O2
UN Number: 1165

1,4-Dioxane is a clear liquid that easily dissolves in water.
1,4-Dioxane is used primarily as a solvent in the manufacture of chemicals and as a laboratory reagent; 1,4-dioxane also has various other uses that take advantage of 1,4-Dioxane's solvent properties.
1,4-Dioxane is a trace contaminant of some chemicals used in cosmetics, detergents, and shampoos.
However, manufacturers now reduce 1,4-dioxane from these chemicals to low levels before these chemicals are made into products used in the home.
p-Dioxane, Anhydrous, also known as 1,4-Dioxane, is used as a solvent as well as a stabilizer for the solvent trichloroethane. 
Anhydrous, dry, without water, is used when performing certain reactions where the presence of water can prevent a chemical reaction from happening, or form undesirable products.
This dioxane, also known as diethylene dioxide, presents as a colorless, weakly ether-like smelling liquid. Store at ambient temperatures in a dark and well-ventilated place.
1,4-Dioxane is known to be incompatible with oxidizing agents, strong acids, reducing agents and halogens and should not be stored or handled in their vicinity.

1,4-Dioxane is a synthetic, volatile, colorless liquid that is miscible with water, most organic solvents, aromatic hydrocarbons and oils. 
Dioxane is used primarily as a stabilizer in chlorinated solvents. 1,4-Dioxane is also used as a solvent for numerous commercial products and as a wetting/dispersing agent in textile processing. 
In research, dioxane is used in certain biological procedures such as liquid scintillation counting and the preparation of histological sections for microscopic examination. 
The primary routes of potential human exposure to 1,4-dioxane are inhalation, ingestion and dermal contact.
Acute exposure to low levels of 1,4-dioxane vapors causes eye and nose irritation. 
Exposure to very high levels of these vapors can result in liver and kidney damage and death. 
Dioxane is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen.

Dioxane appears as a clear colorless liquid with a faint ethereal odor. 
Flash point 55°F.
Slightly denser than water and soluble in water.
Vapors of dioxane anhydrous heavier than air. 
Susceptible to autooxidation to form peroxides.
1,4-Dioxane, often simply called dioxane because the 1,2 and 1,3 isomers of dioxane are rare, is a heterocyclic organic compound.

1,4-Dioxane may undergo nickel-catalyzed oxidative arylation with arylboronic acids to form α-arylated ethers.
Dioxane anhydrous may be used as a solvent to synthesize:
(Chloromethyl)dimethylphenylsilane from chloro(chloromethyl)dimethylsilane via zinc-catalyzed substitution reaction with phenylmagnesium bromide.
N-(2,2,2-trifluoro-1-hydroxyethyl)-acetamide from 2,2,2-trifluoro-1-methoxyethanol and acetamide.
1,4-Dioxane is used as a stabilizer for 1,1,1-trichloroethane and chlorinated solvents.
Dioxane anhydrous acts as a solvent for cellulose acetate, ethyl cellulose, benzyl cellulose, resins, oils, waxes, dyes, other organic and inorganic compounds. 
Dioxane anhydrous acts as a substitute for tetrahydrofuran due to its higher boiling point and lower toxicity. 
Further, Dioxane anhydrous is used as an internal standard for proton NMR spectroscopy in deuterium oxide.
Dioxane anhydrous plays an important role in liquid scintillation counting in biological procedures, and as a wetting and dispersing agent in textile processing. 
1,4-Dioxane is involved in the preparation of dimethylmagnesium by reacting with methylmagnesium bromide, and in the preparation of histological sections for microscopic examination
1,4-Dioxane may undergo nickel-catalyzed oxidative arylation with arylboronic acids to form α-arylated ethers.
1,4-Dioxane may be used as a solvent to synthesize.

grade: anhydrous
vapor density :3 (vs air)
vapor pressure :27 mmHg ( 20 °C) , 40 mmHg ( 25 °C)
assay: 99.8%
form: liquid
autoignition temp.: 356 °F
expl. lim.:22 %
impurities: <0.003% water , <0.005% water (100 mL pkg)
evapn. residue: <0.0003%
Appearance :Colorless liquid
Molecular Formula: C4H8O2
Odor: Ether like
Vapor Pressure: 41 hPa (31mm Hg) at 20°C
Boiling Point: 100°C to 102°C
Melting Point: 11.8°C
Sensitivity: Hygroscopic
Solubility Information : Miscible with water,most organic solvents,aromatic hydrocarbons and oils.

First Aid Measures
Eyes: In case of contact, immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. 
Get medical aid.
Skin: In case of contact, flush skin with plenty of water.
Remove contaminated clothing and shoes. 
Get medical aid if irritation develops and persists. 
Wash clothing before reuse.
Ingestion: Possible aspiration hazard. 
If swallowed, do not induce vomiting unless directed to do so by medical personnel.
Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. 
Get medical aid.
Inhalation: If inhaled, remove to fresh air. 
If not breathing, give artificial respiration. 
If breathing is difficult, give oxygen.
Get medical aid.
Notes to Physician: Treat symptomatically and supportively. 

Wash thoroughly after handling. 
Remove contaminated clothing and wash before reuse.
Use spark-proof tools and explosion proof equipment.
Loosen closure cautiously before opening. 
Avoid contact of 1,4-Dioxane with eyes, skin, and clothing.
Empty containers of 1,4-Dioxane retain product residue, (liquid and/or vapor), and can be dangerous.
Take precautionary measures against static discharges. 
If peroxide formation is suspected, do not open or move container. 
Do not pressurize, cut, weld, braze, solder, drill, grind, or expose empty containers to heat, sparks or open flames.
Use only with adequate ventilation.
Avoid breathing vapor or mist. 

Store 1,4-Dioxane in a tightly closed container. 
Store 1,4-Dioxane in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances.
After opening, purge container with nitrogen before reclosing.
Periodically test for peroxide formation on long-term storage. 
Addition of water or appropriate reducing materials to 1,4-Dioxane will lessen peroxide formation. 
Containers of 1,4-Dioxane should be dated when opened and tested periodically for the presence of peroxides.
Should crystals form in a peroxidizable liquid, peroxidation may have occurred and the product should be considered extremely dangerous.
In this instance, the container should only be opened remotely by professionals. 
All peroxidizable substances should be stored away from heat and light and be protected from ignition sources.

Physical and Chemical Properties 
Physical State: Liquid
Appearance: clear, colorless
Odor: ethereal odor
pH: Not available.
Vapor Pressure: 29 mm Hg @ 20 deg C
Vapor Density: 3 (air=1)
Evaporation Rate:5.8 (diethylether=1)
Viscosity: 0.012cP @ 25 deg C
Boiling Point: 101 deg C
Freezing/Melting Point:12 deg C
Decomposition Temperature:Not available.
Solubility: Soluble.
Specific Gravity/Density:1.0300 g/cm3
Molecular Formula:C4H8O2
Molecular Weight:88.11 

Stability and Reactivity 
Chemical Stability
Prolonged exposure to air and sunlight may form unstable peroxides. 
Tends to form explosive peroxides; especially when anhydrous. 
Under normal storage conditions, peroxidizable compounds can form and accumulate peroxides which may explode when subjected to heat or shock. 
This material is most hazardous when peroxide levels are concentrated by distillation or evaporation.
Conditions to Avoid: Light, ignition sources, excess heat, electrical sparks.
Incompatibilities with Other Materials: Strong oxidizing agents, strong acids.
Hazardous Decomposition Products: Carbon monoxide, irritating and toxic fumes and gases, carbon dioxide. 

Fire Fighting Measures 
General Information: 
As in any fire, wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. During a fire, irritating and highly toxic gases may be generated by thermal decomposition or combustion. 
Use water spray to keep fire-exposed containers cool. 
Flammable liquid and vapor. 
May form explosive peroxides. 
May accumulate static electrical charges, and may cause ignition of its own vapors. 
Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapors and toxic decomposition products. 
Vapors of p-Dioxane are heavier than air and may travel to a source of ignition and flash back. 
Vapors of p-Dioxane can spread along the ground and collect in low or confined areas.
Extinguishing Media: Use water spray, dry chemical, carbon dioxide, or alcohol-resistant foam.
Flash Point: 12 deg C ( 53.60 deg F)
Autoignition Temperature: 180 deg C ( 356.00 deg F)
Explosion Limits, Lower:2.0%
Upper: 22.0%

Accidental Release Measures
General Information:
Use proper personal protective equipment.
Spills/Leaks: Absorb spill with inert material (e.g. vermiculite, sand or earth), then place in suitable container. 
Avoid runoff into storm sewers and ditches which lead to waterways. 
Clean up spills of p-Dioxane immediately. 
Remove all sources of ignition. Use a spark-proof tool. 
Flush spill area with water. 
Provide ventilation. 
A vapor suppressing foam may be used to reduce vapors. 

Alternative Names
1,4-Diethylene dioxide 
1,4-Diethylene dioxide
Diethylene ether
Di(ethylene oxide)
Diethylene dioxide
Glycol ethylene ether
Dioxyethylene ether
p-Dioxin, tetrahydro-

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