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Cas number: 68391-01-5

Alkyl (C12-16) dimethylbenzyl ammonium chloride (C12-16-ADBAC/BKC) is not manufactured solvent-free, but in process solvents as technical concentrate (in water or water/alcohol).

Synonyms: 139-07-1; Benzododecinium chloride; N-Benzyl-N,N-dimethyldodecan-1-aminium chloride; Benzyldimethyldodecylammonium chloride; Cequartyl A; Catigene OM; Dodecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride; Benzyldodecyldimethylammonium chloride; ZEPHIROL; Dehyquart LDB;  Catiogen PAN; Vantoc CL; Noramium DA 50; Triton K60; Catinal CB 50; Rolcril; Benzododecinii Chloridum; Retarder N; Orthosan HM;  Amoryl BR 1244; dodecyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride; Laurylbenzalkonium chloride; Catiolite BC 50; Loraquat B 50; Rewoquat B 50;  Tetranil BC 80; Texnol R 5; Lauryldimethylbenzylammonium chloride; Bas 2631; Caswell No. 073A; Caswell No. 416C; Swanol CA 100;  Swanol CA 101; Cloruro de Benzododecinio; Chlorure de Benzododecinium; Benzyldimethyllaurylammonium chloride;  Laurylbenzyldimethylammonium chloride; Dimethylbenzyldodecylammonium chloride; Dimethyldodecylbenzylammonium chloride;  Dodecylbenzyldimethylammonium chloride; Benzenemethanaminium, N-dodecyl-N,N-dimethyl-, chloride; N-Lauryldimethylbenzylammonium chloride;  UNII-Y5A751G47H; Benzododecinio cloruro [DCIT]; N-Dodecyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride; Benzododecinium chloride [INN];  N-Dodecyl-N,N-dimethylbenzenemethanaminium chloride; Dodecyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (ACN); Alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride; 
DYK 1125; QBA 1211; EINECS 205-351-5; Benzododecinii chloridum [INN-Latin]; Benzyl-lauryldimethylammonium chloride; NSC 85508;  EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 069124; Dodecyl-dimethyl-benzylammonium chloride; Cloruro de benzododecinio [INN-Spanish];  Chlorure de benzododecinium [INN-French]; Ammonium, benzyldimethyldodecyl-, chloride; Ammonium, benzyldodecyldimethyl-, chloride;  N-Benzyl-N-dodecyl-N,N-dimethylammonium chloride; N-Dodecyl-N,N-dimethyl-N-benzylammonium chloride; Y5A751G47H;  D-Dodecyl-N,N-dimethylbenzenemethanaminium chloride; MFCD00137276; Lauryl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride; DSSTox_CID_14317;  N,N-Dimethyl-N-dodecylbenzenemethanaminium chloride; Benzododecinium chloride (INN);  Benzenemethanaminium, N,N-dimethyl-N-dodecyl-, chloride; Benzenemethanaminium, N-dodecyl-N,N-dimethyl-, chloride (1:1); 
benzyl-dodecyl-dimethylazanium; C21H38N.Cl; benzyl-dodecyl-dimethylazanium;chloride; Benzododecinio cloruro; Euchlorine; 
2-Phenylburyricacid; SCHEMBL914; Benzododecinium (Chloride); n-dodecyl-n-benzyl-n,n-dimethylammonium chloride; DSSTox_RID_79142;  n-Dodecyl-n,n-Dimethyl-Benzenemethanaminium Chloride; CHEMBL1885899; Lauryldimethylbenzoammonium chloride;  Benzyllauryldimethylammonium chloride; dodecyldimethylbenzyl ammonium chloride; benzyl-dodecyl-dimethylammonium chloride;  Ammonium, benzyldodecyldimethyl-, chloride (8CI); N-Benzyl-N,N-dimethyldodecan-1-aminium chloride 139-07-1; 
Dimethylaurylbenzylammonium chloride; Dimethylbenzyldodecylammonium chloride; Dimethylbenzyllaurylammonium chloride; 3percent C18); 1,11a-Didehydroanhydroanthramycin; (E)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methyl-11-oxopyrrolo[5,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepin-8-yl)prop-2-enamide; 1,11a-Daa; C12-C18-alkyl-dimethyl-benzylammonium chloride (50percent C12,30percent C14,17percent C16,3percent C18); C11a-C1-dehydro anthramycin N10-C11-imine; 2-Propenamide,3-(9-hydroxy-8-methyl-5-oxo-5H-pyrrolo(2,1-c)(1,4)benzodiazepin-2-yl)

EINECS-No. 270-325-2

Molecular weight 340.0 – 396.1 g/mol

The available data show that the soil characteristic can strongly influence the toxicity of Alkyl (C12-16) dimethylbenzyl ammonium chloride to soil organisms by affecting its bioavailability. Consistently with the approach agreed at TMIV08, the normalization of the
terrestrial endpoints to a standard natural soil with an average organic matter content of 3.4% is not carried out, as TGD states that eq. 71 is only appropriate for non-ionic organic compounds when it can be assumed that the binding behaviour is predominantly driven by its log Pow, and that organisms are exposed predominantly via pore water. Since sorption of cationic surfactants to soil seems to be modulated by several factors (not only OC has a role but also other substrates with cation exchange capacity property like silt and clay), Alkyl (C12-16) dimethylbenzyl ammonium chloride is expected to sorb to different negatively charged surfaces, therefore normalization based on organic matter is considered not appropriate.

Benzalkonium chloride (BZK, BKC, BAK, BAC), also known as alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (ADBAC) and by the trade name Zephiran, is a type of cationic surfactant.  It is an organic salt classified as a quaternary ammonium compound. ADBACs have three main categories of use: as a biocide, a cationic surfactant, and a phase transfer agent. ADBACs are a mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium chlorides, in which the alkyl group has various even-numbered alkyl chain lengths.

Depending on purity, benzalkonium chloride ranges from colourless to a pale yellow (impure). Benzalkonium chloride is readily soluble in ethanol and acetone. Dissolution in water is slow. Aqueous solutions should be neutral to slightly alkaline. Solutions foam when shaken. Concentrated solutions have a bitter taste and a faint almond-like odour.

Standard concentrates are manufactured as 50% and 80% w/w solutions, and sold under trade names such as BC50, BC80, BAC50, BAC80, etc. The 50% solution is purely aqueous, while more concentrated solutions require incorporation of rheology modifiers (alcohols, polyethylene glycols, etc.) to prevent increases in viscosity or gel formation under low temperature conditions.

Benzalkonium chloride is a mainstay of phase-transfer catalysis, an important technology in the synthesis of organic compounds, including drugs. Benzalkonium chloride is also used in many non-consumer processes and products, including as an active ingredient in surgical disinfection. A comprehensive list of uses includes industrial applications. An advantage of benzalkonium chloride, not shared by ethanol-based antiseptics or hydrogen peroxide antiseptic, is that it does not cause a burning sensation when applied to broken skin.

Benzalkonium chloride is a human skin and severe eye irritant. It is a suspected respiratory toxicant, immunotoxicant, gastrointestinal toxicant, and neurotoxicant. The greatest biocidal activity is associated with the C12 dodecyl and C14 myristyl alkyl derivatives. The mechanism of bactericidal/microbicidal action is thought to be due to disruption of intermolecular interactions. This can cause dissociation of cellular membrane lipid bilayers, which compromises cellular permeability controls and induces leakage of cellular contents. Other biomolecular complexes within the bacterial cell can also undergo dissociation.

Enzymes, which finely control a wide range of respiratory and metabolic cellular activities, are particularly susceptible to deactivation. Critical intermolecular interactions and tertiary structures in such highly specific biochemical systems can be readily disrupted by cationic surfactants. Benzalkonium chloride solutions are fast-acting biocidal agents with a moderately long duration of action. They are active against bacteria and some viruses, fungi, and protozoa. Bacterial spores are considered to be resistant. Solutions are bacteriostatic or bactericidal according to their concentration.

Gram-positive bacteria are generally more susceptible than gram-negative bacteria. Its activity depends on the surfactant concentration and also on the bacterial concentration (inoculum) at the moment of the treatment. Activity is not greatly affected by pH, but increases substantially at higher temperatures and prolonged exposure times. In a 1998 study using the FDA protocol, a non-alcohol sanitizer with benzalkonium chloride as the active ingredient met the FDA performance standards, while Purell, a popular alcohol-based sanitizer, did not.

The study, which was undertaken and reported by a leading US developer, manufacturer and marketer of topical antimicrobial pharmaceuticals based on quaternary ammonium compounds, found that their own benzalkonium chloride-based sanitizer performed better than alcohol-based hand sanitizer after repeated use. A novel methodology was developed for the determination of alkyl (C12, C14, and C16) dimethylbenzylammonium chloride (benzalkonium chloride or BAC, Chemical Abstract Service number:  8001-54-5) in water samples.

This method is based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) using polymeric cartridges, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) detection, equipped with an electrospray interface in positive ion mode. Chromatographic separation was achieved for three BAC homologues by using a C18 column and a gradient of acetonitrile/10 millimolar aqueous ammonium formate. Total method recoveries were higher than 71% in different water matrices.

The main ions observed by LC/MS were at mass-to-charge ratios (m/z) of 304, 332, and 360, which correspond to the molecular ions of the C12, C14, and C16 alkyl BAC, respectively. The unequivocal structural identification of these compounds in water samples was performed by LC/MS/MS after isolation and subsequent fragmentation of each molecular ion. The main fragmentation observed for the three different homologues corresponded to the loss of the toluyl group in the chemical structure, which leads to the fragment ions at m/z 212, 240, and 268 and a tropylium ion, characteristic of all homologues, at m/z 91. Detection limits for the methodology developed in this work were in the low nanogram-per-liter range. Concentration levels of BACranging from 1.2 to 36.6 micrograms per literwere found in surface-water samples collected downstream from different wastewater-treatment discharges, thus indicating its input and persistence through the wastewater-treatment process.

 The degree of adsorption of quats onto cotton nonwovens is affected by pretreatment of the substrate, more specifically whether it is a greige or a scoured and bleached fabric. This study examined the effect of varying the chemical and physical properties of solutions on the adsorption of the quat alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride (ADBAC) onto greige and scoured and bleached cotton nonwoven fabrics produced by hydroentanglement. At a constant surfactant concentration, the liquor ratio, pH, temperature, and concentrations of various electrolytes in the solution were varied and the amount of ADBAC depleted from solution was determined over time. The results suggested that a more alkaline solution increased the amount of ADBAC adsorbed onto both cotton nonwoven fabrics, while a more acidic solution reduced ADBAC adsorption.

Likewise, increasing the temperature and concentration of salts in the solution reduced the adsorption of ADBAC onto the cotton fabrics. The presence of nonionic surfactants or low molecular weight quats also reduced ADBAC adsorption onto cotton fabrics in a concentration-dependent manner. The results of this study will provide guidance for optimized chemical formulations compatible with disposable disinfecting cotton-based wipes, cloths, and other cotton-containing implements intended for use in cleaning and disinfecting applications.

The wipes market represents one of the fastest growing areas in nonwoven textiles. Based on statistics from the Association of Nonwoven Fabrics Industry (INDA), in 2012 the North American wipes market represented 17.1% of the overall nonwovens market, which is broken down into 27% baby wipes; 26% household wipes; 10% personal care; and 36% industrial and institutional.1 The overall wipes market is projected to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 6.65% over the period 2014–2019, with rising demands for personal hygiene products and disposable medical products as major drivers of the market.2 Household wipes represent a broad range of uses, including consumer antibacterial, sanitizing, and antiseptic wipes, hospital antiseptic wipes, consumer disinfecting wipes, hospital disinfecting wipes, and indirect food contact wipes.

The predominant types of synthetic filaments cut to staple fibers that are used in the manufacturing of nonwovens are polypropylene (PP), polyester (PES), and rayon, which comprise approximately 25%, 30%, and 9% of global nonwoven fiber consumption, respectively. The increased demand for flushable wipes is also a driving force for biodegradable wipes substrates.This electric surface charge, however, is partially dependent on the pH of the solution. In solutions of lower pH, the negative surface charge of cotton becomes less pronounced, whereas increasing the pH increases the magnitude of the negative surface charge.

ADBAC is a cationic surfactant commonly used in the production of disposable nonwoven antimicrobial wipes capable of disinfecting hard surfaces. The use of cotton in such products is significantly hindered by the fact that cotton fibers adsorb quats and do not release the antimicrobial agents when in contact with hard surfaces. The depletion of the quat from bulk solution by adsorbtion is nearly double for greige cotton compared to scoured and bleached cotton substrates. This work has shown that the adsorption of ADBAC onto greige and scoured and bleached cotton nonwoven substrates can be controlled by varying the chemical and physical properties of the surfactant formulation.

Decreasing the ratio of fabric to solution was found to decrease the total amount of ADBAC adsorbed onto the substrates. Increasing the temperature or decreasing the pH reduced the adsorption of ADBAC. Adding electrolyte to the surfactant formulation significantly reduced ADBAC adsorption onto both of the nonwoven substrates; however, this effect was more pronounced for the bleached substrate. Co-formulation with polyoxyethylene-derived nonionic surfactants also reduced the adsorption of ADBAC onto both cotton substrates in a concentration-dependent manner.

The information presented in this work will guide the development of quat co-formulations that are compatible with disposable cotton-based nonwoven disinfecting wipes, cloths, and other cotton-containing implements intended for use in cleaning and disinfecting applications. A combination of electrolyte, low molecular weight quat, and nonionic surfactant concentrations in the same co-formulation with ADBAC is being examined during long-term storage using response surface methodology to develop an optimized co-formulation for cellulosic wipes.

This research aims to pass standardized efficacy testing for pre-saturated towlettes for hard surface disinfection under the scrutiny of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) standards required for US EPA registration, thereby providing guidelines for the wipes industry to utilize a large volume of cotton fibers with quat-based disinfecting solutions. Didecyldimethylammonium Chloride (DDAC): In this molecule, as the name implies, there are two alkyl chains each comprising of 10 (C10) carbon atoms. However the legislation also captures analogues with two C8 (Octly) chains and two C12 (Dodecyl) chains. Also included would be mixtures comprising C8, C10 and C12.

Benzalkonium Chloride (BAC) also known as Alkyl Dimethyl Benzyl Ammonium Chloride: Here the alkyl chain lengths are specified as being C8, C10, C12, C14, C16 and C18. Alkyl Dimethyl Benzyl Ammonium Chloride (ADBAC) is a quarternary ammonium compound based broad spectrum terminal disinfectant, used for the purpose of surface disinfection such as walls, floor, tables, equipment etc. Furthermore, it is used for water disinfection in various applications throughout food and beverage, dairy, poultry, pharmaceutical industries and institutions. It exhibits great disinfecting ability.

Alkyl dimethyl ethylbenzyl ammonium chloride is a quaternary ammonium compound which belongs to the group of cationic surfactants. This product have several biocidal applications. Serving as an antimicrobial agent, it has wide applications in various industries such as agriculture, food handling, commercial/ instituional and medical set up. It is an ubiquitous ingredient for ophthalmic formulations. Alkyl Dimethyl Benzyl Ammonium Chloride is used as a surface disinfectant for floor, walls, tables, equipment, etc., also for water disinfection in various applications through out food and beverage, dairy, poultry, pharmaceutical industries and institutions.

A synergic combination of DDAC and ADBAC ideally suited to be used as aerial disinfectant. There are 21 different alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chlorides (ADBAC), these are used in different formulations as part of sanitizing and disinfectant products for hard, non-porous surfaces.

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