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CAS Number  : 10043-67-1 /  7784-24-9

Aluminium potassium sulfate = Potassium alum = Potassium alum sulfate

Potassium alum, potash alum, or potassium aluminium sulfate is a chemical compound: the double sulfate of potassium and aluminium, with chemical formula KAl(SO4)2. 
Aluminium potassium sulfate is commonly encountered as the dodecahydrate, KAl(SO4)2·12H2O. 
Aluminium potassium sulfate crystallizes in an octahedral structure in neutral solution and cubic structure in an alkali solution with space group P a −3 and lattice parameter of 12.18 Å. 
The compound is the most important member of the generic class of compounds called alums, and is often called simply alum.

Potassium alum is commonly used in water purification, leather tanning, dyeing, fireproof textiles, and baking powder as E number E522. 
Aluminium potassium sulfate also has cosmetic uses as a deodorant, as an aftershave treatment and as a styptic for minor bleeding from shaving.

Potassium alum was known to the Ancient Egyptians, who obtained it from evaporites in the Western desert and reportedly used it as early as 1500 BCE to reduce the visible cloudiness (turbidity) in the water.

Potassium alum was described under the name alumen or salsugoterrae by Pliny, and it is clearly the same as the stupteria described by Dioscorides.
However, the name alum and other names applied to this substance — like misy, sory, chalcanthum, and atramentum sutorium — were often applied to other products with vaguely similar properties or uses, such as iron sulfate or "green vitriol".

Aluminium potassium sulfate production of potassium alum from alunite is archaeologically attested on the island Lesbos.
This site was abandoned in the 7th century but dates back at least to the 2nd century CE.

Potassium alum is mentioned in some Ayurvedic texts with the name such as sphaṭika kṣāra, phitkari or saurashtri.
Aluminium potassium sulfate is used in traditional Chinese medicine with the name mingfan .

In the middle and modern ages
Potassium alum was imported into England mainly from the Middle East, and, from the late 15th century onwards, the Papal States for hundreds of years. 
Aluminium potassium sulfate use there was as a dye-fixer (mordant) for wool (which was one of England's primary industries, the value of which increased significantly if dyed).

These sources were unreliable, however, and there was a push to develop a source in England especially as imports from the Papal States were ceased following the excommunication of Henry VIII.

Historically, potassium alum was used extensively in the wool industry from Classical antiquity, during the Middle Ages, and well into 19th century as a mordant or dye fixative in the process of turning wool into dyed bolts of cloth.

In the 13th and 14th centuries, alum (from alunite) was a major import from Phocaea (Gulf of Smyrna in Byzantium) by Genoans and Venetians (and was a cause of war between Genoa and Venice) and later by Florence. 
After the fall of Constantinople, alunite (the source of alum) was discovered at Tolfa in the Papal States (1461). 
The textile dyeing industry in Bruges, and many other locations in Italy, and later in England, required alum to stabilize the dyes onto the fabric (make the dyes "fast") and also to brighten the colors.

With state financing, attempts were made throughout the 16th century, but without success until early on in the 17th century. 
An industry was founded in Yorkshire to process the shale, which contained the key ingredient, aluminium sulfate, and made an important contribution to the Industrial Revolution. 
One of the oldest historic sites for the production of alum from shale and human urine are the Peak alum works in Ravenscar, North Yorkshire. 
By the 18th century, the landscape of northeast Yorkshire had been devastated by this process, which involved constructing 100-foot (30 m) stacks of burning shale and fuelling them with firewood continuously for months. 
The rest of the production process consisted of quarrying, extraction, steeping of shale ash with seaweed in urine, boiling, evaporating, crystallisation, milling and loading into sacks for export. 
Quarrying ate into the cliffs of the area, the forests were felled for charcoal and the land polluted by sulfuric acid and ash.

Identification of the formula
In the early 1700s, Georg Ernst Stahl claimed that reacting sulfuric acid with limestone produced a sort of alum.
The error was soon corrected by Johann Pott and Andreas Marggraf, who showed that the precipitate obtained when an alkali is poured into a solution of alum, namely alumina, is quite different from lime and chalk, and is one of the ingredients in common clay.

Marggraf also showed that perfect crystals with properties of alum can be obtained by dissolving alumina in sulfuric acid and adding potash or ammonia to the concentrated solution.
In 1767, Torbern Bergman observed the need for potassium or ammonium sulfates to convert aluminium sulfate into alum, while sodium or calcium would not work.

At the time, potassium ("potash") was believed to be exclusively found on plants. 
However, in 1797, Martin Klaproth discovered the presence of potassium in the minerals leucite and lepidolite.

Louis Vauquelin then conjectured that potassium was likewise an ingredient in many other minerals. 
Given Marggraf and Bergman's experiments, he suspected that this alkali constituted an essential ingredient of natural alum. 
In 1797 he published a dissertation demonstrating that alum is a double salt, composed of sulfuric acid, alumina, and potash.
In the same journal volume, Jean-Antoine Chaptall published the analysis of four different kinds of alum, namely, Roman alum, Levant alum, British alum and alum manufactured by himself, confirming Vauquelin's results.

Octahedral potassium alum crystal with unequal distribution of the face area
Potassium alum crystallizes in regular octahedra with flattened corners and is very soluble in water. 
The solution is slightly acidic and is astringent to the taste. 
Neutralizing a solution of alum with potassium hydroxide will begin to cause the separation of alumina Al(OH)3.

When heated to nearly a red heat, it gives a porous, friable mass, which is known as "burnt alum". 
Aluminium potassium sulfate fuses at 92 °C (198 °F) in its own water of crystallization.

Natural occurrence
Potassium alum dodecahydrate occurs in nature as a sulfate mineral called alum-(K), typically as encrustations on rocks in areas of weathering and oxidation of sulfide minerals and potassium-bearing minerals.

In the past, potassium alum has been obtained from alunite (KAl(SO4)2·2Al(OH)3), mined from sulfur-containing volcanic sediments.
Alunite is an associate and likely potassium and aluminium source.
Aluminium potassium sulfate has been reported at Vesuvius, Italy; east of Springsure, Queensland; in Alum Cave, Tennessee; Alum Gulch, Santa Cruz County, Arizona and the Philippine island of Cebu.

In order to obtain alum from alunite, it is calcined and then exposed to the action of air for a considerable time. 
During this exposure it is kept continually moistened with water, so that it ultimately falls to a very fine powder.
This powder is then lixiviated with hot water, the liquor decanted, and the alum allowed to crystallize.

The undecahydrate also occurs as the fibrous mineral kalinite (KAl(SO4)2·11H2O).

Industrial production
Potassium alum historically was mainly extracted from alunite.

Potassium alum is now produced industrially by adding potassium sulfate to a concentrated solution of aluminium sulfate.
The aluminium sulfate is usually obtained by treating minerals like alum schist, bauxite and cryolite with sulfuric acid.
If much iron should be present in the sulfate then it is preferable to use potassium chloride in place of potassium sulfate.

Medicine and cosmetics

An alum block sold as an astringent in pharmacies in India (where it is widely known as Fitkiri (Bengali), Fitkari (Hindi) or Phitkari (Urdu)
Potassium alum is used in medicine mainly as an astringent (or styptic) and antiseptic.

Styptic pencils are rods composed of potassium alum or aluminum sulfate, used topically to reduce bleeding in minor cuts (especially from shaving) and abrasions, nosebleeds, and hemorrhoids, and to relieve pain from stings and bites.
Potassium alum blocks are rubbed over the wet skin after shaving.

Potassium alum is also used topically to remove pimples and acne, and to cauterize aphthous ulcers in the mouth and canker sores, as it has a significant drying effect to the area and reduces the irritation felt at the site. 
Aluminium potassium sulfate has been used to stop bleeding in cases of hemorrhagic cystitis and is used in some countries as a cure for hyperhidrosis.

Aluminium potassium sulfate is used in dentistry (especially in gingival retraction cords) because of its astringent and hemostatic properties.

Potassium and ammonium alum are the active ingredients in some antiperspirants and deodorants, acting by inhibiting the growth of the bacteria responsible for body odor. 
Alum's antiperspirant and antibacterial properties contribute to its traditional use as an underarm deodorant.
Aluminium potassium sulfate has been used for this purpose in Europe, Mexico, Thailand (where it is called sarn-som), throughout Asia and in the Philippines (where it is called tawas). 
Today, potassium or ammonium alum is sold commercially for this purpose as a "deodorant crystal".
Beginning in 2005 the US Food and Drug Administration no longer recognized it as a wetness reducer, however it is still available and used in several other countries, primarily in Asia.

Potassium alum was the major adjuvant used to increase the efficacy of vaccines, and has been used since the 1920s.
But it has been almost completely replaced by aluminium hydroxide and aluminium phosphate in commercial vaccines.

Alum may be used in depilatory waxes used for the removal of body hair or applied to freshly waxed skin as a soothing agent.

In the 1950s, men sporting crewcut or flattop hairstyles sometimes applied alum to their hair, as an alternative to pomade, to keep the hair standing up.

Potassium alum may be an acidic ingredient of baking powder to provide a second leavening phase at high temperatures (although sodium alum is more commonly used for that purpose).
For example, potassium alum is frequently used in leavening of Youtiao, a traditional Chinese fried bread, throughout China.

Alum was used by bakers in England during the 1800s to make bread whiter. 
Aluminium potassium sulfate was theorized by some, including John Snow, to cause rickets.
Aluminium potassium sulfate Sale of Food and Drugs Act 1875 prevented this and other adulterations.

Potassium alum, under the name "alum powder", is found in the spice section of many grocery stores in the US. 
Aluminium potassium sulfate chief culinary use is in pickling recipes, to preserve and add crispness to fruit and vegetables.

Flame retardant
Potassium alum is used as a fire retardant to render cloth, wood, and paper materials less flammable.

Potassium alum is used in leather tanning, in order to remove moisture from the hide and prevent rotting.
Unlike tannic acid, alum doesn't bind to the hide and can be washed out of Aluminium potassium sulfate. 

Alum has been used since antiquity as mordant to form a permanent bond between dye and natural textile fibers like wool.
Aluminium potassium sulfate is also used for this purpose in paper marbling.

Chemical flocculant
Potassium alum has been used since remote antiquity for purification of turbid liquids.
Aluminium potassium sulfate is still widely used in the purification of water for drinking and industrial processes water, treatment of effluents and post-storm treatment of lakes to precipitate contaminants.

Between 30 and 40 ppm of alum for household wastewater, often more for industrial wastewater,is added to the water so that the negatively charged colloidal particles clump together into "flocs", which then float to the top of the liquid, settle to the bottom of the liquid, or can be more easily filtered from the liquid, prior to further filtration and disinfection of the water.
Like other similar salts, it works by neutralizing the electrical double layer surrounding very fine suspended particles, allowing them to join into flocs.

The same principle is exploited when using alum to increase the viscosity of a ceramic glaze suspension; this makes the glaze more readily adherent and slows its rate of sedimentation.

Lake pigments
Aluminum hydroxide from potassium alum serves as a base for the majority of lake pigments.

Dissolving iron and steel
Alum solution has the property of dissolving steels while not affecting aluminium or base metals. 
Alum solution can be used to dissolve steel tool bits that have become lodged in machined castings.

In traditional Japanese art, alum and animal glue were dissolved in water, forming a liquid known as dousa, and used as an undercoat for paper sizing.

Alum is an ingredient in some recipes for homemade modeling compounds intended for use by children. 
These are often called "play clay" or "play dough" for their similarity to "Play-Doh".[citation needed]

Potassium alum was formerly used as a hardener for photographic emulsions (films and papers), usually as part of the fixer. 
Aluminium potassium sulfate has now been replaced in that use by other chemicals.

IUPAC name
       Potassium alum
Other names
       Potassium alum sulfate
       Potash alum

CAS Number  : 10043-67-1 
                        7784-24-9 (dodecahydrate) 

ChEBI    : CHEBI:86463
ECHA InfoCard    :100.112.464 
E number:    E522 (acidity regulators, ...)
PubChem CID: 24856
UNII    :09OXB01F3O check
                  1L24V9R23S (dodecahydrate) 

Chemical formula    :KAl(SO4)2·12H2O
Molar mass    :258.192 g/mol (anhydrous)
                                 474.37 g/mol (dodecahydrate)
Appearance    :White crystals
Odor    :Watery metallic
Density:    1.725 g/cm3
Melting point    :92 to 95 °C (198 to 203 °F; 365 to 368 K)
Boiling point    :Decomposes at 200[3] °C (392 °F; 473 K)
Solubility in water    :14.00 g/100 mL (20,5°C)
                                  36.80 g/100 mL (50 °C)
Solubility in other solvents:    Insoluble in acetone
Refractive index (nD)    :1.4564

Potassium aluminium sulfate is a metal sulfate composed of potassium, aluminium and sulfate ions in the ration 1:1:2. 
Aluminium potassium sulfate has a role as a flame retardant, a mordant and an astringent. 
Aluminium potassium sulfate is a metal sulfate, an aluminium salt and a potassium salt. 
Aluminium potassium sulfate contains an aluminium(3+).

Potassium alum is considered by the FDA as a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) substance. 
Aluminium potassium sulfate is an inorganic salt, also called potassium aluminum sulfate with a formula of AlK(SO4)2 that is predominantly produced in the dodecahydrate form (AlK(SO4)2 * 12H2O).
Potassium alum is formed by large, transparent crystals that are used in different products like food or drugs as a buffer, neutralizing or forming agent.

flame retardant
Any compound that is added to manufactured materials to inhibit, suppress, or delay the production of flames and so prevent the spread of fire.
Substance used to set dyes on fabrics or tissue sections by forming a coordination complex with the dye which then attaches to the fabric or tissue.
A compound that causes the contraction of body tissues, typically used to reduce bleeding from minor abrasions.

Highly prized worldwide since antiquity, Aluminum Potassium Sulfate is the premier mordanting material for protein fibers such as silk and wool. 
What does this humble mineral have in common with the most powerful family in Italy during the Renaissance?
During the 12th century, ambitious nobles and merchants became rich on alum exports from the Aegean islands.  
In the mid-15th century, the expanding Turkish empire gained control of the Aegean areas and imposed heavy tariffs on the mineral, causing a shortage and a sharp spike in prices in Italy.

Around the same time, rich alum veins were discovered near Tolfa outside of Rome and within the Papal States of Italy. 
Pope Pius II seized the opportunity to export alum and build the Vatican fortune throughout Christendom. 
Aluminium potassium sulfate Medici bankers, financiers and cultural influencers, also grew their fortune on wool textile manufacturing in Florence, requiring Tolfa alum. 
Italy exported alum throughout Europe for nearly 300 years until competition from other sources arose in the 18th century.  
So what does this wondrous substance look like? 
Aluminum potassium sulfate is refined from bauxite and is a transparent, free flowing crystal, resembling salt. 
We supply a food grade aluminum potassium sulfate that is free of iron and other impurities.

You can use between 10-20% alum on the weight of fiber.  
250 grams will mordant about 2500 grams (5.5 lbs) at 10%  Aluminum potassium sulfate dye baths may be used either hot or cold, and may also be re-used with the addition of more alum.  
Check out our How To Mordant section for further information.

The presence of potassium alum reduces swollen mucous membranes that result from inflammation of the nasal, gastrointestinal and urinary passages as well as in the presence of excessive secretions. 
The induction of the coagulation cascade will also stop bleeding.

Mechanism of action
Aluminium potassium sulfate main functions of potassium alum in drugs are as an astringent, antiseptic or adjuvant agent. 
Aluminium potassium sulfate astringent action is performed by the induction of coagulation in the superficial tissue layers until the formation of a crust. 
Aluminium potassium sulfate formation of alum ions neutralize the charges on plasma proteins, causing the blood to coagulate. 
Similar effect is observed in disinfectants where these ions react with the free organic acid and thiol groups of proteins on microbes and free proteins, resulting in protein precipitation. 
This action will generate the contraction of the tissue and dry up secretions. 
Aluminium potassium sulfate adjuvant properties are mainly used in the production of vaccines where the presence of this chemical enhances the immune response.

Potassium alum is found in its dodecahydrate form that produces a very large molecule. 
This large molecule cannot be absorbed through the skin when this substance is included as an astringent agent in topical OTC.
If ingested, the aluminum salts are rapidly solubilized in the stomach and then they can generate aluminum hydroxide or poorly absorbed basic aluminum salts.

Volume of distribution
The distribution of aluminum salts in the body is influenced by increased concentrations of parathyroid hormone. 
Aluminium potassium sulfate was shown, in preclinical studies, that oral administration of aluminum salts produces a distribution profile that forms deposits in kidneys, muscle, bone and gray matter.

Protein binding
In studies, Aluminium potassium sulfate has been shown that aluminum and aluminum salts are highly bound to plasma proteins. 
From the reports, it was found that 70-90% is bound to plasma proteins of which 60-70% is related to high molecular weight proteins and 10-20% to albumin.

Potassium alum does not go through a metabolic pathway. 
When ingested or absorbed, it will get rapidly dissolved and it will form ions that will later generate other salt derivatives.

Route of elimination
When potassium alum is absorbed, the kidney is responsible for the elimination of the major portion of the absorbed dose.
From the excretion, 0.1-0.3% of the absorbed dose is eliminated via the urine.

Studies performed with aluminum compounds have shown a half-life of 4.5 h when administered intravenously.

Renal clearance of aluminum is approximately 5-10% of the excretion of urea or creatinine. 
The reduced clearance of aluminum compounds is due to the high protein binding

Potassium alum is considered safe by the FDA and its use is in homepathic or OTC products. 
Due to its presence in several different drugs, the main indications for the use of potassium alum are:

Constipation10 -Cosmetic or drug astringent, helping the shrinkage of tissues and the dry of secretions11 -Oral health care drug11 -Part of formulation in cleansing products, skin-care products, mosturizers, face powders and deodorants12 -Antiperspirant13 -Antifungal13

Potassium alum is considered by the FDA as a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) substance.
Aluminium potassium sulfate is an inorganic salt, also called potassium aluminum sulfate with a formula of AlK(SO4)2 that is predominantly produced in the dodecahydrate form (AlK(SO4)2 * 12H2O). 
Potassium alum is formed by large, transparent crystals that are used in different products like food or drugs as a buffer, neutralizing or forming agent.

Aluminum potassium sulfate (uh-LOO-min-um po-TASS-see-um sul-fate) is also known as aluminum potassium sulfate dodecahydrate, potash alum, potassium alum, and kalinite. It normally occurs in the form of the dodecahydrate, meaning that each molecule of the compound is associated with twelve molecules of water. 
Aluminium potassium sulfate formula of the hydrate is KAl(SO4)2·12H2O. 
In this form, it occurs as white odorless crystals. 
Aluminium potassium sulfate compound gradually loses its water of hydration when heated, giving up the first nine molecules of water at 64.5°C (148°F), and the remaining three molecules of water at about 200°C (392°F).

Soluble in cold water; very soluble in hot water; insoluble in alcohol, ether, acetone, and other organic solvents

Aluminum potassium sulfate belongs to a family of compounds known collectively as the alums. 
Aluminium potassium sulfate term alum refers to a double salt that consists of aluminum, the sulfate group (SO4), and one other metal. 
Aluminium potassium sulfate presence of two metals, aluminum plus one other metal, accounts for the name double salt. 
Other common alums are aluminum ammonium sulfate and aluminum sodium sulfate.

The alums were known as far back as ancient Egypt and China, where they were used as deodorants. 
Alums are effective for this purpose because they are astringents, substances that cause tissues to shrink or contract, thus reducing the tendency of sweat glands to produce perspiration. 
As astringents, alums were also used in the field of medicine to treat wounds and prevent bleeding. 
Until the nineteenth century, however, chemists did not recognize that the substance they knew as alum was actually a variety of different compounds.

Aluminum potassium sulfate occurs naturally in the form of the minerals alunite and kalinite. 
Where these minerals are available, the compound can be mined and purified to obtain potash alum. 
Where the minerals are not available, the compound can be produced synthetically by combining aqueous aluminum sulfate with aqueous potassium sulfate. 
The two compounds react with each other in solution to form the double salt, aluminum potassium sulfate, which can then be extracted by allowing the solutions to evaporate, during which the desired compound crystallizes out.

Interesting Facts
During the fifteenth century, the Vatican achieved control of the alum industry in Europe. 
When King Henry VIII of England quarreled with Pope Clemens VII a century later over his desire to marry a second time, the pope cut off supplies of alum to Great Britain. 
Since alum was an essential product in the dyeing of clothes, the English clothing industry rapidly fell into dire circumstances.

One of aluminum potassium sulfate's major uses is in the dyeing of fibers and fabrics, where it is employed as a mordant. 
A mordant is a substance that reacts with a dye, helping it attach more permanently to a fiber or fabric. 
Aluminum potassium sulfate has also been used in the paper-making industry for many centuries, where it has a variety of applications. 
For example, it can be used to give paper a tough, shiny surface or to increase the intensity of inks, paints, and dyes used on the paper. 
Some water treatment plants also use aluminum potassium sulfate in their purification systems. 
The compound is added to water, where it combines with colloidal particles suspended in water to form larger clumps, which then settle out of the water. 
Other uses of aluminum potassium sulfate include:

As a food additive, used to control the acidity of the product;
In the manufacture of matches;
For the waterproofing of fabrics;
In the tanning of leather;
In the manufacture of deodorants;
To add hardness and toughness to cement;
In the production of fireworks;
As an astringent in medical treatments; and
In the preparation of other compounds of aluminum in the chemical industry.

 Drivers in fire-retardant development
The history of fire retardants goes back to Egyptian times when solutions of alum (hydrated potassium aluminum sulfate (KAl(SO4)2·12H2O)) were used to treat timber. 
Gay-Lussac protected theater fabrics from fire by treatment with mixtures of ammonium phosphate, ammonium chloride, and borax which formed a glassy layer on heating. 
However, the main driver for development came with the growth of the plastics industries and the resultant widespread distribution of synthetic polymers across the anthrosphere. 
From the 1960 to the 1970s fires became more common and more severe. 
Anecdotally, fire fighters reported a change from fires with limited visibility, to those with almost no visibility due to dense smoke, primarily resulting from newly available low-cost PU foam furniture. 
In the 1960s–1970s this was accompanied by a shift from burns and, other injuries to a predominance of harm caused by toxic gas inhalation, as discussed later. 
The increasing severity of the fire problem led to the development from empirical tests for flammability to engineering models capable of providing data on burning behavior. 
This was accompanied by a shift in emphasis from ignitability to peak heat release rate.
Unfortunately, the model chosen to quantify this behavior, the cone calorimeter, was only capable of replicating penetrative burning into a sample, not surface spread of flame. 
Predictive fire modeling is still at an early stage of development. 
A summary of the events that drove the deployment of fire retardants during the past 50 years is presented in.

Occurs naturally as efflorescence on alum shale and as feather alum on lava; Used to dress fur skins (one of oldest methods); 
Forms aluminum potassium sulfate (CAS 10043-67-1) when heated above melting point (92.5 deg C); 
The most important alums are aluminum potassium sulfate, aluminum ammonium sulfate, and aluminum sodium sulfate. 
Aluminum potassium sulfate (hydrated) has the formula KAl(SO4)2•12H2O. 
Aluminum sulfate is used as a replacement of the alums. 
Hydrolysis of the alums yields aluminum hydroxide as a precipitant. Industrial uses include paper sizing, water purification, and textile dyeing (mordant). 
Alums are also used in pickling, baking powder, fire extinguishers, and astringents. [Britannica]

Alum, Potassium alum, Aluminium potassium sulphate
Empirical formula KAI(SO4)2 · 12 H2O
Molar mass (M) 474,39 g/mol
Density (D) 1,75 g/cm³
Melting point (mp) 92,5 °C
CAS No. [7784-24-9]
EG-Nr. 233-141-3

Potassium aluminum sulfate, also known as potassium alum or potash alum, is the potassium double sulfate of aluminum with chemical formula KAI(SO4)2.  
Usually potassium alum appears in the hydrated form and thus has the chemical formula KAI(SO4)2·12H2O.  
This compound is commonly used in cosmetics as a deodorant, aftershave treatment, and as an astringent and styptic for minor bleeding.  
Aluminium potassium sulfate can also be found in baking powder and sees use in water purification, tanning and dyeing, and in the manufacture of textiles and flame retardants.  
Potash alum can be used to speed up the hardening of concrete and plaster, and it acts as a catalyst in various chemical reactions. 

A naturally occurring mineral, potassium alum can be found on rock surfaces in areas of weathering and oxidation.  
Aluminium potassium sulfate was known to the ancient Egyptians, who obtained it from the Western Desert for water treatment at least as early as 1500 BC.  
Historically, potassium alum was primarily extracted from the mineral alunite, found among sulfur-containing volcanic sediments.  
Today it is produced industrially by adding potassium sulfate or potassium chloride to a concentrated solution of aluminum sulfate.  
Aluminium potassium sulfate aluminum sulfate is typically obtained by treating minerals such as bauxite or cryolite with sulfuric acid.  
Aluminium potassium sulfate final potassium alum product is sold either in crystalline form or as a fine white powder.

Potassium aluminum sulfate also lends itself to a popular science project as it can be used to grow impressive clear, non-toxic crystals.  
Potassium aluminum sulfate crystals grow larger than the typical salt crystal, and they can be made quickly using ordinary household kitchen items.   

Our alum is aluminium potassium sulphate. It is a hiqh quality, scientific grade product with no iron contamination.
Alum is used as a mordant in natural dyeing and is our recommended mordant for protein (animal) fibres.
We recommend a ratio of 10g alum per 100g dry weight of fibres.
Alum can also be used in conjunction with tannin for an alum-tannin-alum mordant on cellulose (plant) fibres.

Chemical Quantity    500 g
Assay    Assay = 99-102%
CAS    7784-24-9
Chemical Alternative Name    (Potash alum)
Molecular Formula    AlK(SO4)2·12H2O
MW    474.39
UN    Non restricted

First Aid Measures
General Advice: No Data Available
If: Inhaled: If breathed in, move person into fresh air. 
If not breathing, give artificial respiration.
If: Skin Contact: Wash off with soap and plenty of water.
If: Eye Contac: Flush eyes with water as a precaution.
If: Swallowed: Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. 
Rinse mouth with water.
Important Symptoms: Gastrointestinal disturbance. 
To the best of our knowledge, the chemical, physical and toxicological properties have not been thoroughly investigated.
Immediate Medical Attention: No Data Available

Firefighting Measures
Extinguishing Media: Use water spray, alcohol-resistant foam, dry chemical or Carbon Dioxide.
Hazards Arising: Sulphur Oxides, Potassium Oxides, Aluminum Oxide
Advice for Firefighters: Wear self contained breathing apparatus for fire fighting if necessary.
Info for Firefighting: No Data Available

Accidental Release Measures
Personal Precautions: Avoid dust formation. Avoid breathing vapors, mist or gas.
Enviromental Precautions: Do not let product enter drains
Method for Containment: Sweep up and shovel. 
Keep in suitable, closed containers for disposal.

Handling and Storage
Personal Precautions: Provide appropriate exhaust ventilation at places where dust is formed. 
Normal measures for preventive fire protection.
Enviromental Precautions: Store in cool place. 
Keep container tightly closed in a dry and well-ventilated place.

Potassium alum
Aluminum potassium sulfate
Potash alum
Potassium Aluminium Sulfate
Burnt potassium alum
Aluminum potassium disulfate
Aluminum potassium alum
Potassium aluminum sulfate
Aluminium potassium bis(sulphate)
Potassium aluminum alum
Aluminium potassium sulfate
potassium aluminum disulfate
Exsiccated alum
Alum potassium
Burnt alum
Tai-Ace K 20
Alum, potassium anhydrous
Tai-Ace K 150
Dialuminum dipotassium sulfate
CCRIS 6842
Aluminum potassium sulfate, alum
HSDB 2685
Alum, N.F.
EINECS 233-141-3
Aluminum potassium sulfate, anhydrous
Potassium aluminum sulfate (1:1:2)
Sulfuric acid, aluminum potassium salt (2:1:1)
Aluminum potassium sulfate (AlK(SO4)2)
Aluminum potassium sulfate (KAl(SO4)2)
aluminium potassium sulfate (1/1/2)
Aluminum Sulfate-22%
Aluminum Sulfate n-Hydrate
Potassium Aluminum Sulphate


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