Ammonia solution; ammonia 25%; ammonia water; ammonium hydroxide; ammoniacal liquor; ammonia liquor; aqua ammonia; aqueous ammonia; 1336-21-6; Ammonia water; Ammonia aqueous; Ammonium hydroxide ((NH4)(OH)); Aquammonia; Aqua ammonia; Ammonia, aqua; Household ammonia; Ammonia, aqueous solution; Ammonia, monohydrate; Ammonia water 29%; Caswell No. 044; Ammoniumhydroxide; Aqueous ammonia; NH4OH; SX 1 (ammonia water); Ammonia solution; ammoniumhydroxide; Ammonia, aqueous
CAS NO: 1336-21-6
EC NO: 215-647-6
Ammonia solution; ammonia 25%; ammonia water; ammonium hydroxide; ammoniacal liquor; ammonia liquor; aqua ammonia; aqueous ammonia; 1336-21-6; Ammonia water; Ammonia aqueous; Ammonium hydroxide ((NH4)(OH)); Aquammonia; Aqua ammonia; Ammonia, aqua; Household ammonia; Ammonia, aqueous solution; Ammonia, monohydrate; Ammonia water 29%; Caswell No. 044; Ammoniumhydroxide; Aqueous ammonia; NH4OH; SX 1 (ammonia water); Ammonia solution; ammoniumhydroxide; Ammonia, aqueous; Ammonium hydroxide solution; SX 1; HSDB 5125; EINECS 215-647-6; UN2672; UN3318; EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 005301; UN2073; Ammonium aqueous (28% or less NH3); Ammonia hydroxide, 25% solution in water; Ammonium hydroxide (28% or less ammonia); Ammonia (ammonium hydroxide) 28% by weight or more NH3; Ammonia water [JAN]; Ammonium hydroxide, extra pure, 5 wt% in water; Ammonium hydroxide, extra pure, 10 wt% in water; Ammonium hydroxide, extra pure, 25% solution in water; Ammonium hydroxide, for analysis, 20% solution in water; Ammonium hydroxide, for analysis, 25% solution in water; ammoniaque; Ammonium hydroxide, ACS reagent, 28-30% solution in water; ammonia hydrate; water ammonia; Ammonium hydroxide, for analysis, 28-30 wt% solution of NH3 in water; NH3 water; water NH3; AMINE HYDRATE; Ammonia water (JP17); EC 215-647-6; ACMC-1C98S; NH3 H2O; NH3-H2O; NH3.H2O; KSC175O9F; Ammonium Hydroxide Reagent ACS; DTXSID4020080; CHEBI:18219; CTK0H5792; KS-00000WFX; Ammonium hydroxide, 28% solution; MFCD00066650; AKOS015903971; AKOS030228272; LS-3168; E527; FT-0622304; Y1310; C01358; D04594; Ammonium hydroxide, solution 28-30% ACS reagent; J-006420; Ammonium hydroxide, Environmental Grade, 20-22% NH3; Ammonium hydroxide, for HPLC, 35% solution in water; Ammonium hydroxide, solution 14-16% w/w Trace Metals Grade; Ammonia solution, relative density <0.880 at 15 degree C in water, with >50% ammonia; Ammonia solution, relative density <0.880 at 15 degree C in water, with >50% ammonia [UN3318] [Nonflammable gas, Poison gas]; Ammonia solution, relative density <0.880 at 15 degree C in water, with >50% ammonia [UN3318] [Nonflammable gas, Poison gas]; Ammonia solutions, relative density <0.880 at 15 C in water, with >35% but not >50% ammonia; Ammonia solutions, relative density <0.880 at 15 C in water, with >35% but not >50% ammonia [UN2073] [Nonflammable gas]; Ammonia solutions, relative density <0.880 at 15 C in water, with >35% but not >50% ammonia [UN2073] [Nonflammable gas]; Ammonia solutions, relative density between 0.880 and 0.957 at 15 C in water, with >10% but not >35% ammonia; Ammonia solutions, relative density between 0.880 and 0.957 at 15 C in water, with >10% but not >35% ammonia [UN2672] [Corrosive]; Ammonia solutions, relative density between 0.880 and 0.957 at 15 C in water, with >10% but not >35% ammonia [UN2672] [Corrosive]; Ammonia nitrogen; nitrogen nitrogen; ammonia NH3; NH3 ammonia; ammonia; 7664-41-7; azane; Ammonia gas; Ammonia, anhydrous; Ammonia anhydrous; Anhydrous ammonia; Liquid Ammonia; ammoniac; Caswell No. 041; ammonium; Ammonium ion; Ammonium cation; Ammonium(1+); azanium; nitrogen(1+); azanylium; 14798-03-9; NH4+; Aminylium; Ammonia ion; trihydridonitrogen(.1+); Ammonium ion(+); hydridonitrogen(1+); UNII-54S68520I4; NH4(+); 54S68520I4; Ammonium Compounds; ND4; Quaternary ammonium compounds; ammonium group; Nitrogen cation; Aminylium ion; Ammonium(+); Nitrogen tetrahydride; Ammonium ion(1+); Ammonium (NH4+); Amidogen, ion(1+); Ammonia ion (NH2+); Ammonia ion (NH4+); Ammonium ion (NH4+); Ammonium (8CI,9CI); Ammonia, ion (NH41+); DTXSID5043974; CHEBI:28938; CHEBI:29352; CTK0H5427; [NH4]+; AKOS015914233; [NH4](+); N(+); C01342; Q190901; Q27110020; Q27110023; Q27110026; Q27110062; 14158-23-7; 6684-80-6; ammonia methanol; methanol ammonia; methanol nitrogen; ammonia MeOH; MeOH ammonia; methanolic ammonia; methanol NH3; NH3 methanol; MeOH NH3; NH3 MeOH; CH3OH NH3; NH3 CH3OH; ammonia-d3; (2H3)Ammonia; 13550-49-7; Ammonia-d3-; EINECS 236-926-9; perdeuterated ammonia; Ammonia-d3, 99 atom % D; DTXSID80159429; AKOS015903817; 84796-14-5; water nitrogen; Ammonium hydroxide solution, ACS reagent, 28.0-30.0% NH3 basis; CTK0E3512; (N H3) (H2 O); Ammonium hydroxide solution, 30-32%; Ammonium hydroxide solution, AR, ~25% NH3; Ammonium hydroxide solution, LR, ~25% NH3; Ammonium hydroxide solution, LR, ~30% NH3; Ammonium hydroxide solution, p.a., ACS reagent, 28-30%; Ammonium hydroxide solution, puriss., 30-33% NH3 in H2O; Ammonium hydroxide solution, BioUltra, ~1 M NH3 in H2O (T); Ammonium hydroxide solution, JIS special grade, 25.0-27.9% NH3; Ammonium hydroxide solution, JIS special grade, 28.0-30.0% NH3; Ammonium hydroxide solution, puriss. p.a. plus, >=25% NH3 in H2O; Ammonium hydroxide solution, SAJ first grade, 25.0-27.9% NH3; Ammonium hydroxide solution, SAJ first grade, 28.0-30.0% NH3; Ammonium hydroxide solution, SAJ super special grade, >=25.0% NH3; Ammonium hydroxide solution, 28% NH3 in H2O, >=99.99% trace metals basis; Ammonium hydroxide solution, 28% NH3 in H2O, suitable for determination of toxic metals; Ammonium hydroxide solution, puriss. p.a., reag. ISO, reag. Ph. Eur., ~25% NH3 basis; 178115-93-0; Ammonium hydroxide solution, puriss., meets analytical specification of Ph.??Eur., 25-30% NH3 basis; Ammonia (conc 20% or greater); NH3; CCRIS 2278; HSDB 162; UN 2073 (>44% solution); UN1005; Aminomethyl Polystyrene Resin; azanediyl (triplet); EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 005302; UNII-5138Q19F1X; R 717; UN 1005 (anhydrous gas or >50% solution); UN 2672 (between 12% and 44% solution); EINECS 231-635-3; CHEBI:16134; MFCD00011418; 5138Q19F1X; Ammonia-14N; Ammonia solution, strong (NF); Ammonia solution, strong [NF]; Ammonia, ca. 7N solution in methanol; Ammonia (includes anhydrous ammonia and aqueous ammonia from water dissociable ammonium salts and other sources; 10% of total aqueous ammonia is reportable under this listing); Ammonia, anhydrous, liquefied or ammonia solutions, relative density <0.880 at 15 C in water, with >50% ammonia [UN1005] [Nonflammable gas]; Ammonia, anhydrous, liquefied or ammonia solutions, relative density <0.880 at 15 C in water, with >50% ammonia [UN1005] [Poison gas, Corrosive]; nitrogen group; ammonia ca; primaeres Amin; Ammonia inhalant; anyhydrous ammonia; (Aminomethyl)polystyrene, 100-200 mesh, extent of labeling: ~0.5 mmol/g amine loading; NH4; UNX; Refrigerent R717; Strong Ammonia Solution; ACMC-1BKZC; Ammonia (8CI,9CI); Ammonia water (JP15); Ammonia, 7M in methanol; EC 231-635-3; Ammonia anhydrous, 99.98%; Ammonia solution strong (NF); Ammonia solution strong [usan]; INS NO.527; N H3; ammonium isovalerate 30% in pg; CHEMBL116081; DTXSID0023872; CTK0I1955; Ammonia solution, strong [USAN]; DTXSID40912315; DTXSID80420101; INS-527; [NH3]; NH(3); Ammonia solution, 0.4 M in THF; Ammonia solution, 4 M in methanol; Ammonia solution, 7 N in methanol; Ammonia, anhydrous, >=99.98%; ACT02989; Ammonia solution 2.0 M in ethanol; Ammonia solution 2.0 M in methanol; Ammonia solution, 0.5 M in dioxane; Ammonia solution, 2.0 M in ethanol; AKOS015916403; Ammonia anhydrous 170g Lecture bottle; Ammonia solution, 2.0 M in methanol; Ammonia solution 2.0 M in isopropanol; MCULE-5646000632; Ammonia 0.5M solution in 1,4-Dioxane; Ammonia solution, 2.0 M in isopropanol; Ammonia, puriss., anhydrous, >=99.9%; LS-16633; SC-46302; Ammonia solution 0.25M in tetrahydrofuran; E-527; NS00013356; Q4087; R-717; C00014; D02916; Q4832241; Q6004010; Q27110025; Ammonia (includes anhydrous ammonia and aqueous ammonia from water dissociable ammonium salts and other sources 10% of total aqueous ammonia is reportable under this listing); Ammonia, anhydrous, liquefied or ammonia solutions, relative density <0.880 at 15 C in water, with >50% ammonia; Ammonia, anhydrous, liquefied or ammonia solutions, relative density <0.880 at 15 C in water, with >50% ammonia [UN1005] [Nonflammable gas]; Ammonia, anhydrous, liquefied or ammonia solutions, relative density <0.880 at 15 C in water, with >50% ammonia [UN1005] [Poison gas, Corrosive]; ammonium hydrate; spirits of hartshorn
Ammonia solution, also known as ammonia water, ammonium hydroxide, ammoniacal liquor, ammonia liquor, aqua ammonia, aqueous ammonia, or (inaccurately) ammonia, is a solution of ammonia in water. It can be denoted by the symbols NH3(aq). Although the name ammonium hydroxide suggests an alkali with composition [NH4+][OH−], it is actually impossible to isolate samples of NH4OH. The ions NH4+ and OH− do not account for a significant fraction of the total amount of ammonia except in extremely dilute solutions.
Ammonium hydroxide is used as a cleaning agent and sanitizer in many household and industrial cleaners. Ammonium hydroxide is also used in the manufacture of products such as fertilizer, plastic, rayon and rubber. Aqueous ammonia is corrosive to aluminum alloys, copper, copper alloys, and galvanized surfaces. Aqueous ammonia is an excellent acid neutralizer.
Ammonium hydroxide is a colorless, liquid solution with a characteristic and pungent odor.
Ammonium hydroxide solutions are alkaline solutions, meaning they have high pH level. As a result, ammonium hydroxide is a severe eye, skin, and respiratory tract irritant, and readily burns tissue with which it comes in contact. Splashes to the eye may be serious, as contact may cause severe burns, irritation pain and possibly blindness. Direct contact with skin may cause severe burns if the chemical is not quickly rinsed away with copious amounts of water. Inhaling mists of ammonium hydroxide may result in irritation of the nose and throat with symptoms including burning, coughing, choking and pain. Inhaling concentrated mist may result in pulmonary edema and shock. Ingesting ammonium hydroxide may cause pain and burns of the esophagus and gastrointestinal tract.
Ammonium hydroxide is moderately toxic to aquatic organisms. It can elevate the pH of ecosystems that are not well buffered.
Ammonia vapor at levels higher than those found in common household cleaners is an irritant to the eyes, mucous membranes and lungs.
Consuming ammonia orally can cause burns to the mouth, throat and stomach. Because ammonia has a strong, unpleasant odor and taste, nonaccidental ingestion is highly unlikely.
Ammonium hydroxide is utilized in numerous applications:
In furniture making, ammonium hydroxide is used to darken or stain wood containing tannic acid.
In food production, ammonium hydroxide is used as a leavening agent or acidity regulator and is classified by the Food and Drug Administration as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
Its pH control abilities make it an effective antimicrobial agent.
Ammonium hydroxide is also used to treat straw, producing "ammoniated straw" that is edible for cattle.
In the tobacco industry, ammonium hydroxide is used for flavor enhancement and as a processing aid.
Aqueous ammonia is used in the laboratory most often as a complexant and base in inorganic analysis. It can dissolve silver residues, and when used with copper (II) solutions, provides a deep blue coloration.
Diluted ammonium hydroxide, also known as household ammonia, is a common ingredient in numerous cleaning agents, including many window cleaning formulas. In addition to use as an ingredient in cleansers, diluted ammonium hydroxide is also sold as a cleaning agent by itself, usually labeled simply as "ammonia." It is often sold plain, lemon-scented or pinescented.
Since ammonium hydroxide is used in many products, it is regulated by various governmental agencies depending on the amount and type of usage.
Ammonium hydroxide has been used safely and extensively over a long period of time. As a result, there is abundant data and information available to enable the safe handling and usage of this chemical.
In aqueous solution, ammonia deprotonates a small fraction of the water to give ammonium and hydroxide according to the following equilibrium:
NH3 + H2O ⇌ NH4+ + OH−.
In a 1 M ammonia solution, about 0.42% of the ammonia is converted to ammonium, equivalent to pH = 11.63 because [NH4+] = 0.0042 M, [OH−] = 0.0042 M, [NH3] = 0.9958 M, and pH = 14 + log10[OH−] = 11.62. The base ionization constant is
Kb = [NH4+][OH−] / [NH3] = 1.8×10−5.
Like other gases, ammonia exhibits decreasing solubility in solvent liquids as the temperature of the solvent increases. Ammonia solutions decrease in density as the concentration of dissolved ammonia increases. At 15.6 °C (60.1 °F), the density of a saturated solution is 0.88 g/ml and contains 35.6% ammonia by mass, 308 grams of ammonia per litre of solution, and has a molarity of approximately 18 mol/L. At higher temperatures, the molarity of the saturated solution decreases and the density increases. Upon warming saturated solutions, ammonia gas is released.
Ammonia is a common and essential chemical compound made up of nitrogen and hydrogen, also known as NH3. Found in a multitude of places naturally, this is a chemical that is necessary for many organisms involved in the nitrogen cycle and the body’s waste production process. Organisms produce ammonia and amino acids when the body breaks down proteins during digestion, this is partially done by some digestive bacteria. Ammonia is essential for the synthesis of DNA and proteins especially. Overall, the body produces, on average, about 17 grams or .5 ounces of ammonia, which is then either absorbed into the circulation system (about 4 grams) or excreted through urine made by the liver.
Ammonium hydroxide is a clear, colorless aqueous solution consisting of ammonia gas dissolved in water. The compound does not exist in any other state. Ammonium hydroxide has a strong pungent, suffocating odor caused by the release of ammonia gas from the solution. Most solutions of ammonium hydroxide range in concentration from less than one percent to about 35 percent ammonia. For most commercial purposes the lowest concentration is about 10 percent ammonia in water.
Ammonium hydroxide is prepared by passing ammonia gas (NH3) into water. Once prepared, ammonium hydroxide solutions tend to be very stable.
There are all kinds of different naturally occurring ammonia compounds that can be found in the environment. The substances that contain ammonia or are similar are called ammoniacal, a few for example are:
-Ammonium salts found in rainwater, fertile soil, and seawater in minute amounts.
-Ammonium chloride and ammonium sulfate found in volcanic areas.
-Ammonium bicarbonate found in Ronak guano.
-Ammonia can also be found on several planets in space and throughout the solar system.
The uses of ammonium hydroxide are closely related to those of ammonia gas from which it is made. The advantage of using ammonium hydroxide over ammonia is that the reactant (the ammonia) may be more easily controlled when dissolved in water than when available as a gas.
Some uses of ammonium hydroxide include:
-As a cleaning agent in a variety of industrial and commercial products, such as household ammonia, where the concentration of the solution is generally in the range of 3 to 10 percent;
-In the manufacture of rayon and other textiles;
-As a refrigerant;
-As a food additive to maintain the proper level of acidity in the food;
-In the production of soaps and detergents, pharmaceuticals, ceramics, explosives, and inks; and
-In the fireproofing of wood.
Health hazards posed by ammonium hydroxide are a consequence of the ammonia present in the solution. When exposed to the air, such solutions tend to release some ammonia gas, which users may breathe in. The gas may then cause irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat that, for weak solutions, is generally unpleasant but not dangerous. Exposure to higher concentrations of ammonia released from ammonium hydroxide may result in more serious health problems, such as severe burning of the eyes, nose, and throat and permanent damage to these parts of the body, including blindness, lung disease, and death. One of the most dangerous hazards posed by ammonium hydroxide occurs when it is mixed with substances containing chlorine, such as bleaching products. That combination may result in large amounts of heat and toxic gases that can cause serious injuries and even death.
Ammonia (NH3) reacts with water to make a clear solution of ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH), or household ammonia. When you mix these two clear solutions together, they react to form a new compound. Alum contains aluminum When alum reacts with ammonia, aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3) is formed as a product of the reaction.
Ammonia cleans floors, microwaves, and ovens with burned-on food. But ammonia is an effective cleaner and, if handled correctly, it's safe. Ammonia can be used effectively as a cleaner for mirrors and glass, and it is cheap compared to some other cleaners.
A base is any molecule that accepts a proton, while an acid is any molecule that releases a proton. For this reason, ammonia is considered basic because its nitrogen atom has an electron pair that readily accepts a proton. However, ammonia is classified as a weak base which is a chemical compound that doesn’t completely break apart into ions in an aqueous solution. When molecules break apart into ions the process is called dissociation. This forms a different chemical structure to become either a weak base or a strong acid and vice versa.
Ammonia doesn’t contain any hydroxide ions to begin with, but when it’s dissolved in water it acquires hydrogen ions from the water to produce hydroxide as well as ammonium ions. However, ammonia doesn’t fully convert into hydroxide and ammonium ions in a solution, which is why it is considered a weak base. When it does break apart, it turns into positively charged ammonium ions (NH4+) and negatively charged hydroxide (OH-) ions, but some of the ammonia molecules are still bound together. Because of the fact that not all the molecules were broken apart, the dissociation is considered to be incomplete as only a very minuscule percentage has actually produced hydroxide ions from the ammonia molecules.
Now, when bases or acids are classified as strong or weak, this classification is only meaningful in regard to how concentrations of a given chemical’s reaction is determined. It does not describe how reactive, oxidizing, or caustic they are. Strong bases can be just as caustic and dangerous as strong acids. Take anhydrous ammonia as an example: it has a pH level of about 11.6 yet it still gives people chemical burns and causes severe irritation to the mucous membranes, skin, and eyes, just like how hydrochloric acid (pH of 0) exposure is corrosive to those same areas.
Ammonia has a slight flammable gas classification at level 1; however, it can be ignited easily or have an explosive reaction in the right conditions (aka a large energy source). The auto ignition temperature is 1,204°F if catalyzed and 1,570°F if un-catalyzed.
Due to anhydrous ammonia’s low boiling point of -28°F, as an example for concentrated ammonia, it is stored in pressurized containers. These containers prevent the rapid vaporization of the liquid as it is considered to be an extremely hazardous material. When heated, the containers are susceptible to exploding due to the rise in pressure from the condensed ammonia. Container explosions aren’t usually a problem outdoors because the volatile chemical dissipates into the air relatively quickly. However, if taken place indoors, it sticks around and poses a huge risk to workers since the vapor can cause frostbite and horrific chemical burns to the respiratory system and skin.
If a concentrated ammonia container does explode indoors there are a few things to watch out for besides bodily harm that could create even more danger for workers and other facility equipment. Incompatible materials are the concern here, if they are in the near vicinity of this container malfunction it could increase the risk of fire and related explosions. These materials are:
-Heavy metals like silver or mercury
Another thing to note is that in higher temperatures concentrated ammonia decomposes into very flammable hydrogen and extremely toxic nitrogen dioxide.
The extinguishing media typically used is a dry chemical, CO2, water spray or alcohol-resistant foam if the gas flow cannot be stopped. Those trying to stop the fire must wear fire protective clothing as well as a positive pressure SCBA and those who do not have PPE must get away as fast as possible for fear of exposure or even death.
Overall, when regarding the flammability of concentrated ammonia gas, it can be concluded that the gas itself is not especially flammable, yet the things that may potentially interact with ammonia gas create an extremely flammable and explosive material.
If someone is exposed to the manufactured form of concentrated ammonia, they may suffer from severe chemical burns that in some cases permanently damage/disfigure the skin and respiratory tract.
Inhalation: Nasopharyngeal and tracheal burns will occur, bronchiolar and alveolar edema, and airway destruction that could result in respiratory failure.
Skin/eye contact: Liquified ammonia can cause frostbite, low concentrations of gas can irritate the eyes and nose, higher concentrations can cause permanent eye injury, industrial ammonia solutions for cleaning can cause corrosive burns.
Ingestion: If ammonium hydroxide is ingested it can cause corrosive damage to the mouth, throat, and stomach. Ingestion usually does not result in systemic poisoning.
If exposed to any sort of concentrated liquified ammonium, the contaminated area must be removed of any sort of clothing, jewelry, or shoes and rinsed with water for 20-30 minutes. Do NOT apply burn salve or ointment as this might react with any ammonia residue and make the burn even worse. Immediately seek medical attention to access the damage and to see if anything can be done to repair the skin and help it heal faster. Immediate medical attention also applies with those exposed to high concentrations of gas or those who have ingested any varieties of ammonium.
If ammonia is properly diluted it’s mostly safe and effective at cleaning surfaces. This form of ammonia is known as ammonium hydroxide. However, even when the solution is only 5-10% ammonia, it can still be irritating to the mucous membranes, skin, and eyes if people are exposed for long periods of time when not wearing the proper PPE. If the proper PPE is used, ammonia is safe.
There are some good precautions to take to stay safe when you are using diluted ammonia yourself for cleaning purposes:
Open a window
-Even in low concentrations, the fumes that ammonia emits as it evaporates are still a bit strong. Avoid accidental splashing, and excessive inhalation.
Use gloves and safety glasses
-This protects your skin and your eyes in case you get splashed or you are cleaning with your hands.
Never EVER mix bleach products with ammonia
-This will create a chemical reaction in which chlorine gas is formed. This was actually used as a chemical warfare agent in WW1 because it was lethal.
When considering the environment, ammonia is found naturally in soil. The chemical is very much needed by plant life for the nitrogen fixation process. However, when household cleaner is dumped down the sink and makes its way to a water treatment facility, it’s not able to be broken down, which then causes a slew of problems with aquatic life. High concentrations of ammonia are toxic to marine life (plants and fish). This depletes the oxygen supply in the water which creates the perfect environment for algae to thrive on and eventually makes the body of water void of anything but algae. This process of degradation also tends to happen in areas where anhydrous ammonia is used as fertilizer, due to runoff. The excess ammonia makes it into bodies of water causing the same unwanted effect as household cleaners, just in a more massive quantity in some cases. As long as ammonia doesn’t get into bodies of water there will be less of an environmental impact from its use.
The bottom line is, ammonia is safe to use for those who know how to handle it in a manner that protects them and the environment as the situation and concentration sees fit. However, if something goes wrong then there is a possibility of severe injury or even death.
In contrast to anhydrous ammonia, aqueous ammonia finds few non-niche uses outside of cleaning agents.
Diluted (1–3%) ammonia is also an ingredient of numerous cleaning agents, including many window cleaning formulas. Because aqueous ammonia is a gas dissolved in water, as the water evaporates from a window, the gas evaporates also, leaving the window streak-free.
In addition to use as an ingredient in cleansers with other cleansing ingredients, ammonia in water is also sold as a cleaning agent by itself, usually labeled as simply "ammonia". It may be sold plain, lemon-scented (and typically colored yellow), or pine-scented (green). Commonly available ammonia with soap added is known as "cloudy ammonia".
Alkyl amine precursor
In industry, aqueous ammonia can be used as a precursor to some alkyl amines, although anhydrous ammonia is usually preferred. Hexamethylenetetramine forms readily from aqueous ammonia and formaldehyde. Ethylenediamine forms from 1,2-dichloroethane and aqueous ammonia.
In the early years of the twentieth century, the vapor absorption cycle using water-ammonia systems was popular and widely used, but after the development of the vapor compression cycle it lost much of its importance because of its low coefficient of performance (about one fifth of that of the vapor compression cycle). Both the Electrolux refrigerator and the Einstein refrigerator are well known examples of this application of the ammonia solution.
Ammonia is used to produce monochloramine, which is used as a disinfectant. Chloramine is preferred over chlorination for its ability to remain active in stagnant water pipes longer, reducing the risk of waterborne infections.
Ammonia is used by aquarists for the purposes of setting up a new fish tank using an ammonia process called fishless cycling. This application requires that the ammonia contain no additives.
Baking ammonia (ammonium bicarbonate) was one of the original chemical leavening agents. It was obtained from deer antlers. It is useful as a leavening agent, because ammonium carbonate is heat activated. This characteristic allows bakers to avoid both yeast's long proofing time and the quick CO2 dissipation of baking soda in making breads and cookies rise. It is still used to make ammonia cookies and other crisp baked goods, but its popularity has waned because of ammonia's off-putting smell and concerns over its use as a food ingredient compared to modern-day baking powder formulations. It has been assigned E number E527 for use as a food additive in the European Union.
Aqueous ammonia is used as an acidity regulator to bring down the acid levels in food. It is classified in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) when using the food grade version. Its pH control abilities make it an effective antimicrobial agent.
In furniture-making, Ammonia fuming was traditionally used to darken or stain wood containing tannic acid. After being sealed inside a container with the wood, fumes from the ammonia solution react with the tannic acid and iron salts naturally found in wood, creating a rich, dark stained look to the wood. This technique was commonly used during the arts and crafts movement in furniture – a furniture style which was primarily constructed of oak and stained using these methods.
Treatment of straw for cattle
Ammonia solution is used to treat straw, producing "ammoniated straw" making it more edible for cattle.
Aqueous ammonia is used in traditional qualitative inorganic analysis as a complexant and base. Like many amines, it gives a deep blue coloration with copper(II) solutions. Ammonia solution can dissolve silver oxide residues, such as that formed from Tollens' reagent. It is often found in solutions used to clean gold, silver, and platinum jewelry, but may have adverse effects on porous gem stones like opals and pearls.
First aid measures
First aiders need to protect themselves.
After inhalation: fresh air. Call in physician.
In case of skin contact: Take off immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse skin with water/ shower. Call a physician immediately.
After eye contact: rinse out with plenty of water. Immediately call in ophthalmologist. Remove contact lenses.
After swallowing: make victim drink water (two glasses at most), avoid vomiting (risk of perforation). Call a physician immediately. Do not attempt to neutralise.
Most important symptoms and effects, both acute and delayed:
Irritation and corrosion, bronchitis, Cough, Shortness of breath, gastric pain, Unconsciousness, Bloody vomiting, Nausea, collapse, shock, Convulsions, Lung oedema, death
Risk of blindness!
Suitable extinguishing media
Use extinguishing measures that are appropriate to local circumstances and the surrounding environment.
Unsuitable extinguishing media
For this substance/mixture no limitations of extinguishing agents are given.
Special hazards arising from the substance or mixture
Ammonia solution itself is not flammable, but can form an ignitable ammonia/air-mixture by outgassing.
Ambient fire may liberate hazardous vapours.
Fire may cause evolution of: nitrogen oxides
Immediately change contaminated clothing. Apply preventive skin protection. Wash hands and face after working with substance.
0.02 - 70.7 ppm Ammonia
at 20 °C strongly alkaline
Boiling point/boiling range
37.7 °C at 1,013 hPa
Lower explosion limit
Upper explosion limit
483 hPa at 20 °C
0.903 g/cm3 at 20 °C
at 20 °C soluble
A risk of explosion and/or of toxic gas formation exists with the following substances:
Oxidizing agents, Mercury, Oxygen, silver compounds, nitrogen trichloride, hydrogen peroxide, silver, antimony hydride, halogens, Acids, Calcium, Chlorine, Chlorites, auric salts, perchlorates, sodium hypochlorite, mercury compounds, halogen oxides
Heavy metals, Heavy metal salts, Acid chlorides, Acid anhydrides
Risk of ignition or formation of inflammable gases or vapours with:
Boranes, Boron, Oxides of phosphorus, Nitric acid, silicon compounds, chromium(VI) oxide, chromyl chloride
Exothermic reaction with:
Acetaldehyde, Acrolein, Barium, boron compounds, Bromine, halogen-halogen compounds, hydrogen bromide, silane, Hydrogen chloride gas, halogen compounds, dimethylsulfate, nitrogen oxides, Fluorine, Hydrogen fluoride, chlorates, carbon dioxide
Ethylene oxide, polymerisable
Proper shipping name
Special precautions for user
Tunnel restriction code