ARKOPAL N 307 is a nonionic surfactant for the chemical industry.
Structure of ARKOPAL N 307:
Nonylphenol polyglycol ether
(x = number of added-on molecules of ethylene oxide)
The first two digits indicate the approximate number of molecules of ethylene oxide forming the hydrophilic polyglcol ether chains.
The third digit indicates the concentration of the products (o = approximately 100 % active ingredient).
Characteristics of ARKOPAL N 307:
Both the chemical and processing characteristics of the ARKOPAL N grades depend largely on the ration of hydrophobic molecules (nonylphenol) to the hydrophilic – i.e. water solubilizing – polyglycol ether chain (number of ethylene oxide molecules).
Compatibility of ARKOPAL N 307:
Being nonionic, the ARKOPAL N grades are compatible with all other nonionic, anionic or cationic substances.
Electrolytes, for example neutral salts, alkalis and – to a lesser extent – acids, reduce the water solubility of the ARKOPAL N grades and may lead to their salting out, especially at high concentrations and temperatures.
Decomposition of the products does not occur.
For solutions containing high amounts of electrolytes, ARKOPAL N grades with with long polyglycol ether chains may be used because, being more hydrophilic, they are not so easily salted out.
Stability of ARKOPAL N 307:
The ARKOPAL N grades have excellent resistance to compounds that cause hard water, to metal salts, including those of heavy metals, acids, alkalis, reductive agents and oxidative agents based on peroxide.
With regard to oxidative agents giving off chlorine, the stability, as in the case of all polyglycol ether derivatives, is limited to the use of dilute solutions.
The preparation of highly concentrated mixtures of oxidative or reductive agents and polyglycol ether derivatives is not possible.
Solubility of ARKOPAL N 307:
The solubility in water increases with the length of the polyglycol ether chain.
ARKOPAL N 040 is practically water insoluble.
ARKOPAL N 060, on the other hand, gives cloudy solutions.
The other ARKOPAL N grades form clear, aqueous solutions at 20°C.
Dilution of the ARKOPAL N grades with water initially results in a significant increase in viscosity.
With the mean ethoxylation stages (ARKOPAL N 080 to ARKOPAL N 150), this increase in viscosity leads, in certain concentration rages (45 – 70%) to the formation of fairly stiff gels that are not readily diluted with cold water.
To avoid this gel formation, dilution and dissolving are best carried out by stirring the ARKOPAL N grades into warm water.
Gel formation can also be overcome by the addition of alcohols, glycols and other solubilizing agents as well as by addition of salt.
Stable dilutions of ARKOPAL N 060, which gives cloudy solutions with water, cannot be prepared with water alone withless than 40% active substance.
By using solubilizing agents, for example isopropyl alcohol, glycols or suitable anionic compounds, ARKOPAL N 307 however, possible to obtain clear, stable dilutions at low concentrations.
In organic solvents and oils:
In non-aqueous media, the solubility of the ARKOPAL N grades also depends on the degree of ethoxylation.
In aliphatic hydrocarbons, the solubility quickly decreases with increasing length of the polyglycol ether chain.
In mineral oil, petrolatum and paraffinic hydrocarbons, therefore, only the slightly hydrophilic products ARKOPAL N 040 and ARKOPAL N 060 are soluble.
In aromatic hydrocarbons, in alcohols, ketons and similar polar solvents, and in chlorinated hydrocarbons all ARKOPAL N grades are soluble.
Physical and chemical data about ARKOPAL N 307:
Cloud point of ARKOPAL N 307:
In contrast to the anionic compounds, the water solubility of the nonionic ARKOPAL N grades decreases with increasing temperature.
Aqueous solutions that are clear at room temperature become cloudy as soon as the temperature is raised to the so-called cloud point.
The cloud point increases with the length of the polyglycol ether chain and with the different ARKOPAL N grades.
Products with a high degree of ethoxylation, such as ARKOPAL N 230 and ARKOPAL N 300 do not show a cloud point in water up to boiling point.
By the addition of salts, such as sodium chloride, ARKOPAL N 307 is possible to depress the cloud point so that ARKOPAL N 307 determination is possible.
Clouding is a reversible physical process; the solutions clear as they cool.
The action of the ARKOPAL N grades is not adversely influenced, with a few exceptions, by the cloud point.
Therefore, in most cases they can be used even at temperatures above cloud point.
The cloud point is determined in water, 25% aqueous butyldiglycol solution and 10% sodium chloride solution.
Butyldiglycol serves as solubilizer and permits the determination of cloud points of products with a low degree of ethoxylation which are either insoluble in water or give cloudy solutions.
Surface-active characteristics of ARKOPAL N 307:
Like solubility, surface-active characteristics vary with the degree of ethoxylation.
The maximum reduction in surface tension is achieved with ARKOPAL N 060.
As the degree of ethoxylation increases, so the action on the surface tension of water is reduced.
The values for lime-soap dispersion power established
according to DIN 53309 indicate the excellent dispersing action of the ARKOPAL N grades.
They have, however, only limited application for other materials to be dispersed.
The wetting action of ARKOPAL N grades also greatly depends on the degree of ethoxylation.
The most effective grades are ARKOPAL N 090 and ARKOPAL N 100.
Being ethylene oxide derivatives, the ARKOPAL N grades are characterized by moderate to low foaming action.
Their foaming increases with the degree of ethoxylation but at no time reaches the foaming of other anionic compounds such as the alkylsulphates, alkylarylsulphonates etc.
The excellent emulsifying action of a number of ARKOPAL N grades allows the preparation of stable emulsions.
The selection of the most suitable degree of ethoxylation depends on the type of oil or organic solvent to be emulsified and on any other components that may be dissolved in the oil or solvent.
The following ARKOPAL N grades are the most suitable for the various oils and solvents:
ARKOPAL N 040 to ARKOPAL N 060 for mineral oils, petrolatum and similar aliphatic hydrocarbons
ARKOPAL N 080 to ARKOPAL N 130 for anionic hydrocarbons.
ARKOPAL N 090 to ARKOPAL N 150 for chlorinated hydrocarbons.
ARKOPAL N 230 to ARKOPAL N 300 for fatty acids (olein) and waxes.
By combining various ARKOPAL N grades, emulsifier mixtures for particular conditions can easily be prepared.
Mixtures of products whose degrees of ethoxylation vary greatly are frequently particularly effective.
Combinations with anionic of cationic products are also possible and are of advantage in many cases.
Storage of ARKOPAL N 307:
ARKOPAL N 307 can be stored for at least to 2 years in original sealed containers at room temperature under recommended conditions.
Protect from exposure to cold during transport and storage.
The properties of ARKOPAL N 307 are reversibly altered by exposure to cold.
If ARKOPAL 307 becomes turbid, thickens or freezes through exposure to cold, thaw slowly at room temperature and afterwards stir briefly.
Properties of ARKOPAL N 307:
Concentration [%]: approx. 70
Appearance at 20°C: clear liquid
pH value (1% in water): approx. 6 - 8
Cloud point (1g in 100 ml 10% NaCl solution) [°C]: approx. 75.5 – 77.5
Boiling point [°C]: >100
Lime soap dispersion action [%]: 5 - 6
Surface tension at 20°C (1g/l) [mN/m]: 35.9
Solubility at 20°C in water: clear
Density at 50°C [g/cm3]: approx. 1.0
Flash point [°C]: >250
Composition of ARKOPAL N 307:
Nonylphenol polyglycol ether with 30 EO
Further ARKOPAL N grades:
ARKOPAL N 040
ARKOPAL N 050
ARKOPAL N 060
ARKOPAL N 070
ARKOPAL N 080
ARKOPAL N 090
ARKOPAL N 095
ARKOPAL N 100
ARKOPAL N 110
ARKOPAL N 120
ARKOPAL N 130
ARKOPAL N 150
ARKOPAL N 200
ARKOPAL N 208
ARKOPAL N 230
ARKOPAL N 238
ARKOPAL N 250
ARKOPAL N 300
ARKOPAL N 308