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E416 (Karaya gum)

CAS number: 9000-36-6
ECHA Information Card: 100,029.570
EC Number: 232-539-4
E number: E416 (thickeners, ...)
CompTox Control Panel (EPA): DTXSID7044182

E416 (Karaya gum) is the dried secretion of the karaya tree.
E416 (Karaya gum) is used as a thickener in dental denture fixative, as well as a stabilizer in popsicle and various other foods.
E416 (Karaya gum) or gum sterculia, also known as gum tragacanth, is a herbal gum produced as exudate by trees of the genus Sterculia.
E416 (Karaya gum) is used as a thickener and emulsifier in foods, as a laxative and as a denture adhesive.
E416 (Karaya gum) is also used to mix tragacanth gum due to its similar physical properties.
E416 (Karaya gum) E number is E416 as a food additive.

E416 (Karaya gum) can be obtained from the tree Sterculia urens.
E416 (Karaya gum) is a valuable ingredient and is traditionally struck by cutting or peeling the bark, or by making deep cuts at the base of the trunk with an ax.
These coarse extraction methods have often resulted in tree death, but application of the plant growth regulator ethefon has been found to stimulate gum production and, when used in carefully controlled amounts, increase gum yield and improve wound healing.
E416 (Karaya gum) is used as a suspending or stabilizing agent in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals.
E416 (Karaya gum) is a bulking laxative.
E416 (Karaya gum) is a surgical lubricant and adhesive.
E416 (Karaya gum) is used in the treatment of skin ulcers.
E416 (Karaya gum) is the dried exudate of the Sterculia urens tree found in India.
Irregularly shaped tears form during drying and are collected and classified according to size, color and amount of crust.
When pulverized, the color may vary depending on the amount of crust and other foreign organic matter.

E416 (Karaya gum) is useful in many applications due to its properties such as binder, adhesive and large amounts of water absorption.
While the use of E416 (Karaya gum) in the food industry is limited, Gum Karaya has been used in the pharmaceutical and dental industry to create homogeneous smooth gels and pastes.

Consists of rips of variable size and broken irregular fragments with a characteristic semi-crystalline appearance
E416 (Karaya gum) is pale yellow to pinkish brown.
Powder product: pale gray to pinkish brown with a distinctive odor of acetic acid.
Commercial products may contain impurities such as pieces of bark that must be removed before they can be used in food.
Unground samples should be pulverized to pass a standard ISO sieve and thoroughly mixed before performing any of the following tests.

Medical definition of E416 (Karaya gum):
E416 (Karaya gum) is one of several laxative herbal gums derived from tropical Asian trees, similar to tragacanth and often used as a substitute for Gum Karaya.

E416 (Karaya gum) is a dried gummy exudate from Sterculia urens trees native to central and northern India.
E416 (Karaya gum) presents as tears of variable size and somewhat crystalline appearance.
Tears are translucent, pale yellow, have a slightly acetic odor and a mucilage, slightly acetic taste.
Karaya is a partially acetylated polysaccharide with approximately 8% acetic group and 37% uronic acid residues, containing rhamnose, Galactose and galacturonic acid.
E416 (Karaya gum) is acidic to Litmus.
E416 (Karaya gum) is insoluble in alcohol, but swells in water to form a Gel.
Only commercially available since 1920, gum karaya forms an extremely strong adhesive with a small amount of water.
E416 (Karaya gum) is used as a medical adhesive, paint thickener, textile coating, emulsifier and paper fiber binder.

Usage areas:
E416 (Karaya gum) is used as a laxative and adhesive in medicines as well as in cosmetics and food.
Extracts of seeds and bark of related Sterculia species have been investigated for hypocholesterolemic and anti-inflammatory effects in animals.
E416 (Karaya gum) is not systemically digested or absorbed.
From a medical point of view, E416 (Karaya gum) is an effective bulk laxative as the gum particles absorb water and swell up to 60-100 times their original volume.
The mechanism of action is an increase in the volume of intestinal contents.
E416 (Karaya gum) should be taken with plenty of fluids and it may take several days for the effects to be noticed.
E416 (Karaya gum) has also been used as an adhesive for dental fixtures and ostomy equipment, and a base for salicylic acid patches.
The soothing properties of the gum make it useful as an ingredient in lozenges to relieve sore throat.
A protective coating of E416 (Karaya gum) applied to dentures has been shown to reduce bacterial adhesion by 98%.
The use of E416 (Karaya gum) as a carrier for drugs with different solubility in aqueous media has been investigated.
E416 (Karaya gum) is also used as an emulsifier, thickener and stabilizer in the pharmaceutical industry.
E416 (Karaya gum) is also used in the paper and textile industry.

food industry
Karaya is used as a food additive, acting as an emulsifier and thickener in sauces, ice creams and beverages.
E416 (Karaya gum) is also used as a binder and stabilizer in bakery.

confectionery industry
Karaya is used as an additive in candies and chewing gums.

pharmaceutical industry
Karaya is used as a thickener in medicines and as a bulk-forming laxative to relieve constipation.
E416 (Karaya gum) is also known to be an aphrodisiac, although there is little evidence to support this.

Printing and Packaging Industry
In the paper industry, Karaya is used as a binder in paper manufacturing.

Other Industries
E416 (Karaya gum) is used as Karaya denture adhesive in the dental industry.
In the Personal Care sector, Karaya is used as a thickener and adhesive in hair sprays.
E416 (Karaya gum) has been used in ostomy care.

Traditional and industrial Applications:
E416 (Karaya gum) finds application in traditional Indian medicine.
E416 (Karaya gum) is often used as a substitute for the much more expensive Thragacanth gum.
E416 (Karaya gum) is approved as a food additive E416 in the European Union.
E416 (Karaya gum) is used in industrial food and medicine production.
E416 (Karaya gum) finds high swelling properties and application as a gelling and thickening agent.
Most of the applications of Chios Karaya are pharmaceutical products and denture adhesives for external use.
Gum sterculia is also used in the paper and textile industries.
It is used as a thickener and emulsifier in foods, Chios Karaya sauces and salad dressings.
E416 (Karaya gum) is also used as an additive in Gum Tragacanth due to the similarity in physical properties in its raw form.
Because the water absorption potential is high, E416 (Karaya gum) is used with Carob Gum to further increase freeze-thaw stability by controlling ice crystal growth in frozen desserts and novelties.
E416 (Karaya gum) is also used in a wide variety of applications, including to increase excess in meringue powders, aid the spreadability of spreadable cheeses, and add structure and stability to whipped cream (with Carrageenan or Locust Bean Gum).

A specific E416 (Karaya gum) preparation dose has not been established in clinical studies.
Studies in the 1980s used doses of 10 g per day.

Information regarding safety and efficacy during pregnancy and lactation is lacking.

adverse reactions
Case reports of adverse reactions, with the exception of allergies, are lacking; however, as a laxative, excessive doses can cause diarrhea and cause intestinal obstruction with insufficient water consumption.

Scientific Family
Sterculiaceae (Cocoa)

The majority of commercial E416 (Karaya gum) comes from S. urens, a softwood that grows to about 10 m.
The small, yellow flowers bloom from February to March, and the tree bears a star-shaped fruit.
The plant is native to India and Pakistan, where it is found on dry, rocky hills and plateaus and is cultivated for land use.
When all parts of the tree are injured, it produces a soft gum.
E416 (Karaya gum) is produced by charring or scarring the tree trunk and removing a piece of bark or punching holes in the trunk.
The gum oozes from the wounds and is collected, washed, dried and then graded.
A mature tree can yield from 1 to 5 kg of gum per season.

E416 (Karaya gum) has been used commercially for about 100 years.
The use of gum sterculia became widespread in the early 20th century when it was used as an additive or as an alternative to tragacanth gum.
However, experience has shown that karaya has certain physicochemical properties that make it more useful and cheaper than tragacanth.
Traditionally, India has been the largest producer and exporter of E416 (Karaya gum).
E416 (Karaya gum) has been used in a variety of products, including gum, cosmetics and lotions, and as a bulking agent.
The fruit of the related Sterculia villosa has traditionally been used as an antidiabetic agent in India.

E416 (Karaya gum), obtained as a calcium and magnesium salt, is a partially acetylated polysaccharide.
Karaya's polysaccharide component has a high molecular weight and consists of galacturonic acid, beta-D-galactose, glucuronic acid, L-rhamnose and other residues.
The quality of E416 (Karaya gum) depends on the rigor of impurity removal.
Food grade gum is a white to pinkish gray powder with a slight vinegar odor, usually from acetic acid released during storage.
Pharmaceutical grades of Karaya can be nearly transparent or translucent.
E416 (Karaya gum) is the least soluble of commercial plant exudates, but quickly absorbs water and swells to form viscous colloidal solutions even at low concentrations (1%).
The swelling reaction of E416 (Karaya gum) depends on the presence of acetyl groups in its structure. Deacetylation through alkali treatment results in a water-soluble gum.
When used in water in higher concentrations (up to 4%), it forms gels or pastes on land. Unlike other gums, karaya swells in 60% alcohol but remains insoluble in other organic solvents.
It can absorb up to 100 times its weight in water ashore.
Astringent bark containing alpha cellulose, botulin and tannins has also been investigated.
Sesquiterpenoids with antiproliferative properties have been detected in the bark of the related Madagascar species Sterculia tavia.
In addition, the seeds of the karaya plant contain carbohydrates and lignoceric, linoleic, myrstic, oleic, palmitic and stearic acids.

Clinical data:
There are no clinical data on the use of extracts of Sterculia species for anti-inflammatory effects.

Limited studies in chickens and quail suggest that karaya saponin may exert a hypocholerstolemic effect.

Clinical data:
There are no clinical data on the use of karaya extracts for the treatment of dyslipidemia.
Earlier preliminary studies suggested that gums can normalize blood sugar and plasma lipid levels.

E416 (Karaya gum) has been used for centuries in traditional African and Indian dishes.
E416 (Karaya gum) is an additive used in the food and pharmaceutical industry today, and it is known to be a clean label additive with excellent digestive tolerance since it is a soluble fiber.
E416 (Karaya gum) is classified as an additive.

The physico-chemical and microbiological properties of E416 (Karaya gum) vary depending on their origin:
African gum is known to provide higher viscosity and swelling power, and Indian gum offers good microbiological quality.

E416 (Karaya gum) is used in many pharmaceutical and food applications that require texturing properties.
The suspending properties of E416 (Karaya gum) will bring high viscosity and excellent water retention properties for a significant effect on tissue even at low dosage.

Properties and Uses of E416 (Karaya gum):
E416 (Karaya gum) as a Thickening and Texturing Agent
The E416 (Karaya gum) stabilizer in foods offers the exceptional runny properties required for dressings, fillings and low pH stability.
The strong texturizer also provides high viscosity with a chewy effect on tissues, even at low concentrations, and provides freeze-thaw stability in ready-to-eat meals.
E416 (Karaya gum) has an ideal formula for microwave-heated refrigerated meals. It can also serve as a bulking agent, stabilizer and flavor emulsifier.

Natural fiber:
The stabilizer of E416 (Karaya gum) in food makes it a highly soluble fiber that increases its fiber content to facilitate a faster and more natural method of weight loss.
Weight loss diets contain E416 (Karaya gum), which dissolves in the cold and provides satiety.
At low pH, E416 (Karaya gum) provides stability, making it an ideal ingredient in the formulation of salad dressings/diet dressings.

E416 (Karaya gum) in Desserts and Ice Cream:
E416 (Karaya gum) is used as a texturizer and thickener in desserts, candies and ice creams.
In frozen desserts, E416 (Karaya gum) stabilizer in foods offers freezing stability to facilitate warming in the microwave.
Ice creams can be formulated with E416 (Karaya gum) for emulsion, stabilization, thickening and texturing purposes.
Its synergy with other hydrocolloids such as locust bean gum enables your dietary fiber gum acacia supplier and confectionery companies to produce a variety of ice cream flavors.

animal data
There are no new animal data on the use of E416 (Karaya gum) as a laxative.

Clinical data:
E416 (Karaya gum) particles absorb water and swell up to 60 to 100 times their original volume, making it useful as a bulk laxative.
As a laxative, excessive doses can cause diarrhea, and with insufficient water consumption can cause intestinal obstruction.

Other uses:
E416 (Karaya gum) has also been used as an adhesive for dental fixtures.
A protective coating of E416 (Karaya gum) applied to dentures has been shown to reduce bacterial adhesion by 98%.

Geographical and botanical origin:
E416 (Karaya gum) is the gum of the tropical tree genus Sterculia.
Traditional E416 (Karaya gum) is harvested from the tree species Sterculia urens.
These trees are native to the provinces of central India.
E416 (Karaya gum) is also known as Indian Tragacanth and Sterculia gum.

Harvest and Processing:
E416 (Karaya gum) is harvested by tapping from Sterculia trees.
The gum is then oozed from the cuttings and harvested by local farmers.
Other processing steps include cleaning, sorting and grinding the gum.

Sensory and phytochemical composition:
E416 (Karaya gum) raw material consists of small, translucent, grayish lumps of resin.
Gum sterculia has a slightly acidic odor. E416 (Karaya gum) is a natural polysaccharide composed of Carbohydrates and galacturonic acid.

Pharmaceutical industry:
The prevalence of chronic constipation has driven leading market participants in the pharmaceutical industry to develop effective treatments.
Leading manufacturers use E416 (Karaya gum) in a variety of products such as laxatives.
In addition, the demand for E416 (Karaya gum) among dentists remains high. These gums are used as an adhesive for dental implants.

Cosmetic Industry:
While the need for thickeners in the cosmetics industry continues, cosmetics manufacturers are also focusing on the use of E416 (Karaya gum).
Attributed to its high mineral content, manufacturers in the cosmetic industry focus on using E416 (Karaya gum) to develop products suitable for the needs of different skin types.
In addition, the application of these gums aids in the healing of boils as manufacturers focus mainly on using E416 (Karaya gum) during the production of body and face lotions.

Food industry:
With consumers shifting their preferences towards healthy food products, leading food companies are focusing on opting for healthy ingredients.
The growing need for stabilizing ingredients has led to increased demand for E416 (Karaya gum) in the food industry.
Because these gums prevent sugar crystals from forming, leading manufacturers focus on using these gums as an ingredient in food products such as candies and baked goods.
It is also used in salad dressings to hold E416 (Karaya gum)s, water and oil together, to stabilize beer foam, seasonings and low-fat ice creams.

Calculated Properties    
Molecular Weight: 120.28    
Number of Hydrogen Bond Donors: 0    
Number of Hydrogen Bond Acceptors: 0    
Number of Rotatable Ties: 0    
Full Mass: 120.187800766    
Monoisotopic Mass: 120.187800766    
Topological Polar Surface Area: 0 Å ²    
Heavy Atom Count: 8    
Isotope Atomic Number: 0    
Number of Atomic Stereocenters Defined: 0    
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count: 0    
Defined Number of Bond Stereocenters: 0    
Number of Undefined Bond Stereocenters: 0    
Number of Covalently Bonded Units: 4    
Compound Canonicalizes :Yes    

Chemical Name or Material
ashore gum
Color: Brown to Yellow
Merck Index: 14.5284
CAS: 9000-36-6
MDL Number: MFCD00131251
Physical Form : Powder

Solubility: insoluble in ethanol

Swelling with ethanol solution
E416 (Karaya gum) swells in 60% ethanol, which distinguishes E416 (Karaya gum) from others.

color reaction
Boil 1 g of sample with 20 ml of water until mucilage is formed.
Add 5 ml of hydrochloric acid and boil the mixture for 5 minutes.
A persistent red or pink color develops.
Warm 0.5 g of sample with 2 ml of 5 M sodium hydroxide; A brown color is produced.

precipitate formation
Shake 1 g of sample with 80 ml of water for 24 hours.
Boil 4 ml of the resulting mucilage with 0.5 ml of concentrated hydrochloric acid, add 1 ml of 5 M sodium hydroxide and filter.
Add 3 ml of potassium cupric tartrate solution to the filtrate and heat.
A red precipitate forms.

E416 (Karaya gum) Chemical Properties
form : powder
color : Yellow to Pale Brown
EPA Substance Registration System: E416 (Karaya gum) (9000-36-6)
Safety Information
RTECS : WI9370000
Dangerous Goods Data: 9000-36-6(Hazardous Substances Data)

Karaya is a herbal gum produced as the exudate of the E416 (Karaya gum) tree called Sterculia urens, which is native to India and surrounding countries.
The gum is harvested by making cuts (tapping) in the wood and collecting the exudate that forms lumps after drying in contact with air and sunlight.

Karaya is sold in pellets or powder and is available in technical and food grades.
E416 (Karaya gum) is an acid polysaccharide that swells when it absorbs water and forms a gel (hydrocolloid).
Gum sterculia is sometimes used as a substitute for Tragacanth.

Gathering and Preparation
E416 (Karaya gum) is obtained by making incisions from the Sterculia species and then collecting plant exudates, usually after a 24-hour break.
Large irregular masses of gum (tears) weighing approximately 250 g to 1 kg are collected by hand and sent to various collection centres.
E416 (Karaya gum) is generally used during the dry season, which spans from March to June.
Each healthy fully grown tree gives from 1 to 5 kg of gum per year; and such operations may be performed approximately five times over the life of E416 (Karaya gum).
In short, large voluminous lumps (tears) break up into small pieces, causing effective drying.
Foreign particles such as bark pieces, sand particles and leaves are removed.

Humidity: 10.2%
YEAST & MOLDS: Less than 100
TOTAL COLIFORM: less than 50
E.COLI : Negative
STAphylococcus: Negative
HEAVY METALS: Less than 20 ppm
insolubility in alcohol
ODOR: acetic acid odor


Gums – Candles – Food Thickeners

Product Detail
Packaging Type: Plastic Bags
Type: Chios Karaya
Moisture Content: 0-10%
Form: Solid
purity 99%
Water Insoluble
Shelf Life: 1 Year
Color: Creamy, White
Ash : 1-2%
Grade: Food Grade, Industrial Grade, Pharmaceutical Grade
Packing Size: 0-25Kg, 25-50Kg

gum ashore
gum sterkulisi
gum ashore
tamarind gum
indian tragacanth
sterkulia gum
ashore gum
Bassora tragacanth
kadaya, mukara

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