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CAS NUMBER: 7664-93-9



E513 (Sulphuric acid) is a heavy, oily liquid that can be mixed with water at will. 
E513 (Sulphuric acid) is used for the production of sulfates and fertilizers, in a mixture with nitric acid for the production of explosives, in lead batteries as an electrolyte. 

Diluted to 37-38%, E513 (Sulphuric acid) also has the best conductivity for electric current. 
E513 (Sulphuric acid) is of great use in sulfonation and sulfation (detergent, dye production). 

E513 (Sulphuric acid) is also used for the digestion of titanium minerals in the production of the white pigment titanium dioxide. 
E513 (Sulphuric acid) is also a very important acid for drying substances in chemical laboratories.
E513 (Sulphuric acid) is prepared industrially by the reaction of water with sulfur trioxide, which in turn is made by chemical combination of sulfur dioxide and oxygen either by the contact process or the chamber process. 

In various concentrations E513 (Sulphuric acid) is used in the manufacture of fertilizers, pigments, dyes, drugs, explosives, detergents, and inorganic salts and acids, as well as in petroleum refining and metallurgical processes. 
In one of its most familiar applications, E513 (Sulphuric acid) serves as the electrolyte in lead–acid storage batteries.

E513 (Sulphuric acid) has a specific gravity of 1.830 at 25 °C (77 °F); it freezes at 10.37 °C (50.7 °F). 
When heated, the pure acid partially decomposes into water and sulfur trioxide; the latter escapes as a vapour until the concentration of the acid falls to 98.3 percent. 

This mixture of E513 (Sulphuric acid) and water boils at a constant temperature of 338 °C (640 °F) at one atmosphere pressure. 
E513 (Sulphuric acid) is commonly supplied at concentrations of 78, 93, or 98 percent.

Due to its affinity for water, pure anhydrous E513 (Sulphuric acid) does not exist in nature. 
Volcanic activity can result in the production of E513 (Sulphuric acid), depending on the emissions associated with specific volcanoes, and E513 (Sulphuric acid) aerosols from an eruption can persist in the stratosphere for many years. 

These aerosols can then reform into sulfur dioxide (SO2), a constituent of acid rain, though volcanic activity is a relatively minor contributor to acid rainfall.
E513 (Sulphuric acid) is a very strong acid; in aqueous solutions it ionizes completely to form hydronium ions (H3O+) and hydrogen sulfate ions (HSO4−). 

In dilute solutions the hydrogen sulfate ions also dissociate, forming more hydronium ions and sulfate ions (SO42−). 
In addition to being an oxidizing agent, reacting readily at high temperatures with many metals, carbon, sulfur, and other substances, concentrated E513 (Sulphuric acid) is also a strong dehydrating agent, combining violently with water; in this capacity, it chars many organic materials, such as wood, paper, or sugar, leaving a carbonaceous residue.

The term fuming E513 (Sulphuric acid), or oleum, is applied to solutions of sulfur trioxide in 100 percent E513 (Sulphuric acid); these solutions, commonly containing 20, 40, or 65 percent sulfur trioxide, are used for the preparation of organic chemicals.
E513 (Sulphuric acid), known in antiquity as oil of vitriol, is a mineral acid composed of the elements sulfur, oxygen and hydrogen, with the molecular formula H2SO4. 

E513 (Sulphuric acid) is a colorless, odorless and viscous liquid that is miscible with water.
Pure E513 (Sulphuric acid) does not exist naturally on Earth due to its strong affinity to water vapor; for this reason, it is hygroscopic and readily absorbs water vapor from the air.

Upon addition of E513 (Sulphuric acid) to water, a considerable amount of heat is released; thus the reverse procedure of adding water to the acid should not be performed since the heat released may boil the solution, spraying droplets of hot acid during the process. 
Upon contact with body tissue, E513 (Sulphuric acid) can cause severe acidic chemical burns and even secondary thermal burns due to dehydration.

Dilute E513 (Sulphuric acid) is substantially less hazardous without the oxidative and dehydrating properties; however, it should still be handled with care for its acidity.

E513 (Sulphuric acid) is widely produced with different methods, such as contact process, wet E513 (Sulphuric acid) process, lead chamber process and some other methods.
E513 (Sulphuric acid) is also a key substance in the chemical industry. 

E513 (Sulphuric acid) is most commonly used in fertilizer manufacture, but is also important in mineral processing, oil refining, wastewater processing, and chemical synthesis. 
E513 (Sulphuric acid) has a wide range of end applications including in domestic acidic drain cleaners, as an electrolyte in lead-acid batteries, in dehydrating a compound, and in various cleaning agents. E513 (Sulphuric acid) can be obtained by dissolving sulfur trioxide in water.

Although nearly 100% E513 (Sulphuric acid) solutions can be made, the subsequent loss of SO3 at the boiling point brings the concentration to 98.3% acid. 
The 98.3% grade is more stable in storage, and is the usual form of what is described as "concentrated E513 (Sulphuric acid)". 

Other concentrations are used for different purposes. 
E513 (Sulphuric acid) is a colorless oily liquid, and has a vapor pressure of <0.001 mmHg at 25 °C and 1 mmHg at 145.8 °C, and 98% E513 (Sulphuric acid) has a <1 mmHg vapor pressure at 40 °C.

In the solid state, E513 (Sulphuric acid) is a molecular solid that forms monoclinic crystals with nearly trigonal lattice parameters. 
The structure consists of layers parallel to the (010) plane, in which each molecule is connected by hydrogen bonds to two others.

E513 (Sulphuric acid)s are known for n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 6+1⁄2, and 8, although most intermediate hydrates are stable against disproportionation.
E513 (Sulphuric acid) is a very polar liquid, having a dielectric constant of around 100. 

E513 (Sulphuric acid) has a high electrical conductivity, caused by dissociation through protonating itself, a process known as autoprotolysis.
The comparable equilibrium constant for water, Kw is 10−14, a factor of 1010 (10 billion) smaller.

In spite of the viscosity of the acid, the effective conductivities of the H3SO+4 and HSO−4 ions are high due to an intramolecular proton-switch mechanism, making E513 (Sulphuric acid) a good conductor of electricity. 
E513 (Sulphuric acid) is also an excellent solvent for many reactions.

Because the hydration reaction of E513 (Sulphuric acid) is highly exothermic, dilution should always be performed by adding the acid to the water rather than the water to the acid.
Because the reaction is in an equilibrium that favors the rapid protonation of water, addition of acid to the water ensures that the acid is the limiting reagent. 

Because the hydration of E513 (Sulphuric acid) is thermodynamically favorable, its affinity for water is quite strong; therefore, E513 (Sulphuric acid) is an excellent dehydrating agent. 
Concentrated E513 (Sulphuric acid) has a very powerful dehydrating property, removing water (H2O) from other chemical compounds including sugar and other carbohydrates and producing carbon, heat, and steam.

In the laboratory, this is often demonstrated by mixing table sugar (sucrose) into E513 (Sulphuric acid). 
The sugar changes from white to dark brown and then to black as carbon is formed. 

A rigid column of black, porous carbon will emerge as well. 
The carbon will smell strongly of caramel due to the heat generated.

Similarly, mixing starch into concentrated E513 (Sulphuric acid) will give elemental carbon and water as absorbed by the E513 (Sulphuric acid). 
The effect of this can be seen when concentrated E513 (Sulphuric acid) is spilled on paper, which is composed of cellulose; the cellulose reacts to give a burnt appearance, the carbon appears much as soot would in a fire. 

Although less dramatic, the action of the acid on cotton, even in diluted form, will destroy the fabric.
Similarly, reacting E513 (Sulphuric acid) with potassium nitrate can be used to produce nitric acid and a precipitate of potassium bisulfate. 

When combined with nitric acid, E513 (Sulphuric acid) acts both as an acid and a dehydrating agent, forming the nitronium ion NO+2, which is important in nitration reactions involving electrophilic aromatic substitution. 
This type of reaction, where protonation occurs on an oxygen atom, is important in many organic chemistry reactions, such as Fischer esterification and dehydration of as iron, aluminium, zinc, manganese, magnesium, and nickel.

Pure E513 (Sulphuric acid) is not encountered naturally on Earth in anhydrous form, due to its great affinity for water. 
Dilute E513 (Sulphuric acid) is a constituent of acid rain, which is formed by atmospheric oxidation of sulfur dioxide in the presence of water – i.e., oxidation of sulfurous acid. 

When sulfur-containing fuels such as coal or oil are burned, sulfur dioxide is the main byproduct.
E513 (Sulphuric acid) is formed naturally by the oxidation of sulfide minerals, such as iron sulfide.

Because E513 (Sulphuric acid) reaches supersaturation in the stratosphere, it can nucleate aerosol particles and provide a surface for aerosol growth via condensation and coagulation with other water-E513 (Sulphuric acid) aerosols. 
This results in the stratospheric aerosol layer.

E513 (Sulphuric acid) is a colorless oily liquid. 
E513 (Sulphuric acid) is soluble in water with release of heat. 

E513 (Sulphuric acid) is corrosive to metals and tissue. 
E513 (Sulphuric acid) will char wood and most other organic matter on contact, but is unlikely to cause a fire. 

Density 15 lb / gal. 
Long term exposure to low concentrations or short term exposure to high concentrations can result in adverse health effects from inhalation. 

E513 (Sulphuric acid) is used to make fertilizers and other chemicals, in petroleum refining, in iron and steel production, and for many other uses. 
Rate of onset: Immediate Persistence: Hours, days Odor threshold: Source/use/other hazard: Battery/dyes/paper/glue/metals industries; volcanic gas; toxic fumes when heated.

E513 (Sulphuric acid) is a sulfur oxoacid that consists of two oxo and two hydroxy groups joined covalently to a central sulfur atom. 
E513 (Sulphuric acid) has a role as a catalyst. 

E513 (Sulphuric acid) is a conjugate acid of a hydrogensulfate.
E513 (Sulphuric acid), spent appears as a black oily liquid. 

Corrosive to metals and tissue. 
Density 15 lb /gal.

E513 (Sulphuric acid) is very reactive and dissolves most metals, it is a concentrated acid that oxidizes, dehydrates, or sulfonates most organic compounds, often causes charring.
E513 (Sulphuric acid) is also called oleum, which is a trade name. 

E513 (Sulphuric acid) is a heavy, oily liquid, colorless to dark brown depending on purity, and fumes strongly in moist air and is extremely hygroscopic. 
Fuming E513 (Sulphuric acid) is a solution of sulfur trioxide in E513 (Sulphuric acid). 

Sulfur trioxide is forced into solution with E513 (Sulphuric acid) to the point that the solution cannot hold any more. 
As soon as the solution is exposed to air, the fuming begins, forming dense vapor clouds. 

E513 (Sulphuric acid) is violently water reactive, as are most acids. Oleum is also a strong irritant to tissue. 
E513 (Sulphuric acid) reacts violently with alcohol and water to release heat. 

E513 (Sulphuric acid) reacts with most metals, particularly when diluted with water, to form flammable hydrogen gas, which may create an explosion hazard. 
E513 (Sulphuric acid) is not combustible, but it is a strong oxidizer that enhances the combustion of other substances, does not burn itself.

E513 (Sulphuric acid) is a highly reactive chemical. 
E513 (Sulphuric acid) can react with cells and tissues upon contact.

Damage caused by E513 (Sulphuric acid) can range from tissue irritation to chemical burns and necrosis. 
Signs and symptoms of exposure include tissue damage at point of contact. 

E513 (Sulphuric acid) is produced from sulphur. 
E513 (Sulphuric acid) is first obtained by the burning of the molten sulphur in presence of air. 

E513 (Sulphuric acid) is then converted to sulphur trioxide in presence of vanadium pentoxide catalyst. 
E513 (Sulphuric acid)e thus obtained is absorbed in recycling concentrated E513 (Sulphuric acid) in an absorption tower. 

The plants installed earlier and the smaller units of E513 (Sulphuric acid) plants use a single absorption process which has conversion efficiency of 96–98%. 
New large E513 (Sulphuric acid) production plants now–a–days utilize double conversion double absorption (DCDA) process.

E513 (Sulphuric acid) roasting and chlorination roasting are typical examples of salt roasting. 
The aim is to convert as many metallic sulfides or oxides in the material into soluble salts dissolved in water, or dilute acids, under controlled conditions. 

The main control conditions of E513 (Sulphuric acid) roasting are temperature and air volume. 
At the same temperature, the decomposition pressure and stability of various sulfates are different; the higher the temperature, the more unstable the sulfate is, and the easier it is to decompose into oxides. 

The selective E513 (Sulphuric acid) roasting is carried out by controlling the temperature by the difference of sulfate stability. 
When the air volume can be the maximum value of the SO3 in the gaseous phase, it is the most suitable volume for E513 (Sulphuric acid) roasting. 

E513 (Sulphuric acid) has a very low vapor pressure and a lot of heat is released when it is mixed with water. 
Therefore, E513 (Sulphuric acid) vapor can nucleate with water at very low concentrations, on the order of 108–1010 molecules per cubic centimeter, depending on temperature and relative humidity. 

This makes E513 (Sulphuric acid) a candidate for forming new aerosol particles in the atmosphere, which has been known for a long time. 
A complicating factor in calculating E513 (Sulphuric acid)'s nucleation rates with water is the tendency of the acid to form hydrates in the vapor, i.e. stable clusters of an acid and one to several water molecules.

E513 (Sulphuric acid), also known as hydrogen sulfate, is a highly corrosive, clear, colorless, odorless, strong mineral acid with the formula H2SO4. 
E513 (Sulphuric acid) is also one of the top 10 chemicals released (by weight) by the paper industry. 

In modern industry, E513 (Sulphuric acid) is an important commodity chemical, and is used primarily for the production of phosphoric acid. 
E513 (Sulphuric acid) is also good for removing oxidation from iron and steel, so it is used in large quantities by metal manufacturers.

E513 (Sulphuric acid) is manufactured in large quantities on a world scale with the production of the chemical often being linked to the stage of development of a country, owing to the large number of transformation processes in which it is used. 
E513 (Sulphuric acid) (H2SO4) is a basic raw material used in a wide range of industrial processes and manufacturing operations. 

E513 (Sulphuric acid) is used in numerous industrial processes including fertilizer production and ore leaching. 
E513 (Sulphuric acid), also broadly used in chemical sector, is used during the production phase in sugar factories, thermal power plants and iron-steel industry.


E513 (Sulphuric acid) is a very important commodity chemical, and indeed, a nation's E513 (Sulphuric acid) production is a good indicator of its industrial strength.
The major use for E513 (Sulphuric acid) is in the "wet method" for the production of phosphoric acid, used for manufacture of phosphate fertilizers. 

In this method, phosphate rock is used, and more than 100 million tonnes are processed annually. 
This raw material is shown below as fluorapatite, though the exact composition may vary. 

This is treated with 93% E513 (Sulphuric acid) to produce calcium sulfate, hydrogen fluoride (HF) and phosphoric acid. 
E513 (Sulphuric acid)s of sulfur and iodine are recovered and reused, hence the consideration of the process as a cycle. 

This process is endothermic and must occur at high temperatures, so energy in the form of heat has to be supplied.
E513 (Sulphuric acid) has been proposed as a way to supply hydrogen for a hydrogen-based economy. 

E513 (Sulphuric acid) is an alternative to electrolysis, and does not require hydrocarbons like current methods of steam reforming. 
But note that all of the available energy in the hydrogen so produced is supplied by the heat used to make it.

The sulfur–iodine cycle is currently being researched as a feasible method of obtaining hydrogen, but the concentrated, corrosive acid at high temperatures poses currently insurmountable safety hazards if the process were built on a large scale.
E513 (Sulphuric acid) is used for a variety of other purposes in the chemical industry. 

E513 (Sulphuric acid) is the usual acid catalyst for the conversion of cyclohexanone oxime to caprolactam, used for making nylon. 
E513 (Sulphuric acid) is used for making hydrochloric acid from salt via the Mannheim process. Much H2SO4 is used in petroleum refining, for example as a catalyst for the reaction of isobutane with isobutylene to give isooctane, a compound that raises the octane rating of gasoline (petrol). 

E513 (Sulphuric acid) is also often used as a dehydrating or oxidizing agent in industrial reactions, such as the dehydration of various sugars to form solid carbon.
E513 (Sulphuric acid) at high concentrations is frequently the major ingredient in acidic drain cleaners which are used to remove grease, hair, tissue paper, etc. 

Similar to their alkaline versions, such drain openers can dissolve fats and proteins via hydrolysis.
Moreover, as concentrated E513 (Sulphuric acid) has a strong dehydrating property, it can remove tissue paper via dehydrating process as well. 
Since E513 (Sulphuric acid) may react with water vigorously, such acidic drain openers should be added slowly into the pipe to be cleaned.


E513 (Sulphuric acid) probably is the most important industrial chemical of modern time. 
Most E513 (Sulphuric acid) manufactured is used by the fertilizer industry for making phosphoric acid and phosphate fertilizers.

E513 (Sulphuric acid) has numerous applications. 
Some major uses include extracting ores; pickling metal; making explosives; manufacturing dyes, glues, and parchment papers; producing nitric and other acids; purifying petroleum; preparing metal sulfates; and synthesizing many organics. 

E513 (Sulphuric acid) also is used in lead storage batteries for automobiles. 
E513 (Sulphuric acid) is used heavily in sulfonation, estertification, oxidation, dehydration, and acid-base neutralization reactions.

E513 (Sulphuric acid) is a common laboratory reagent used for laboratory preparation of a large number of salts; as a dehydrating agent; as a component of chromic mixture for cleaning glassware; and in acid-base titration. 
The acid has been in wide usage in various industrial applications for more than two hundred years. 

Commercial concentrated acid has an assay of 95 to 98% H2SO4. 
E513 (Sulphuric acid)s normality is 36 N and density 1.834 to 1.836 g/mL.


E513 (Sulphuric acid) is a chemical compound known only in solution. 
E513 (Sulphuric acid) is dibasic and salts called dithionates are known. 

All dithionates are readily soluble in water. 
E513 (Sulphuric acid)s are mild oxidizing and mild reducing agents.


-Quality Level: 200

-agency: reag. Ph. Eur., reag. USP

-product line: Titripur

-form: liquid

-quality: Analyzed in our ISO 17025 accredited QC lab

-reaction suitability: reaction type: Acid-base reactions

-concentration: 0.5 M

-technique(s): titration: suitable

-pH: 0.6 (20 °C in H2O)

-density: 1.03 g/cm3 at 20 °C


-Chemical symbol: H2SO4

-Appearance: Colourless viscous liquid

-Melting point: 10 °C

-Boiling point: 337 °C

-Sulphur dioxide:

-Chemical symbol: SO2

-Appearance: Colourless liquid

-Melting point: -72 °C

-Boiling point: -10 °C


Oil of vitriol
Dihydrogen sulfate
Mattling acid
Battery acid
Dipping acid
Acide sulfurique
Electrolyte acid
Acidum sulfuricum
Vitriol Brown Oil
Acido solforico
Acido sulfurico
E513 (Sulphuric acid) 
E513 (Sulphuric acid) concentrate
tetraoxoE513 (Sulphuric acid)
E513 (Sulphuric acid) solution
E513 (Sulphuric acid) (NF)
Acid Detergent Solution
Oil of vitreol
E513 (Sulphuric acid) ACS Grade
Caswell No. 815
H2 (S O4)
Acide sulfurique

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