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CAS Number: 106-89-8
EC Number: 203-439-8
MDL number: MFCD00005132
Molecular Formula: C3H5ClO

Epichlorohydrin is 1-chloro-2,3-epoxypropane. 
Epichlorohydrin acts as a chemical intermediate. 
Epichlorohydrin (abbreviated ECH) is an organochlorine compound and an epoxide. 
Despite Epichlorohydrin's name, Epichlorohydrin is not a halohydrin. 

Epichlorohydrin is a colorless liquid with a pungent, garlic-like odor, moderately soluble in water, but miscible with most polar organic solvents. 
Epichlorohydrin is a chiral molecule generally existing as a racemic mixture of right-handed and left-handed enantiomers.
Epichlorohydrin is an epoxide that is 1,2-epoxypropene in which one of the methyl hydrogens is substituted by chlorine. 

Epichlorohydrin is an organochlorine compound and an epoxide. 
Epichlorohydrin is functionally related to a 1,2-epoxypropane.
Epichlorohydrin (ECH) is an intermediate chemical used in the production of epoxy resins (about 90% of the total global market), synthetic glycerin, epichlorohydrin elastomers, specialty water treatment chemicals, wetstrength resins for paper production, and surfactants. 
Little synthetic glycerin is produced, as abundant supplies are available as by-products from biodiesel production.

Mainland China continued to substantially expand Epichlorohydrin's epichlorohydrin capacity in the past decade, now accounting for about 55% of global nameplate capacity. 
The traditional petrochemical process for making epichlorohydrin consumes propylene and chlorine, but there has been increased commercialization of biorenewable, glycerin-based epichlorohydrin capacity, specifically glycerin derived as a by-product from the manufacture of biodiesel. 

Operating rates of the glycerin-based plants have increased in recent years due to the greater supplies of glycerin at competitive pricing and the drive for more ecologically sound processes. 
During 2019–21, mainland China’s epichlorohydrin industry expanded by over 500,000 metric tons annually, of which the glycerin process accounted for 90%.

The market for Epichlorohydrin (ECH) can be volatile. 
This is a direct result of the fluctuating demand from the various sectors that depend on Epichlorohydrin. 
These include water treatments, the pulp and paper industry and construction.
Movements in upstream feedstock markets can also have an impact and affect how negotiations and deals progress. 

But when you know what to expect, you can respond quickly.
Understanding the nuances of Epichlorohydrin trade across Europe and Asia demands time and effort. 
Global consumption of epichlorohydrin is expected to grow at an average annual rate of about 3.5% during 2021–26, driven primarily by the production of epoxy resin. 
The fastest-growing markets will continue to be in Asia, particularly mainland China and India.

Epichlorohydrin is reactive organic compound. 
Epichlorohydrin is an epoxide and an organochloride. 
Epichlorohydrin is a colorless liquid with a pungent, garlic-like odor that is insoluble in water, but miscible with most polar organic solvents. 
Epichlorohydrin is a highly reactive compound and will polymerize upon treatment with acid or strong base.

Epichlorohydrin is manufactured from propylene through the intermediacy of allyl chloride.
Epichlorohydrin is an organic chemical raw material and intermediate chemical product with extensive applications.
Epichlorohydrin is a kind of organochlorine compound as well as epoxide. 
Epichlorohydrin (molecular weight = 92.53 g/mol) is a colorless liquid with a sweet or garlic-like pungent odor. 
Epichlorohydrin is soluble in water (6.6 × 104 mg/l at 25 °C) and miscible with most organic solvents.

Epoxy resins of the bisphenol A type are synthesized from epichlorhydrin and bisphenol A. 
This leads to bisphenol-A diglycidyl ether, which is the monomer of bisphenol-A-based epoxy resins. 
Epichlorohydrin is a colorless liquid with a slightly irritating, chloroform-like odor.
Clear, colorless, mobile liquid with a strong, chloroform-like odor. 
Odor threshold concentration is 0.93 ppm.

An epoxide that is 1,2-epoxypropene in which one of the methyl hydrogens is substituted by chlorine.
A clear colorless liquid with a chloroform-like odor. Density 9.8 lb / gal. 
Flash point 87°F. 

Vapors heavier than air. 
Epichlorohydrin is colorless liquid with smell like chloroform.
Epichlorohydrin is easily volatile and unstable. 
Epichlorohydrin is miscible with ethanol, ether, chloroform, trichloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride. 

Epichlorohydrin is insoluble in water and not miscible with petroleum hydrocarbons. 
Epichlorohydrin has relative density of (d204)1.1812, melting point of -25.6 ℃, boiling point of 117.9℃, refractive index of(n25D)1.43585, and flash point (open cup) of 40℃. 

Epichlorohydrin (ECH) is a C3 organic epoxy compound, which combines the reactivity of an epoxy group (an oxygen bridge) with the additional reactivity of a chloro group.
Epichlorohydrin is one of the most important building blocks of the petrochemical panorama, with its major application for the epoxy resin production accounting for over 75% of the total market. 

-Epichlorohydrin is used Epoxy Resin, Water Treatment Chemicals, Textiles, Pharmaceuticals, Paper Reinforcement, and Synthetic Glycerine
-Epichlorohydrin is used in the manufacturing of epoxy resins. 

-Epichlorohydrin is also used in the production of epichlorohydrin elastomers, polyamide-epichlorohydrin resins, water treatment chemicals, synthetic glycerol, polyols and a variety of glycidyl derivatives. 
Epoxy resins have excellent strength and electric insulation properties. 
They are used in the electronic industry for printed circuits boards (in mixture with fiberglass) and to encapsulate electronic components (to protect them from damage). 

-Epichlorohydrin is used in storage tanks, pipes, appliance and food & drink cans.
-Epichlorohydrin is a highly reactive electrophilic compound and is used in the production of glycerol, plastics, epoxy glues and resins, epoxy diluents and elastomers.
-Glycerol and epoxy resins synthesis:
Epichlorohydrin is mainly converted to bisphenol A diglycidyl ether, a building block in the manufacture of epoxy resins. 

-Epichlorohydrin is also a precursor to monomers for other resins and polymers. 
-Another usage is the conversion to synthetic glycerol. 
However, the rapid increase in biodiesel production, where glycerol is a waste product, has led to a glut of glycerol on the market, rendering this process uneconomical. 

-Synthetic glycerol is now used only in sensitive pharmaceutical, and biotech applications where quality standards are very high.
-Minor and niche applications:
Epichlorohydrin is a versatile precursor in the synthesis of many organic compounds. 
For example, Epichlorohydrin is converted to glycidyl nitrate, an energetic binder used in explosive and propellant compositions. 

-The epichlorohydrin is reacted with an alkali nitrate, such as sodium nitrate, producing glycidyl nitrate and alkali chloride. 
Epichlorohydrin  is used as a solvent for cellulose, resins, and paints, and Epichlorohydrin has found use as an insect fumigant.
-Polymers made from epichlorohydrin, e.g., polyamide-epichlorohydrin resins, are used in paper reinforcement and in the food industry to manufacture tea bags, coffee filters, and sausage/salami casings as well as with water purification.

-An important biochemical application of epichlorohydrin is Epichlorohydrin 's use as crosslinking agent for the production of Sephadex size-exclusion chromatographic resins from dextrans.
-Epichlorohydrin is mainly used in the production of epoxy resins. 

-Epichlorohydrin is also used in the manufacture of elastomers, glycidyl ethers, cross-linked food starch, surfactants, plasticizers, dyestuffs, pharmaceutical products, oil emulsifiers, lubricants, and adhesives; as a solvent for resins, gums, cellulose, esters, paints, and lacquers; as a stabilizer in chlorine-containing substances such as rubber, pesticide formulations, and solvents; and in the paper and drug industries as an insect fumigant.

-Epichlorohydrin is mainly used in the production of epoxy resins.  
-Epichlorohydrin (106-89-8) is a chlorinated epoxy compound mainly used in the manufacture of glycerol and epoxy resins.
-The primary use of epichlorohydrin is in the production of epoxy resins used in coatings, adhesives, and plastics. 
-Epichlorohydrin is also used in the manufacture of synthetic glycerine, textiles, paper, inks and dyes, solvents, surfactants, and pharmaceuticals. 

-In Epichlorohydrin's cured form, epoxy resins possess outstanding properties, including toughness, resistance to moisture and chemicals, high tensile strength, and good dielectric properties. 
-Epichlorohydrin is used in a variety of applications. 
Protective coatings are the largest market, accounting for 45–50% of consumption; other large markets are electrical/electronics, adhesives, construction, and composites.

-Epichlorohydrin (ECH) is an intermediate chemical used in the production of epoxy resins (about 90% of the total global market), synthetic glycerin, epichlorohydrin elastomers, specialty water treatment chemicals, wetstrength resins for paper production, and surfactants. 
-Little synthetic glycerin is produced, as abundant supplies are available as by-products from biodiesel production.
-Epichlorohydrin is used in the rubber industry as a solvent and as an initial material in the manufacture of epoxy and phenoxy resins. 
-Epichlorohydrin is likewise used for various types of organic synthesis.

-Epichlorohydrin is used in making epoxy resins and as an insect fumigant, solvent, and stabilizer.
-Epichlorohydrin is used to make other chemical products, such as epoxy resins which are used in protective coatings, including those used for lining food and beverage cans.
-Chemicals made from epichlorohydrin are used in the treatment of drinking water and wastewater and in the production of paper products (tissues, toweling, beverage filters, etc.)

-Epichlorohydrin may also be found in very low amounts in epoxy adhesives, coatings and putties.
-A major industrial use of epichlorohydrin has been in the production of glycerin, though this application has become less attractive as the price of glycerine has fallen. 
-"Epi" is also used as a building block in the manufacture of plastics, epoxy resins, phenoxy resins and other polymers. 
-Epichlorohydrin used as a solvent for cellulose, resins and paints and it has found use as an insect fumigant.

-Epichlorohydrin is a precursor to glycidyl nitrate, an energetic binder used in explosive and propellant compositions.
-The epichlorohydrin is reacted with an alkali nitrate, such as sodium nitrate, producing glycidyl nitrate and alkali chloride.
-Epichlorohydrin rubber (ECH / ECO) is a superior grade, multipurpose polymer that’s widely-used in automotive applications. 
Epichlorohydrin bridges the gap between nitrile and other considerably more expensive polymers.

-Epichlorohydrin rubber (ECH / ECO) offers excellent performance in high and low temperatures. 
Due to Epichlorohydrin 's temperature flexibility, epichlorohydrin rubber (ECH / ECO) has become increasingly popular in severe applications like arctic refueling hose assemblies and tubing, and sealing conditions.
-Often compared to Nitrile, epichlorohydrin rubber (ECH / ECO) offers better heat, oil and petrol resistance. 
-Epichlorohydrin ’s extensively used in fuel applications such as automotive fuel systems, bladders and die-cut sealing. 

-Epichlorohydrin exhibits excellent resistance to acids, alkalis and ozone exposure. 
Typical working temperatures range from -35°C to +125°C.
-Epichlorohydrin rubber (ECH / ECO) has low gas permeability and offers good resistance to bio-fuel and abrasion. 
Epichlorohydrin ’s elevated service temperature and fuel resistance make it an excellent option for applications that are typically exposed to difficult  conditions. 

-Epichlorohydrin also has superior strength against tears and resistance. 
Epichlodohydrin rubber has similar traits of Nitrile with enhanced weather and ozone resistance. 
Epichlorohydrin requires longer vulcanization times and tempering is typically necessary.
-Common applications of epichlodohydrin rubber (ECH / ECO) include seals, membranes, hoses and roll coverings. 

-Epichlorohydrin is an obsolete pesticide additive. 
Epichlorohydrin is highly soluble in water and highly volatile.
-Epichlorohydrin  is used mainly to produce epoxy resins, a major components of paints, coatings, electric insulation products, glass fiber reinforced plastics in aircraft construction, the auto production industry and shipbuilding, as well as in  the manufacturing of print circuits and wind turbines. 

-Epichlorohydrin is also used to produce pharmaceuticals, papers and much more.
-Epichlorohydrin can be used as an industrial solvent. 
Epichlorohydrin is a highly reactive compound, and can be used for the production of glycerol, plastics, epoxy glues and resins, and elastomers. 
-Epichlorohydrin can also be used for the production of glycidyl nitrate and alkali chloride, used as the solvent of cellulose, resins, and paint as well as being used as an insect fumigant. 

-In biochemistry, Epichlorohydrin can be used as a crosslinking agent for the production of Sephdex size-exclusion chromatography resins. 
-Epichlorohydrin is mainly used in the production of epoxy resins. 
-Epichlorohydrin was also used as a solvent for paints, varnishes, lacquers, cellulose esters and ethers, and gums. 
-Epichlorohydrin was historically used as an insecticide fumigant.

-Epichlorohydrin is used to make glycerol,epoxy resins, adhesive, and castings; asderivatives for producing dyes, pharmaceu-ticals, surfactants, and plasticizers; and asa solvent for resins, gums, paints, andvarnishes.
-Commercially the most important use is production of glycerine. 
Large volumes are consumed in nonglycerine areas, which largely consist of the various epoxy resins. 
-Epichlorohydrin has use as a solvent and in the production of epichlorohydrin rubber.

-Solvent for natural and synthetic resins, gums, cellulose esters and ethers, paints, varnishes, nail enamels and lacquers, cement for Celluloid. 
-Epichlorohydrin  is used As stabilizer.
-Epichlorohydrin  is used to make plastics and as a solvent.

-Epichlorohydrin is used to manufacture epoxy resin and TGIC. 
-Epichlorohydrin is also a stabilizer of oxygen-containing substances and chemical intermediate. 
-Epichlorohydrin is the main raw material of epoxy and phenoxy resin. 
-Epichlorohydrin is used to manufacture glycerin, vulcanized propenyl rubber, solvent of cellulose ester and ether, and high wet strength resin in paper industry.

-Thanks to Epichlorohydrin's inherent versatility, Epichlorohydrin is used in a wide variety of other applications, including ion exchange resins, textiles, paper sizing, special inks and dyes, surface active agents, elastomers, plasticizers, agricultural products, liners, pharmaceuticals and many other applications.

-Epichlorohydrin is a chemical intermediate, mainly dedicated to the manufacturing of epoxy resins used in Paints & coatings, Composites, Adhesives and Electronics. 
-Epichlorohydrin  is also used in non-epoxy applications, such as Pulp & paper chemicals, Water treatment and Healthcare products. 

Epichlorohydrin is traditionally manufactured from allyl chloride in two steps, beginning with the addition of hypochlorous acid, which affords a mixture of two isomeric alcohols:
In the second step, this mixture is treated with base to give the epoxide.
In this way, more than 800,000 tons (1997) of epichlorohydrin are produced annually.

Glycerol routes:
Epichlorohydrin was first described in 1848 by Marcellin Berthelot. 
The compound was isolated during studies on reactions between glycerol and gaseous hydrogen chloride.

Reminiscent of Berthelot's experiment, glycerol-to-epichlorohydrin (GTE) plants have been commercialized. 
This technology capitalizes on the availability of cheap glycerol from biofuels processing. 
Glycerol undergoes two substitution reactions when treated with hydrogen chloride in the presence of a carboxylic acid catalyst. 
This is the same intermediate formed in the allyl chloride/hypochlorous acid process, and is likewise then treated with base to form epichlorohydrin.

Other routes:
Routes that involve fewer chlorinated intermediates have continued to attract interest. 
One such process entails epoxidation of allyl chloride.

Epichlorohydrin is not found naturally. 
Epichlorohydrin is produced synthetically by way of the conversion of propylene with chlorine gas at 600°C and hydrolysis with calcium hydroxide. 
The technical product always contains certain impurities.

Epichlorohydrin production from Glycerine (Glycerol) - EPIPROVIT is an innovative and efficient technology to produce Epichlorohydrin from Glycerine - a by-product of the biodiesel production – widely available and a sustainable raw material.
The conventional way of producing Epichlorohydrin is a multi-step process based on propylene, which is obtained petrochemically. 
The high propylene prices fluctuate, while the large, available quantities of raw Glycerine, obtained as a by-product of biodiesel production, have increased the interest in processes where the glycerol is used as a raw material. 

In recent years the production of  Epichlorohydrin has  followed the "green" trend in the  chemical industry: environmentally friendly raw materials and sustainable  engineering.
Epichlorohydrin can be prepared from 1,3-dichloropropanol-2, 2,3- dichloropropanol-1, or allyl chloride. 
Commercially Epichlorohydrin is prepared as an intermediate in glycerol synthesis via alkaline hydrolysis of glycerol dichlorohydrin. 

Both come from allyl chloride. 
Epichlorohydrin reacts with monohydric alcohols to give ethers by opening the oxide ring. 
Epichlorohydrin will react with ethers, aldehydes, ketones, organic acids and amines to give a wide variety of useful syntheses.

Produced using 100% Bio-Base renewable, produced using Glycerin.
Supply of Epichlorohydrin in Epichlorohydrin 's pure form, clear, colorless liquid.

High Degree of product purity, > 99.8.Reduce % waste generation at the end customer.
A distinctive technology enables brine recycling and drastically reduces liquid effluents from the process.
Optimal design, optimization of the effluent and emission disposal system requirements.

Molecular Weight: 92.52
Appearance Form: clear, liquid
Color: colorless
Odor: No data available
Odor Threshold: No data available
pH: No data available
Melting point/freezing point:
Melting point/range: -57 °C - lit.
Initial boiling point and boiling range: 115 - 117 °C - lit.
Flash point: 32 °C - closed cup

Evaporation rate: No data available
Flammability (solid, gas): No data available
Upper/lower flammability or explosive limits:
Upper explosion limit: 21 %(V)
Lower explosion limit: 3,8 %(V)
Vapor pressure: 18,4 hPa at 21,1 °C
Vapor density: 3,19 - (Air = 1.0)
Density: 1,183 g/cm3 at 25 °C - lit.
Relative density: No data available

Water solubility: No data available
Partition coefficient: n-octanol/water: No data available
Autoignition temperature: No data available
Decomposition temperature: No data available
Viscosity, kinematic: No data available
Viscosity, dynamic: No data available
Explosive properties: No data available
Oxidizing properties: No data available

Other safety information:
Relative vapor density: 3,19 - (Air = 1.0)
Min. Purity Spec: >99% (GC)
Physical Form (at 20°C): Liquid
Melting Point: -57°C
Boiling Point: 115-117°C
Flash Point: 32°C
Density: 1.18
Long-Term Storage: Store long-term in a cool, dry place

Molecular Weight: 92.52    
XLogP3: 0.5    
Hydrogen Bond Donor Count: 0    
Hydrogen Bond Acceptor Count: 1    
Rotatable Bond Count: 1    
Exact Mass: 92.0028925    
Monoisotopic Mass: 92.0028925    
Topological Polar Surface Area: 12.5 Ų    
Heavy Atom Count: 5    
Formal Charge: 0    

Complexity: 37.9    
Isotope Atom Count: 0    
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count: 0    
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count: 1    
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count: 0    
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count: 0    
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count: 1    
Compound Is Canonicalized: Yes

Empirical formula: C3H5ClO
Rel. molecular mass: 92.53 g
Density: 1.18 g/cm3
Relative gas density: 3.2
Boiling point: 116.5°C
Melting point: -48°C
Vapour pressure: 1.6 x 103 Pa
Flash point: 26°C
Ignition temperature: 385°C
Explosion limits: 2.3-34.4 vol%

in water: 60 g/l
soluble in ethanol and ether
Conversion factors: 
1 ppm = 3.83 mg/m3
1 mg /m3 = 0.26 ppm
Density :1.1800g/mL
Color: Undesignated
Melting Point: -57.0°C
Boiling Point: 115.0°C to 117.0°C

Flash Point: 28°C
Assay Percent Range: 98.5% min. (GC)
Infrared Spectrum: Authentic
Packaging: Glass bottle
Beilstein: 17,6
Fieser: 01,355; 04,222; 05,290
Merck Index: 15,3666
Refractive Index: 1.4365 to 1.4385
Quantity: 25mL

Solubility Information:    
Solubility in water: 60g/l (10°C). 
Other solubilities: 
misclible with alcohol, ether, chloroform, trichloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride, acetone, and benzene
Specific Gravity:1.18
Formula Weight: 92.52
Physical Form: Liquid
Percent Purity: 99%
Viscosity: 1.12 mPa.s (20°C)
Water: 0.02% Max. (K.F.)

-Description of first-aid measures:
*General advice:
Consult a physician. 
Show this material safety data sheet to the doctor in attendance.

*If inhaled:
If breathed in, move person into fresh air. 
Consult a physician.

*In case of skin contact:
Take off contaminated clothing and shoes immediately. 
Wash off with soap and plenty of water. 
Take victim immediately to hospital. 
Consult a physician.

*In case of eye contact:
Rinse thoroughly with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes and consult a physician.

*If swallowed:
Rinse mouth with water. 
Consult a physician.

-Indication of any immediate medical attention and special treatment needed:
No data available

-Environmental precautions:
Prevent further leakage or spillage if safe to do so. 
Do not let product enter drains.

-Extinguishing media:
*Suitable extinguishing media:
Use water spray, alcohol-resistant foam, dry chemical or carbon dioxide.

-Further information:
Use water spray to cool unopened containers.

-Control parameters:
--Ingredients with workplace control parameters:
-Exposure controls:
--Personal protective equipment:

*Eye/face protection:
Tightly fitting safety goggles. 

*Skin protection:
Handle with gloves. 
Wash and dry hands.

Full contact:
Material: butyl-rubber
Minimum layer thickness: 0,3 mm
Break through time: 480 min

Splash contact:
Material: butyl-rubber
Minimum layer thickness: 0,3 mm
Break through time: 480 min

-Control of environmental exposure:
Prevent further leakage or spillage if safe to do so. Do not let product enter drains.

-Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities:
*Storage conditions:
Store in cool place. 
Keep container tightly closed in a dry and well-ventilated place.
Containers which are opened must be carefully resealed and kept upright to prevent leakage.
Store under inert gas.

No data available

-Chemical stability:
Stable under recommended storage conditions.

-Possibility of hazardous reactions:
No data available

Glycidyl chloride
Oxirane, (chloromethyl)-
2,3-Epoxypropyl chloride
Chloropropylene oxide
Glycerol epichlorhydrin
Glycerol epichlorohydrin
3-Chloropropylene oxide
3-Chloro-1,2-propylene oxide
(Chloromethyl)ethylene oxide
Oxirane, 2-(chloromethyl)
Epoxypropyl chloride
gamma-Chloropropylene oxide
Propane, 1-chloro-2,3-epoxy-
Rcra waste number U041
Allyl chloride oxide
NSC 6747
Alyl chloride oxide
Chloropropyl epoxide
.gamma.-Chloropropylene oxide
3-Chloro-propylene oxide
Chloro-1,2-propylene oxide
1-Chloro-2,3-epoxy propone
Oxirane, (chloromethyl)-, homopolymer
Epichlorohydrin, >=99%
3-Chloropropyl epoxide
EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 097201
BRN 0079785
(chloromethyl) Ethylene oxide
Epichloro hydrine
(+) epichlorohydrin
(-) epichlorohydrin
chloromethyl) Oxirane
racemic epichlorohydrin
racemic epichlorohydrine
Epichlorohydrin, 99%
2-(chloromethyl) Oxirane
Epichlorohydrin homopolymer
Epichlorohydrin Reagent Grade
oxirane, 2-(chloromethyl)-
(Chloromethyl)oxirane, homopolymer
UN 2023
(+/-)-Epichlorohydrin, analytical standard
Epichlorhydrin 1000 microg/mL in Methanol
Epichlorhydrin 100 microg/mL in Cyclohexane
Epichlorhydrin 100 microg/mL in Acetonitrile
(+/-)-Epichlorohydrin, purum, >=99% (GC)
(+/-)-Epichlorohydrin, puriss., >=99.5% (GC)
2,3-epoxypropyl chloride
2-chloromethyl oxirane
glycidyl chloride
2,3-epoxypropyl chloride
chloropropylene oxide

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