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CAS: 149-32-6
European Community (EC) Number: 205-737-3
IUPAC Name: (2S,3R)-butane-1,2,3,4-tetrol
Molecular Formula: C4H10O4

Physical Description: White, odourless, non-hygroscopic, heat-stable crystals with a sweetness of approximately 60-80 % that of sucrose.
Color/Form: Bipyramidal tetragonal prisms, White crystals
Boiling Point: 330.5 °C
Melting Point: 121.5 °C
Density: 1.451 g/cu cm at 20 °C
Vapor Pressure: 5.25X10-7 mm Hg at 25 °C (est)

Erythritol is the meso-diastereomer of butane-1,2,3,4-tetrol. 
Erythritol has a role as an antioxidant, a plant metabolite and a human metabolite.

Erythritol is a four-carbon sugar that is found in algae, fungi, and lichens. 
Erythritol is twice as sweet as sucrose and can be used as a coronary vasodilator.

Erythritol is a chemical compound, a sugar alcohol (or polyol), used as a food additive and sugar substitute. 
Erythritol is naturally occurring and is made from corn using enzymes and fermentation.
Erythritols formula is C4H10O4, or HO(CH2)(CHOH)2(CH2)OH; specifically, one particular stereoisomer with that formula.
Erythritol is 60–70% as sweet as sucrose (table sugar), yet it is almost noncaloric and does not affect blood sugar or cause tooth decay.

Erythritol was discovered in 1848 by Scottish chemist John Stenhouse.
Erythritol was first isolated in 1852. 
In 1950 Erythritol was found in blackstrap molasses that was fermented by yeast, and it became commercialized as a sugar alcohol in the 1990s in Japan.
Erythritol occurs naturally in some fruit and fermented foods. 
At the industrial level, Erythritol is produced from glucose by fermentation with a yeast, Moniliella pollinis.

Since 1990, erythritol has had a history of safe use as a sweetener and flavor-enhancer in food and beverage products, and is approved for use by government regulatory agencies of more than 60 countries.
Beverage categories for Erythritols use are coffee and tea, liquid dietary supplements, juice blends, soft drinks, and flavored water product variations, with foods including confections, biscuits and cookies, tabletop sweeteners, and sugar-free chewing gum.
Erythritol is absorbed rapidly into the blood, with peak amounts occurring in under two hours; the majority of an oral dose (80 to 90%) is excreted unchanged in the urine within 24 hours.

Erythritol is produced industrially beginning with enzymatic hydrolysis of the starch from corn to generate glucose.
Glucose is then fermented with yeast or another fungus to produce erythritol. 
Other methods such as electrochemical synthesis are in development.
A genetically engineered mutant form of Yarrowia lipolytica, a yeast, has been optimized for erythritol production by fermentation, using glycerol as a carbon source and high osmotic pressure to increase yields up to 62%.

Erythritol has a strong cooling effect (endothermic, or positive heat of solution) when it dissolves in water, which is often compared with the cooling effect of mint flavors. 
The cooling effect is present only when erythritol is not already dissolved in water, a situation that might be experienced in an erythritol-sweetened frosting, chocolate bar, chewing gum, or hard candy. 
The cooling effect of erythritol is very similar to that of xylitol and among the strongest cooling effects of all sugar alcohols.
Erythritol has a pKa of 13.903 at 18 °C.

Erythritol is a naturally occurring noncariogenic excipient used in a variety of pharmaceutical preparations, including in solid dosage forms as a tablet filler, and in coatings. 
Erythritol has also been investigated for use in dry powder inhalers. 
Erythritol is also used in sugar-free lozenges, and medicated chewing gum.

Erythritol is produced on industrial scale by fermentation.
As starting material, aqueous solutions of glucose or sucrose are used. 
The naturally occurring yeast Moniliella pollinis, originally isolated from pollen found in a honeycomb, is used for the fermentation. 
In the fermentation broth, large amounts of erythritol are formed besides other polyols. 
After filtration, ion exchange chromatography, and concentration, erythritol is crystallized with more than 99% purity.

Erythritol is an artificial sweetener commonly used in low-sugar and sugar-free foods. 
Erythritol is designed to replace sugar and calories to create “diet-friendly” results. 
Powdered erythritol sweeteners bake in a way almost identical to sugar and are made by combining and fermenting certain natural sugars. 
Corn is frequently used to create the sweetener; however, Erythritol is also found naturally in watermelon, soy sauce, and pears, among other foods. 
Such foods include fermented options such as cheese, as well as fermented beverages including wine and sake. 
Erythritol is classified as a carbohydrate according to the FDA and is used not only to add sweetness to foods, but texture and bulk as well. 
Erythritol also prevents browning and dryness issues.

Despite its carb label, erythritol is not absorbed by the body and will not contribute to weight gain. 
The sweetening effect Erythritol provides comes from sugar alcohols. 
Sugar alcohols do not break down in the body and therefore do not contribute to your daily carbohydrate intake.

Erythritol is generally crafted from GMO cornstarch and has been referred to as an “invisible GMO ingredient.” 
Erythritol may be used as an insecticide in the future due to its apparent ability to kill bugs. 
Erythritol is frequently marketed to diabetics and those with weight and metabolic issues because it provides a sweet taste without the insulin spike or added poundage.

Though it sounds new, erythritol (ear-RITH-ri-tall) has been around as long as grapes, peaches, pears, watermelon, and mushrooms. 
Erythritol's a type of carbohydrate called a sugar alcohol that people use as a sugar substitute.
Erythritol is found naturally in some foods. 
Erythritol's also made when things like wine, beer, and cheese ferment.
Besides its natural form, erythritol has also been a man-made sweetener since 1990.

Sugar has 4 calories per gram, but erythritol has zero. 
That's because your small intestine absorbs Erythritol quickly and gets it out of your body through urine within 24 hours. 
This means erythritol doesn't have a chance to "metabolize" -- turn into energy in your body.

Erythritol ((2R,3S)-Butan-1,2,3,4-tetrol) belongs to the family of sugar alcohols also known as polyols, which are formed due to hydrolysation processes of the aldehyde or ketone group in various carbohydrates. 
The chemical structure of erythritol and the other sweeteners are naturally abundant in fruits and vegetables, like grapes and mushrooms as well as in fermented foods like soy sauce. 
The most valuable properties of these sugar alcohols are their sweetness and low calorie content combined with being non-cariogenic. 
For an overview on these properties, Within the sugar alcohols, erythritol plays a somehow extraordinary part. 
Erythritol consists of only four carbon atoms and has therefore the smallest molecular weight of all sugar alcohols, which is associated with slightly different physical and chemical properties. 
Erythritol is also a symmetrical molecule and therefore exists only in one form, the meso-form. 
Erythritol forms anhydrous crystals with a moderate sweetness of 60–80% of sucrose. 
However, as an advantage, Erythritol can be mixed with more intense sugars due to the absence of any aftertaste. 
But due to the high production costs of erythritol compared to more intense sweeteners, Erythritol is not primarily chosen for its sweetness synergy. 
As a more important feature, erythritol can improve the mouth feeling and can mask certain unwanted aftertastes such as astringency and the irritant effect of intense sweeteners. 
When dissolved, erythritol exhibits a strong cooling effect due to its high negative heat of solution. 
Along with the artificial sweetener sucralose, Erythritol is the only polyol that is non-caloric, providing no energy to the body. 
The majority of erythritol cannot be metabolized by the human body and is excreted unmodified into the urine without changing blood glucose and insulin levels. 
The latter is a stand-alone property of erythritol among the commonly used polyols and allows its usage as sweetener in specialized food for diabetics or people suffering obesity. 
It also means that a severe disadvantage of other polyols, namely sorbitol and xylitol, leading to diarrhea is eliminated. 
Only a little amount, less than 10%, undergoes a reversible metabolic reaction like the dehydration to d- or l-erythrulose. 
Finally, erythritol is also a free radical scavenger with the ability to potentially exercise its anti-oxidant activity while circulating the body before it is excreted into the urine.

Erythritol is a low-calorie sugar substitute that gives almost the same sweetness, but does not have a negative effect on the metabolism. 
Erythritol belongs to the category of sugar alcohols, which are chemically similar to sugar, but are not digested by the body. 
As a result, such substances do not provide almost any calories, which makes them an excellent salvation for the sweet tooth on a low-carb diet or a diet with a low sugar content.

Erythritol is a natural sugar alcohol, just like xylitol. 
Sugar alcohols are carbohydrates that chemically have characteristics of both sugars and alcohols.

There are nearly zero carbs and zero calories per gram of erythritol.

Erythritol was first discovered in 1848 by a Scottish chemist named John Stenhouse. 
Japan has been using erythritol since the early 1990s in candies, jellies, jams, chocolate (including the common chocolate bar), yogurt, beverages and as a natural sugar substitute, and it’s gained popularity in the U.S. more recently.

Although the name can be confusing, “sugar alcohols” have nothing to do with cocktails, since they don’t contain ethanol (alcohol) like alcoholic beverages. 

Once erythritol enters your body, it’s rapidly absorbed in the small intestine and bloodstream with only about 10 percent entering the colon. 
The other 90 percent is excreted in the urine.

Erythritol essentially goes through your system untouched with zero metabolization.

Erythritol can be widely used in baked products, all kinds of dairy products, chocolate, candy, chewing gum, soft drinks, ice cream and other foods, with nice appearance and flavours.

In food industry,erythritol, as substitute of cane sugar, is widely used in food manufacturing such as baking and roasting foods, cakes, dairy produce, chocolate, all kinds candies, dessert, gum, soft drink, ice-cream etc. which keeps foods good in color, sweet-smelling, sapor and prevent foods from deterioration.

Erythritol is a four-carbon sugar alcohol or polyol that contains about 60 percent to 80 percent of the sweetness of table sugar.

Technically, there are about 0.25 calories per gram of erythritol (so less than one calorie, which is considered to be basically zero). 
Table sugar in comparison contains about 4 calories per gram, meaning it has 16 times more calories.

Erythritol is a linear carbohydrate molecule of four carbon atoms, each carrying one hydroxyl group. 

Chemically, erythritol therefore belongs to the class of monosaccharide polyols like sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol, and glycerol. 
Erythritol is also a symmetrical molecule and therefore, it exists in only one form, the mesoform. 
Erythritol forms anhydrous crystals with a moderately sweet taste without off-tastes or off-odors. 
The powder has a transparent white brilliant appearance and dissolves in water to give a colorless nonviscous solution. 
Crystals melt at 122 °C to form a colorless and brilliant nonviscous melt.

Erythritol's chemical properties are similar to those of other polyols in that it has no reducing end groups and thus has excellent heat and acid stability. 
Erythritol differs in having a low solubility (37% ww at 25 °C), a property that among these simple polyols it shares with mannitol and isomalt. 
The heat of solution is very low (− 181 J g− 1), a property shared with xylitol. 
However, compared with the group of polyols presently used as sugar replacers, erythritol has the lowest molecular weight (122), which of course provides different properties, such as higher osmotic pressure and lower water activity in solution. 
Erythritol has also a high freezing point depression and boiling point elevation.

Compared with sucrose, erythritol has a sweetness value of 60–70%. 
Erythritol has a clean, sweet taste, similar to sucrose, and a strong cooling effect and shows many synergies with intense sweeteners.

Erythritol is classified as a sugar alcohol, or polyol, that occurs naturally in small amounts in certain fruits and vegetables as well as fermented foods such as wine and soy sauce.2,3 It’s produced by fermenting yeast with glucose from corn or wheat starch.4,5

Compared with xylitol—another popular sugar alcohol—and cane sugar, erythritol contains significantly fewer calories—0.24 kcal/g vs 2.4 kcal/g for xylitol and 4 kcal/g for sugar. 
Whereas xylitol has a glycemic index of 7, erythritol and stevia have a glycemic index of 0; none of these sugar substitutes have been shown to have much or any impact on blood sugar.

Erythritol’s metabolism is different from most sugar alcohols, which pass through the digestive system unchanged and are fermented by bacteria in the colon. 
Roughly 90% of erythritol is absorbed in the small intestine and into the bloodstream before it reaches the colon and eventually is excreted through the urine, unchanged.

Fruits like watermelon, pear and grapes naturally contain minor amounts of erythritol, as do mushrooms and some fermented foods like cheese, wine, beer and sake.

Erythritol is now commonly added to many packaged foods, snacks and drink items. Some examples of where you’ll find it include:

-zero-calorie and/or diet sodas and drinks
-sports and energy drinks
-sugar-free gums and mints and other sweets (such as hard and soft candies, flavored jam, and jelly spreads)
-chocolate products
-dairy desserts (such as ice cream, other frozen desserts and puddings)
-packaged grain-based desserts (such as cakes and cookies)
-some medications
Erythritol is commonly used in combination with artificial sweeteners to improve the taste of products.

In addition to providing a sweet taste, sugar alcohols in food add bulk and texture, help retain moisture, and prevent browning.

Because erythritol is not hygroscopic (does not absorb moisture from the air), it’s popular in certain baked products because it doesn’t dry them out.

Erythritol is a natural sugar substitute that has almost no calories.
Made from fermented corn or cornstarch, Erythritol is a sugar alcohol that occurs naturally in small quantities in fruits and fungi like grapes, melons and mushrooms.

Erythritol has zero calories and no carbs.
Erythritol does not raise blood sugar or insulin levels.
Erythritols active compound passes into the urine without being used by the body.
In its granulated form Erythritol is easy to use to replace real sugar in recipes.
Erythritol may prevent dental plaque and cavities compared to other sweeteners.

Ideal for diabetics, or anyone simply trying to avoid sugar, but need a sweet taste.

Erythritol is a non-caloric bulk sweetener, suitable for diabetics and safe for teeth. 
Erythritol occurs naturally in many fruits and vegetables and is produced by fermentation.
Erythritol may have potential as antioxidant and prevention or treatment of vascular complications. 
Main applications are diet beverages and dairy products, sugar-free chewing gum chocolate and candies.

Erythritol is a type of sugar low-calorie, low-carb sugar substitute known as a sugar alcohol; other sugar alcohols include xylitol, sorbitol, maltitol and isomalt.

Of the sugar alcohols, erythritol contains the fewest calories and is 60-70% as sweet as regular sugar.

You can find Erythritol naturally in some fruits, mushrooms, and fermented foods like wine and soy sauce. 
But commercial erythritol is often made by fermenting glucose from hydrolyzed corn starch or wheat. 

Erythritol is essentially calorie-free and has a low impact on blood sugar levels. 
Erythritol’s also tooth-friendly since sugar alcohol can’t be metabolized by oral bacteria. 
Research has shown that Erythritol can reduce dental plaque and decrease cavity risk.

Erythritol is a sweet crystalline alcohol C4H10O4 obtained especially from lichens, algae, and yeast or made by reduction of erythrose

Erythritol is a naturally-derived sugar substitute, produced by a fermentation process, that looks and tastes very much like sugar, yet has almost no calories. 
Erythritol comes in granulated and powdered forms.

Erythritol has been used in Japan since 1990 in candies, chocolate, yogurt, fillings, jellies, jams, beverages, and as a sugar substitute.

Erythritol is classified as a sugar alcohol. Sugar alcohols, also called polyols, are sugar substitutes that are either extracted from plants or manufactured from starches. 

Erythritol is also derived from the natural sugars in plants – mainly corn. 
Once these sugars are extracted from the corn, they’re fermented to produce compounds called polyols, or sugar alcohols.

- Erythritol has a clean, sweet taste and is approximately 70% as sweet as sugar.
- Erythritol has almost no calories. 
In the United States, erythritol is labeled as having 0.2 calories per gram, which is 95 percent fewer calories than sugar. 
In Japan, erythritol is labeled as having zero calories.
- Erythritol has not been found to affect blood sugar or insulin levels and has a zero glycemic index.
- Erythritol isn’t metabolized by oral bacteria, which means that it doesn’t contribute to tooth decay. 
Erythritol was approved for use as a sugar substitute in Japan in 1990.  
It was approved in Australia and New Zealand in 1999.

Erythritol is a type of carbohydrate called a sugar alcohol, or polyol.
Erythritol is unique from other sugar alcohols because it contains zero calories.
Erythritol occurs naturally in a variety of foods (e.g., grapes, mushrooms, pears and watermelon) and some fermented foods and beverages like beer, cheese, sake, soy sauce and wine. 
Erythritol is also commercially produced using fermentation.
Erythritol does not impact blood glucose or insulin secretion and contributes to oral health.

Erythritol is found naturally in fruits like grapes, peaches, pears and watermelon. 
Erythritol’s also found in mushrooms and fermented foods like beer, cheese, sake, soy sauce and wine. 
In addition to whole foods, erythritol is commercially produced for use in baked goods, beverages, candies, chewing gums, chocolates and tabletop sweetener packets.

Erythritol is one of the most interesting polyols due to its almost zero calories (EU: zero, USA 0.2 kcal/g), a clean sweet taste at a relative sweetness of about 0.5.

erythritol qualifies as a very low-calorie bulk sweetener for sugar-free products.

A unique property is the very efficient substitution of sugar in rolled sugar cones, flute wafers, and similar hot formed wafer products. 
Only half of erythritol is required for sugar replacement thus opening up the option for products of very low sweetness.

Erythritol naturally occurs in some fruits and fermented foods and is manufactured industrially by fermentation from glucose. 

The caloric value is 0.2 kcal/g, just 5% of the sucrose energy value. 
For the EU and Japan even zero calories can be labelled.

Erythritol is a white, nonhygroscopic, crystalline powder. 
Erythritol melts at about 121°C. It has excellent pH and heat stability in food processing. 
The relative sweetness is around 60 compared to sucrose.
When it comes to taste, erythritol compares well to sucrose in sweetness character. 
The application range therefore is from drinks and dairy products to confectionery and bakery products. 

In bulk sugar replacement, erythritol offers zero calories and some sweetness reduction if not combined with HISs

The solubility in water at ambient is just 37%, far lower than for sucrose. The contribution to viscosity is smaller than for other sugars and polyols

Erythritol has a distinct cooling effect when dissolving in the mouth, especially in combination with softer fats as in wafer creams. 
In combination to harder fats as used for hot climate, erythritol might aggravate their waxy mouthfeel

The stability in baking is very good, and there is no browning (Maillard reaction plus caramelization)

In sugar-free rolled wafer cones and flute wafers erythritol has a great potential. 
The plasticizing effect is about twice that of sucrose as a sugar replacement, which allows for low sweetness sugar wafer products

Erythritol has no glycemic response and is well suited for developing wafers and waffles being low in GI and in carbohydrates; it is suitable for diabetics as well

Erythritol is nonfermentable and therefore noncariogenic (tooth-friendly)

Erythritol, contrary to other sugar alcohols, has a high digestive tolerance, is almost not laxative and requires no warning labels

Erythritol is a crystalline, white, anhydrous, non-hygroscopic solid that has very much the appearance of table sugar. 
Chemically, erythritol is (2R,3S)-butane-1,2,3,4-tetraol, a linear, four-carbon polyol. 
Erythritol is non-reducing and, therefore, does not undergo Maillard browning. 
Erythritol is stable to acid hydrolysis and to high temperatures. 
Erythritol melts at 121 °C.

Erythritol is moderately soluble and 37–43 g will dissolve in 100 g water at 25 °C. 
This is relatively low (only mannitol and isomalt are lower) and it can limit erythritol’s use in some applications. 
However, the polyol is not hygroscopic, and is used advantageously to retard moisture adsorption in fruit pieces, fruit bars and flour confectionery as well as coatings.

Erythritol is a natural sugar alcohol/polyol approved for use as a food additive across the world. 
Erythritol is almost 70% as sweet as sugar and used as a bulk sweetener. 
Erythritol discovered in 1848 and it occurs naturally in some fruit and fermented foods. 
Erythritol’s flavor profile is very similar to sugar. 
Erythritol is non-cariogenic and has the highest digestive tolerance of the polyols. 
Since it is natural, Erythritol does not cause any side effects and tastes almost exactly like sugar without the calories.

Erythritol has very Low Calories, 0,2 kcal/g, perfect ingredient for the formulation of reduced calorie food.
Erythritol is Tooth friendly.
Erythritol replaces sugar, glucose syrups and fat while improving flavour, texture and mouth-feel in a variety of applications.
Erythritol have a high digestive tolerance.
Erythritol have taste masking properties to help minimize off-notes caused by intense sweeteners, vitamins, minerals, soy and other supplements.

Erythritol is a chemical compound, a sugar alcohol (or polyol), used as a food additive and sugar substitute. 
Erythritol is naturally occurring and is made from corn using enzymes and fermentation. 
Erythritols formula is C4H10O4, or HO(CH2)(CHOH)2(CH2)OH; specifically, one particular stereoisomer with that formula. 
Erythritol is 60–70% as sweet as sucrose (table sugar), yet it is almost noncaloric and does not affect blood sugar or cause tooth decay.

First discovered 1848 by Scottish chemist John Stenhouse, erythritol is a sugar alcohol that occurs naturally in some fruits and vegetables, such as grapes, melon, and mushrooms, as well as fermented foods such as wine, soy sauce, beer, and cheese.

Industrially erythritol is made from corn starch to generate glucose, which is then fermented with yeast or another fungus.

Erythritol is a four-carbon polyol, which is used as a low-calorie sweetener in the food and pharmaceutical industries. 
Its sweetness level is ∼70% that of sucrose and it is safe for diabetics because Erythritol does not affect blood glucose levels after oral ingestion. 
Erythritol and other polyols are not fermented by oral bacteria and therefore they do not contribute to acid production that leads to tooth decay. 
Erythritol cannot be enzymatically degraded in humans and it is excreted almost exclusively in the urine, therefore it does not have the same laxative effect as other sugar alcohols. 
Commercial production of erythritol is performed by fermentation using various osmophilic yeasts (i.e., Moniliella pollinis) that produce the polyol as a compatible solute. 
Yeast and fungal erythritol is synthesized by fermentation of hexoses via erythrose-4-phosphate formed by the pentose phosphate pathway. 
Phosphatases convert erythrose-4-phosphate to erythrose, which is subsequently reduced to erythritol by erythrose reductase.

Erythritol is the only sugar alcohol that is produced predominantly by fermentation.

Erythritol is a zero-calorie, good-tasting bulk sweetener which is suitable for a variety of reduced-calorie and sugar-free food and beverages. 
Erythritol has been part of the human diet for thousands of years due to its presence in fruits and other foods. 
Erythritol has a high digestive tolerance, is nonglycemic and therefore safe for people with diabetes, and does not promote tooth decay.

-Zero-calorie sweetener
-Bulk sweetener which can be blended with low-calorie sweeteners
-Clean sweet taste with no aftertaste
-Potential use in a variety of zero/low-calorie, low-fat and sugar-free foods and beverages — from candies to yogurts
-Beneficial for people with diabetes because it does not raise blood glucose or insulin levels
-Does not contribute to the formation of dental caries

Erythritol is a metabolite in the pentose phosphate pathway, explaining why microbes are able to produce it. 
In yeasts glucose-6-phosphate is converted by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase into ribulose-5-phosphate generating 2 moles of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and CO2. 
Ribulose-5-phosphate is converted to ribose-5-phosphate and xylulose-5-phosphate by enzyme action of ribose-5-isomerase and ribulose-5-phosphate 3-epimerase, respectively. 
By the action of transaldolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate are converted to fructose-6-phosphate and erythrose-4-phosphate. 
Finally, erythrose-4-phosphate and xylulose-5-phosphate are converted to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate by the enzyme action of transketolase.

In microbial metabolism, erythrose-4-phosphate is first dephosphor-ylated by erythrose-4-phosphokinase and then reduced to erythritol by NADPH-dependent aldose reductase. 
In bacteria, ribu-lose-5-phosphate is converted to xylulose-5-phosphate and then split into acetyl phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate by pentose phosphate phosphoketolase present in heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria. 
Erythritol production is reported, for example, with Pichia, Zygopichia, Candida, Torulopsis, Trigonopsis and Moniliella.
Erythritol is natural sugar replacement. Unlike artificial sweeteners designed in a lab, erythritol is found in nature and produced using natural processes.

Erythritol’s a type of sugar alcohol, but it contains no sugar, and no ethanol (the kind of alcohol you drink). 
Based on its chemical structure, erythritol and other sugar alcohols are classified as polyols.

You can find erythritol naturally in certain fruits, mushrooms, and fermented foods.

Commercially, erythritol can also be made as a by-product of fermenting corn. 
Fermentation is a natural process – the same process used to produce vinegar, kombucha, wine, beer, and pickles, among other things.

Erythritol is 70% as sweet as sugar and used in a variety of foods to add bulk and delicious flavor. 
Erythritol also contains a small amount of total carbs (which we don’t metabolize), and zero calories per serving.

Erythritol serves as a replacement for both granulated and powdered sugar, so similarly, you can get to granulated erythritol or powdered erythritol, with the same consistency as their sugar counterparts.

Erythritol is a type of carbohydrate called a sugar alcohol, or polyol, which are water-soluble compounds that occur naturally in many fruits and vegetables. 
Erythritol is also commercially produced by fermentation from a simple sugar derived from corn, called dextrose. 
Erythritol’s used as a zero-calorie sweetener to help replace calories from carbohydrates and sugars in packaged foods and beverages. 
In addition to providing sweetness, erythritol also helps foods retain moisture.

Like most sugar alcohols, erythritol is not as sweet as sugar: It’s only about 60-80 percent as sweet. 
Its lack of calories makes erythritol unique among sugar alcohols, most of which have around two calories per gram (for reference, sugar has about four calories per gram). 
Erythritol’s contributions to health go beyond the potential to replace calories from carbohydrates and sugar in our diet. 
Two areas where erythritol is known for its positive effects are oral health and blood sugar.

Oral Health

Sugar alcohols like erythritol have been shown to benefit oral health in a number of ways. 
Primarily, because they are noncariogenic: in other words, they don’t contribute to cavity formation. 
Erythritol inhibits the growth of a specific type of oral bacteria (Streptococcus mutans) known to be associated with cavities. 
Therefore, sugar alcohols like erythritol do not promote tooth decay. 
Some sugar alcohols like xylitol and erythritol are also considered nonacidogenic, which means they help decrease the amount of acid produced by the oral bacteria that can damage tooth enamel. 

Blood sugar

Erythritol is absorbed in the small intestine, but it is not metabolized.
Instead, it’s eliminated unchanged from the body through the urine. 
This makes erythritol helpful for people with diabetes because it doesn’t provide carbohydrates, sugar or calories, and therefore does not affect blood glucose levels or insulin secretion.

Potential Benefits:

Sugar-Free and May Help with Blood Sugar and Weight Management
Fans of this sweetener mainly love it because of its lack of calories, which can be helpful for weight management.
Erythritol is also suitable for diabetics and people following the keto diet and other low-carb diets.
Findings from a 2018 study suggest that erythritol may not only serve as a glucose substitute, but also may be a useful agent in the treatment of diabetes to help manage postprandial blood glucose levels. A 2020 review also stated that there’s potential to use sugar alcohols as anti-diabetic supplements in diabetic foods and food products.
Replacing sugar with erythritol while doing keto can help keep your carbs in check and aid in you staying in ketosis.

Can Help Increase Satiety and Satisfaction
Some studies show that erythritol could influence the release of certain hormones in the gut and even slow the emptying of the stomach. 
Erythritol can also improve the mouthfeel of low-sugar foods and mask unwanted aftertastes that other intense sweeteners often have.

Better for Teeth than Other Sweeteners
Erythritol can decrease plaque or even help prevent tooth decay because sugar alcohols do not react with plaque bacteria in the mouth in the way that sugar does. 
Erythritol inhibits the growth of a specific type of oral bacteria (Streptococcus mutans) known to be associated with cavities.

Possibly Has Antioxidant Effects
Some scientists say that Erythritol might provide antioxidants and have the ability to improve endothelial function in people with type 2 diabetes while also supporting cardiovascular health in other ways.

Erythritol has been purported to have not only oral health benefits but also antioxidant properties. Potential areas of and evidence for such benefits include the following:

• Digestion: Sugar alcohols most notably have a bad reputation for their propensity to produce upset stomach. 
Because most erythritol consumed never reaches the colon, the likelihood of gastrointestinal upset and gas is low when it’s eaten in reasonable amounts.

• Flavor: Erythritol has no aftertaste, another commonly associated downfall of sugar substitutes.
Because it lacks an aftertaste, erythritol can be combined with other sweeteners to create sweetness more comparable to sugar. 
When erythritol is combined with other sugar substitutes, it helps dilute the aftertaste of the other sweetener while still contributing to the sweetness of the product.

• Oral health: Studies have shown that erythritol may be beneficial to dental health by reducing dental plaques and the adherence of certain bacteria to the surface of teeth while stopping the growth of bacteria associated with dental caries, or cavities. 
In some cases, erythritol reduced the incidence of dental caries up to three years after the study. 
Studies that compared the dental benefits of erythritol with those of xylitol and sorbitol, erythritol was shown to be more effective at reducing development and incidence of dental caries.

• Antioxidant properties: Studies suggest erythritol may have antioxidant properties, though more research is needed.
One human study supplemented the diets of 24 participants with type 2 diabetes with 36 g of erythritol per day to observe short- and long-term effects. 
Researchers observed that erythritol consumption acutely benefited small vessel endothelial function, and chronic consumption reduced central aortic stiffness, which researchers attributed to reduced oxidative stress.

-Very low calorie value,
-compared to other polyols, sugars and bulking agent
-Tooth friendly
-Not Metabolized by Oral Bacteria, ideal for use in "Sugar free" products
-High Laxative Tolerance, compared to standard polyols
-Ideal for diabetics
-does not affect Plasma Glucose and Insulin Levels
-Attractive taste
-Enhances Sweetening Quality of high intensity sweeteners
-Synergistic with a wide variety of other polyols and sugars
-Strong cooling effect
-Low water activity and Low moisture sensitivity

There are more benefits to using erythritol than reducing your calorie intake. 
Because Erythritol isn’t metabolised net carbohydrates is zero. 
Additionally, as with xylitol, using erythritol is believed to protect your teeth against decay as the bacteria in your mouth can’t digest it.

Erythritol is also great for diabetics as it doesn’t cause sudden spikes in blood sugar. 
In fact, as a powerful antioxidant, erythritol can actually help to prevent the damage that type 2 diabetes can inflict on blood vessels.

Anti-diabetic properties: Erythritol makes an excellent sugar replacement for people with diabetes as it doesn’t increase the levels of glucose or insulin in your body. 
This is because 90% of Erythritol is readily absorbed into the bloodstream and excreted through the urine.
Helps in weight loss and management: Erythritol has an exceptionally low glycaemic index of zero; therefore, adding it to your baking and beverages may minimise the blood glucose build-up that can trigger weight gain.
Prevents dental plaque and cavities: By suppressing the growth of oral bacteria, erythritol does not contribute to the development of cavities and plaque in the way other sugars do. 
When compared to other natural sweeteners, like xylitol, mannitol, sorbitol, and sucralose, erythritol is the mildest of all and takes the longest to create any tooth decay.
Gut-friendly: almost 90% of erythritol consumed gets absorbed, while the remaining is easily digested – almost completely, in fact, due to its low glycaemic index and its small molecule size.
Antioxidant: Erythritol acts as an antioxidant and may protect against hyperglycaemia induced vascular damage (according to some research).

Because erythritol does not get broken down by the human body (we lack the necessary enzymes), it also does not impact blood sugar. 
This makes Erythritol a great fit for diabetics, as well as anyone else looking to control their blood sugar. 
As a popular sweetener, erythritol has been tested many hundreds of times in scientific environments.

The results from these tests show that erythritol has no impact on human insulin levels, no impact on cholesterol levels, triglyceride levels, or any other relevant health factors. 
Erythritol is simply consumed and then passed out of the body via urine.

When it comes to the glycemic index, erythritol has a score of zero. 
As most other sugar alcohols rank much higher.
And if you are looking to have the least impact on your blood sugar, you will likely want to avoid using maltitol, which has a glycemic index score of thirty-five. 
This is very high for a sugar replacement, which means maltitol is not the best choice for anyone who is looking to keep their blood sugar low.

Erythritol does not break down in the body and has far fewer calories than many other sugar alternatives. 
For comparison, table sugar has around four calories per gram. 
Another option, xylitol, contains 2.5 calories per gram. 
But erythritol contains just 0.2 calories per gram.

The beginning of weight loss regimens are when sugar and carb withdrawals are the most pronounced – so it is important to still have a sweet taste in some of your foods. 
Because erythritol is so low in calories, it is often referred to as a “zero-calorie sweetener.”

Sugar alcohols have been shown to aid with oral health. Specifically, erythritol stops the growth of certain oral bacteria (Streptococcus mutans). This bacteria is associated with cavities.

With no sugar, a sweet taste that can be used as a 1/1 replacement for sugar in recipes, and actual benefits to oral health – erythritol is also a popular choice amongst dentists.

In some studies, erythritol has improved the function of blood vessels, which means it may help work against developing heart disease. 

Erythritol is found naturally in foods, which means it is not technically classified as an artificial sweetener. 
You can find Erythritol in peaches, pears, watermelons, grapes, mushrooms, cheese, sake, soy sauce, and even in wine. 
In food products, erythritol is used for everything under the sun, including making chocolate, gum, beverages, baked goods, and candy.


Although Erythritol was firstly isolated in 1852, it took until 1990 for erythritol to become present on the Japanese market as a new natural sweetener. 
The range of applications for erythritol is still growing. 
Erythritol can currently be found on its own, or in combination with other polyols in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals.

To date, the use of erythritol in foods has been approved in more than 60 countries, including Europe, the USA, Japan, Canada, Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, Turkey, Russia, China, India, Australia and New Zealand. 
Within the food sector, erythritol is mainly utilized as sweetener to balance the finished product with regard to its sensory characteristics, such as flavor, color, and texture. 
Erythritol can therefore be used to produce no-sugar added, reduced-sugar, or sugar-free alternatives. 
Erythritol as sugar replacement can be found as tabletop sweetener, in beverages, chewing gum, chocolate, candies, and in bakery products. 
Due to its mild sweetness, Erythritol allows a volume-for-volume replacement of sugar, whereas for example, sucralose that has a much higher sweetness needs fillers and even then has a noticeably different texture in baked products. 
With regard to sucralose, Erythritol also needs to be considered that it is a chemically synthesized substance that does not naturally occur in nature. 
As a consequence, Erythritol currently accumulates in the environment due to the lack of sufficient natural degradation mechanisms.

Polyols are commonly used within the personal care industry like the cosmetic or toiletries sector. 
They are more and more incorporated as excipients in the manufacture of care products like toothpaste, mouthwashes, creams and lotions, make-up, perfumes, or deodorants.
Due to its humectant function as well as its pleasant taste, its sweetness and its non-cariogenic properties, erythritol can be used as base for toothpaste and mouthwash recipes. 
Erythritol gives toothpastes the required viscosity and humectancy. 
Additionally, erythritol inhibits the growth of Streptococcus mutans and acts as caries limiting in combination with xylitol. 
Further, it was found that a 3-year consumption of erythritol-containing candies by 7- to 8-year-old children resulted in reduced plaque growth, lower levels of plaque acetic acid, and propionic acid.

Erythritol can be used in a wide range of solid and liquid formulations, including granulated powders, tablets, tablet coating, consumer-friendly lozenges, medicated chewing gum, syrups, and as mentioned before, as oral care products. 
For pharmaceutical use, Erythritols interaction with water and its high stability in temperature and in acid or alkaline environments is a key. 
Because of its properties, erythritol as excipient offers good flowability and stability, making it an ideal carrier for actives in sachets and capsules. 
More and more active ingredients are derived from biotechnological processes, which are often very efficient but also extremely reactive. 
Using the non-reducing sugar erythritol instead of lactose, which is the most commonly used pharmaceutical excipient, the unwanted reaction between the amino groups of the active and the reducing sugar can be prevented. 
Therefore, lactose is more often being replaced by erythritol. 
Besides this, non hygroscopic polyols need to be used when a very water-sensitive active has to be reformulated.

Erythritol glycol is very suitable for diabetics, because it is not easy to be degraded by enzymes, so it is not involved in glycemic metabolism and glucose changes. 
Erythritol can also be used as a substitute for low-calorie health food, which is very suitable for patients with obesity, hypertension and cardiovascular

Erythritol, decay resistance function of sugar alcohol is very obvious, is the main reason of the caries occur due to corrosion of streptococcus mutans of oral teeth enamel, because of erythritol, sugar alcohol cannot be used by the pathogen, and thus made of candy and special cleaning teeth to protect children's oral health has a very positive role.

-Beverages and Beverage Mixes
-Carbonated beverages
-Non-carbonated beverages
-Hard and Soft Candy
-Jams and Jellies
-Chewable candy and tablet
-Dairy Products
-Confections and Frostings
-Nutritional & Dietary Products
-Table-top sweeteners
-Chewing gum
-Dry-mix products
-Frozen desserts

Biological effectiveness:

High digestive tolerance
Free radical scavenger
Anti-oxidative and endothelium-protective properties
Increases malabsorption of fructose











1,2,3,4-Butanetetrol, (2R,3S)-rel-





Erythritol [NF]





Erythritol, meso-









Erythritol (NF)


Erythrol (VAN)


meso-Erythritol, 99%


NIK 242

NSC 8099




CCRIS 7901

HSDB 7968

1,2,3,4-Butanetetrol, (theta,S)-

EINECS 205-737-3





Epitope ID:114707

meso-Erythritol, >=99%













meso-Erythritol, analytical standard





1,3,4-Butanetetrol, (R*,S*)-


























Erythritol, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard

Erythritol, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard

Erythritol, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material

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