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Ethyl Carbitol is a solvent for dyes, nitrocellulose, paints, inks, and resins. Ethyl Carbitol is a component of wood stains for wood, for setting the twist and conditioning yarns and cloth, in textile printing, textile soaps, lacquers, penetration enhancer in cosmetics, drying varnishes and enamels, and brake fluids. Ethyl Carbitol used to determine the saponification values of oils and as a neutral solvent for mineral oil-soap and mineral oil-sulfated oil mixtures giving fine dispersions in water.

CAS NUMBER: 111-90-0

carbitol; diethylene glycol monoethyl ether; ethyl carbitol; ethylcarbitol; Transcutol; transcutol HP; transcutol P; 2-(2-Ethoxyethoxy)ethanol; Diethylene glycol monoethyl ether; 111-90-0; CARBITOL; Transcutol; Ethoxy diglycol; Ethyl carbitol; 2(2-Ethoxyethoxy)ethanol; Dioxitol; Ethanol, 2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)-; Ethyl digol; Carbitol solvent; Transcutol P; Ethoxydiglycol; Solvolsol; Losungsmittel apv; Dowanol DE; Carbitol cellosolve; Poly-Solv DE; Diglycol monoethyl ether; DEGMEE; Ektasolve DE; Ethyl diethylene glycol; Diethylene glycol ethyl ether; 3,6-Dioxa-1-octanol; Dowanol 17; Karbitol

Ethyl Carbitol is a colorless, stable, hygroscopic liquid of a mild, pleasant odor. Ethyl Carbitol is completely miscible with water, alcohols, ethers, ketones, aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons, and halogenated hydrocarbons. Owing to the fact that Ethyl carbitol contains an ether-alcohol-hydrocarbon group in the molecule, Ethyl Carbitol has the power to dissolve a wide variety of substances such as oils, fats, waxes, dyes, camphor and natural resins like copal resin, kauri, mastic, rosin, sandarac, shellac, as well as several types of synthetic resins.

Ethyl Carbitol is used as a solvent in synthetic resin coating compositions, and in lacquers, where high-boiling solvents are desired. Has apparently not been reported to occur in nature. Usually used as solvent for the polymer electrospinning. A colorless, slightly viscous liquid with a mild pleasant odor. Flash point near 190°F. Used to make soaps, dyes, and other chemicals. Slightly denser than water and soluble in water.

Oxidizes readily in air to form unstable peroxides that may explode spontaneously [Bretherick, 1979 p.151-154, 164]. Ethyl Carbitol can be removed by extracting 250g in 750mL of *benzene with 5mL portions of water, allowing for phase separation, until successive aqueous portions show the same volume increase. Dry, and free from peroxides, as described for diethylene glycol mono-n-butyl ether. [Beilstein 1 IV 2393.]

2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)ethan-1-ol; 2-(2-Ethoxyethoxy)ethanol; 2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)ethanol; 2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)ethanol; DEGEE; diethylene glycol ethyl ether; Diethylene glycol ethyl ether, Diethylene; glycol monoethyl ether, Ethyldiglycol; Diethylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether; Diethylene glycol monoethyl ether; Ethanol, 2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)-; ethyldiglycol; Carbitol; CARBITOL™ SOLVENT; CARBITOL™ SOLVENT, LOW GRAVITY; DEGEE; Diethylene glycol ethyl ether; diethylene glycol methyl ether; Diethylene glycol monoethyl ether; Diglycol monoethyl ether; Dioxitol; Dowanol DE; Ektasolve DE; Ethanol, 2,2'-oxybis-, monoethyl ether; Ethanol, 2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)- (8CI, 9CI); Ethyl carbitol; Ethyl digol; Ethyldiethylene glycol; Ethyldiglykol; Ethylene diglycol monoethyl ether; O-Ethyldigol; Poly-Solv DE; Solvolsol; Transcutol

 1-Hydroxy-3,6-dioxaoctane; 2-(2'-Ethoxyethoxy)ethanol; 3,6-Dioxa-1-octanol; 

111-90-0; 110-80-5; 96231-36-6; 96231-36-6

There have been many requests for sampling and analytical procedures for carbitol and carbitol acetate. They have been directed to follow OSHA method 79 for 2-ethoxyethanol and 2-ethoxyethyl acetate, since carbitol and carbitol acetate are related to this compound (Ref. 5.1). In this method the samples are collected on charcoal tubes and desorbed with 95:5 methylene chloride:methanol. Desorption of carbitol acetate was attempted using carbon disulfide but the recovery was nonlinear ranging from 44.9% to 74.9% for loadings 1.011 to 4.046 mg. These recoveries were low and a better desorbing solvent was needed. The 95:5 methylene chloride:methanol was tried and found to give desorptions of 96.1% for carbitol and 100% for carbitol acetate. Retention and storage studies showed good recoveries for charcoal tubes.

Ethyl Carbitol is used in finger nail polish remover, for setting the twist and conditioning yarns and cloth, in lecithin manufacturing, in textile printing and soaps, in lacquers, in organic synthesis, as a brake fluid diluent, and as a solvent for dyes, nitrocelluloses, resins, mineral oil soap, mineral oil-sulfonated oil mixtures, and nonaqueous stains for wood. Carbitol acetate is used in lacquers, printing inks, coatings, and as a solvent for cellulose esters, gums, and resins. Carbitol and carbitol acetate are considered to be of low toxicity by the FDA and have been approved for use in cosmetics. 

 Ethyl Carbitol is a combustible liquid and is stable under recommended conditions. Storage containers made from carbon steel, stainless steel or phenolic-lined steel are recommended. Ethyl Carbitol   should not be stored in containers made from aluminum, copper, galvanized iron or galvanized steel. Contact with strong acids, strong bases and strong oxidizers should also be avoided. Ethyl Carbitol   should not be distilled to dryness because Ethyl Carbitol can form peroxides that are unstable. Ethyl Carbitol   can oxidize at elevated temperatures.

Thermal decomposition products can include and are not limited to: aldehydes, ketones and organic acids. Spills of glycol ethers, including Ethyl Carbitol, on hot fibrous insulations may lead to lowering of the autoignition temperatures possibly resulting in spontaneous combustion. is a combustible liquid and is stable under recommended conditions. Storage containers made from carbon steel, stainless steel or phenolic-lined steel are recommended. Ethyl Carbitol should not be stored in containers made from aluminum, copper, galvanized iron or galvanized steel. Contact with strong acids, strong bases and strong oxidizers should also be avoided.

Ethyl Carbitol  should not be distilled to dryness because Ethyl Carbitol can form peroxides that are unstable. Ethyl Carbitol   can oxidize at elevated temperatures. Thermal decomposition products can include and are not limited to: aldehydes, ketones and organic acids. Spills of glycol ethers, including Ethyl Carbitol, on hot fibrous insulations may lead to lowering of the autoignition temperatures possibly resulting in spontaneous combustion.

This submission is satisfactory as in contains in most cases only summaries and no details. Transcutol was applied once at the dose level of about 0.020 ml on a solid surface of about 50 mm2. Transcutol was kept in contact with the surfaces under an occlusive patch test for 48 hours. This application was performed in parallel and under same condition with patch test alone as "negative" control. Cutaneous macroscopic examinations were performed about 30 min after removal of the patches. Evaluation of the erythematous and oedematous reactions was made according to a given numerical scale. 

General comment Ethyl Carbitol. Ethyl Carbitol has low toxicity on reproductive performance and development. Evidence of embryo-foetal toxicity was restricted to minor skeletal findings which principally included an increase in the incidence of reduced ossification of cranial bones. These minor skeleton findings were not considered to be indicative of a teratogenic potential, but suggested a selective effect on the developing foetuses. The dose of 300 mg/kg bw/d was considered to be the NOAEL for embryo-foetal toxicity.

"Carbitol solvent" (monoethyl ether of diethylene glycol) is of interest in chemical industry because Ethyl Carbitol is an ingredient of many commercial cosmetic products and of certain formulas recommended for use on the solid surface. Ethyl Carbitol is said to confer a "vanishing” effect, which appears to be esteemed in these preparations. This effect suggests that "carbitol" may be absorbed from the surface. If so, Ethyl Carbitol is use might be helpful, especially to the solid surface, which are readily by chemical industry of the ethylene series of glycols. 

Sodium cleanup with water is connected with a high risk due to the violent reaction and the development of hydrogen. This risk is significantly reduced if cleanup is performed with alcohol. In case of light alcohol, Ethyl Carbitol, the reaction proceeds on an intermediate time scale.

These risks should be reduced by using heavy alcohol with low vapour pressure and high ignition point. However, the expense is a rather long reaction time. To achieve tolerable times, external heating may be necessary. As a good candidate for this kind of cleanup, Ethyl Carbitol (diethylenglycohnonoethylether) had been considered until recently. EC is a heavy alcohol with the advantage of low vapour pressure, high ignition point and a mild reaction with sodium.

The principal reaction is C2H5 -(O-C2H4)2 -O -H + Na ->C2H5 -(O-C2H4)2 -O -Na + 1/2H2 + low energy. The reaction products are Ethyl Carbitol and hydrogen. The latter has to be controlled carefully, but is also a good indicator for the beginning and the termination of the reaction. The speed of the reaction is low at ambient temperatures and may be enhanced by applying external heat. 

Which is commonly known as CarbitolTM or Ethyl Carbitol TM. More particularly, the present invention relates to a method for removing ethylene glycol from Ethyl Carbitol by azeotropic distillation using n-heptanol as an azeotrope forming agent. Ethyl Carbitol is used as a Solvent in a wide variety of manufacturing processes. The commercial grade typically contains from about 1,000 parts per million (hereinafter “ppm”) by weight to about 2,000 ppm by weight ethylene glycol as an impurity.

The presence of this amount of ethylene glycol, which is toxic when ingested, renders the commercial grade of Ethyl Carbitol unusable as a Solvent in chemical manufacturing applications. In order to be Suitable for use in chemical manufacturing applications, the ethylene glycol content of Ethyl Carbitol must be reduced to leSS than about 25 ppm by weight. 

Removing ethylene glycol, which has a boiling point of 197.2 C. from Ethyl Carbitol using conventional distillation equipment is difficult and ineffi cient because Ethyl Carbitol has an overlapping boiling point range of 195-202 C. Thus, the yield of chemical grade Ethyl Carbitol using conventional distillation equipment is quite low. A method which would permit the effective and economic removal of ethylene glycol from diethylene glycol monoet hyl ether is therefore highly desired. 

Ethyl Carbitol is a well-known means of Separat ing two compounds having boiling points in close proximity. In a typical Ethyl Carbitol, a third compound which forms an Ethyl Carbitol with only one of the closely boiling components is added to form a mixture, the mixture is Subjected to distillation, and the Ethyl Carbitol is removed as an overhead product thereby effecting Separation of the com pounds having close boiling points. Ideally, the azeotrope forming agent, which is Sometimes referred to as an entrainer, is Separated from the component with which Ethyl Carbitol forms the azeotrope by conventionally known means, Such as by phase Separation, and returned to the distillation apparatus for reuse.

Thus, the Selection of an azeotrope-forming agent is Seldom a simple task. Not only must an azeotrope-forming agent form an azeotrope with only one of the closely boiling components having the proper Volatility, the components of the azeotrope must also be capable of being easily Separated in highly pure form for reuse in the proceSS or for recovery as a final Saleable, useful product. Moreover, the azeotrope-forming agent preferably should be relatively inexpensive, nontoxic, nonreactive, and noncorrosive.

An Ethyl Carbitol is a mixture of two or more compounds, the relative composition of which does not change upon distil lation. Although compounds which form an azeotrope do not form a new Substance, they behave like a single Substance in that the vapor produced by partial evaporation has the same relative composition as the liquid mixture. Thus, compounds which form an Ethyl Carbitol at a constant temperature without change in relative composition and cannot be separated by conventional distillation. 

One of ordinary skill in the art cannot predict or expect azeotropic formation even among positional or constitu tional isomers (i.e., butyl, isobutyl, Sec-butyl, and tert butyl). Moreover, compounds which are known to form an azeotrope in one binary System may not form a Suitable azeotrope in another binary System. The predictability of azeotrope formation is well documented in U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,085,065; 4,157,976; 4,994,202; 5,064,560; and 5,507,878. Since azeotropism is an predictable phenomenon, each azeotropic combination must be separately discovered for each binary System.

Ethyl Carbitol has been found that eth ylene glycol can be removed from crude Ethyl Carbitol by azeotropic distillation when n-heptanol is added thereto to form an azeotrope with ethylene glycol. Ethyl Carbitol is reported that the n-heptanol/ethylene glycol azeotrope has a boiling point of about 174.1 C. and an ethylene glycol content of about 20%. See Lecat, Bull. Classe Sci. Acad. Roy. Belg. 29, 273 (1943).

Use of n-heptanol as an azeotrope forming agent in the ethylene glycol/Ethyl Carbitol binary System fills Several important requirements. First, n-heptanol sufficiently enhances the volatility of ethylene glycol such that Ethyl Carbitol can be efficiently removed from diethyl ene glycol monoethyl ether by azeotropic distillation.

Second, n-heptanol has a boiling point (175° C) which is sufficiently below that of Ethyl Carbitol (195-202 C.) such that purified diethylene glycol monoet hyl ether can be efficiently recovered from the bottoms product by conventional distillation. Third, n-heptanol can be easily recovered for reuse by Washing the overhead product with water and then recovering the n-heptanol from the organic phase by conventional distillation. And fourth, n-heptanol is relatively inexpensive, nontoxic, nonreactive, and noncorrosive.

Transcutol (TL) is the monoethyl ether of diethylene glycol [16] and Ethyl Carbitol has been studied as a sorption promoter in several transdermal therapeutic systems. The effect of Ethyl Carbitol on the percutaneous transport of ibuprofen (IBU) was recently investigated [85]. Formulations containing 2.64% of different sucrose esters (sucrose myristate C-1416, sucrose The PAMPA membrane is created from free fatty acid, and a synthetic ceramide analog (certramide) and cholesterol to simulate the properties of ceramide in the lipids.

Ethyl carbitolwas seen that sucrose ester gels significantly enhanced the transcutaneous transport of IBU compared to the control gel, but the Ethyl Carbitol gel did not increase IBU diffusion [85]. Ethyl Carbitol has been postulated that Ethyl Carbitol increases transdermal delivery by enhancing solubility [85 Furthermore, the use of Ethyl Carbitol can lead to intercellular SC lipid swelling with lipophilic such as IBU encapsulated in the swollen SC lipids [85].

In another research project, Ethyl Carbitol was incorporated into diclofenac acid nanocrystals with Poloxamer 188 used as a stabilizer. When no Ethyl Carbitol was incorporated into the nanosuspensions (NS-TL 0%). Surprisingly, when Ethyl Carbitol concentration in the nanosuspension formulations was increased.

Specifically, the nanosuspension formulation containing 0.5% Ethyl Carbitol (NS-TL 0.5%) led to SC accumulation comparable to that of coarse suspension (~12.5%), while the administration of NS-TL 1% and NS-TL 5% further decreased the DCF deposition (7.8% and 4.9%, respectively) [86]. Although Ethyl Carbitol is a potent solubilizing agent, increasing Ethyl carbitol is concentration in the nanosuspensions negatively impacted DCF solubility. The authors ascribed this anomaly to the adverse interaction between the stabilizer, poloxamer 188, and Ethyl Carbitol [86].

This can stabilize the nanocrystal, via intercalation of the polyoxyethylene chains and nanocrystal encapsulation. Typically, the DCF nanocrystal is loosely coated by polymer/solvent coating, leading to an increased mean hydrodynamic diameter [86]. The formed “TL-P188 corona” can create a sterically hindered and viscous diffusion layer around the nanocrystals, which is an impediment to DCF dissolution [86]. The authors ruled out a synergistic influence of combining nanosizing and Ethyl Carbitol for enhanced transcutaneous permeation of diclofenac from a nanosuspension [86].

This is a new family of liposomes containing an enhancer agent, for example, Ethyl Carbitol (Transcutol) or propylene glycol. The permeation enhancer has a dual effect, improving the vesicular bilayer fluidity and reducing the SC barrier. Therefore, the presence of the penetration enhancer agent facilitates the transdermal diffusion as intact structures, most of them at least (Manconi et al., 2012). Ethyl Carbitol is important to mention that PEVs are a rather confusing denomination, since ethosomes, invasomes and glycerosomes are also PEVs (Romero and Morilla, 2013). In this sense, Vitonyte et al. (2017) prepared liposomes, glycerosomes, and PEVs including, simultaneously, resveratrol and gallic acid..

Historically the commercial Ethyl Carbitol injections were made from a compound manufactured as a high-grade detergent used to clean optical surfaces by Niacet (Niagara Falls, NY). The product is manufactured in an industrial plant and is called NIAPROOF Anionic Surfactant 4, also known as NAS 4 and NIAPROOF 4. Ethyl Carbitol is manufactured to have between 26% and 28% by weight Ethyl Carbitol with 20% by weight maximum of diethylene glycol ethyl ether (carbitol) and 1% to 2% by weight sodium chloride. During the manufacture, Ethyl Carbitol is added so that the final product is three parts Ethyl Carbitol to two parts Ethyl Carbitol. This 27% parent compound is the same compound provided to each manufacturer of Ethyl Carbitol for injection.

Each manufacturer then purifies the active ingredient Ethyl Carbitol to remove the Ethyl Carbitol. Interestingly, analysis performed by an independent laboratory shows that the four major companies that manufacture Ethyl Carbitol have different levels of impurities, including Ethyl Carbitol. Fibro-Vein contains 0.02% w/v of Ethyl Carbitol, Sotradecol produced by Elkins Sinn until 2000 contains 0.6% w/v of Ethyl Carbitol, and Trombovar contains 2.6% w/v of Ethyl Carbitol. (Analysis performed 4 January 1989, 20 June 1989 and 8 May 1990 by Butterworth Laboratories, UK, Leberco Testing, Roselle Park, NJ, and County of Avon Scientific Services, Bristol, UK, confirmed these percentages of carbitol content.) Sotradecol produced by Mylan Pharma Group (previously Bioniche) since 2007 contains no Ethyl Carbitol or any other impurities (analysis performed by ChemCon, Freiburg, Germany, 19 November 2007.) What effect the Ethyl Carbitol impurity has on efficacy or chemical is unknown.

Cutaneous contact with Ethyl Carbitol also can produce a dermatitis with both immediate and delayed hypersensitivity.Many compounding indusrty supply Ethyl Carbitol. The Ethyl Carbitol has no regulatory power over this ‘branch’ of the industrys. Although the compounding chemical industry has voluntary standards, no organization exists to test the quality and accuracy of solutions provided by the compounding industry.

The reason for the difference in concentration may be related to the variability of the percentage of the bulk Ethyl Carbitol industrial solution. At temperatures below 15°C, the product fractionates so that the concentration of Ethyl Carbitol is greater than 27% at the bottom of the drum and below 27% at the top of the drum. An analysis of this 27% Ethyl Carbitol solution by the Professional Compounding Centers of America (PCCA; Houston, TX) performed in July 2003 found that the 27% Ethyl Carbitol contained 27.94% of Ethyl Carbitol. No analysis of the ethyl carbitol component or any other component in the industrial solution was performed. The presence of impurities in any intravenous injection is worrisome (Table 7.4).

Compounding chemical manufacture Ethyl Carbitol from industrial source material. Ethyl carbitol is a known contaminant of industrial Ethyl Carbitol. If a company is going to use an industrial chemical to prepare a industry injectable product, then Ethyl Carbitol is duty bound to disclose other chemical compounds present too. However, by far the most important consideration in our opinion is that ethyl monotriol, like Ethyl Carbitol, is a high-molecular-weight organic molecule. Ethyl Carbitol is a result of the very low levels of Ethyl Carbitol that have been present in Fibro-Vein for the last 25 years. 

The Bamford–Stevens reaction is the key step in a convenient procedure for the conversion of aldehydes and ketones into the corresponding diazoalkanes. Here, the use of 2,4,6-triisopropylbenzenesulfo- nylhydrazone (trisylhydrazone) is far superior to the use of the more common tosylhydrazones (equation 50).64 This behavior is attributed to the greater release of steric compression in the decomposition of ortho-substituted arenesulfonylhydrazones. Mechanistic information on the photolytic Bamford–Stevens reaction is provided by the successful isolation of a diazo hydrocarbon as a reaction intermediate from the direct photolysis of a tosylhydrazone sodium salt (90; Scheme 10).

Microemulsion is a lipidic system having absorption enhancement, as well as high solubilizing capacity. In the microemulsion preparation, various excipients commonly added in these systems, namely cremophor, Tween 80, labrasol, and transcutol, all these showed the inhibition of P-gp mediated functions making the microemulsion system an attractive delivery system for oral delivery (Lin et al., 2007). The solubility study and pseudo ternary phase diagrams depicted that microemulsion of about 30 nm in size with improved solubilizing capacity toward the hydrophobics, docetaxel.Ethyl Carbitol is composed (M-3 formulation) of capryol 90 (oil), cremophor EL (surfactant), and transcutol (cosurfactant), all these raised solubilization capacity of docetaxel up to 30 mg/mL.

The apical to basolateral transport across the caco-2 cell monolayer from the M-3 formulation (capryol 90/cremophor EL/transcutol = 29.4:24.9:12.4, w/w) was significantly higher improved (0.624 μg/cm2) as compared to commercial product Taxotere (0.025 μg/cm2). The oral bioavailability is also increased (34.42%) in the case of microemulsion systems as compared to that of the orally administered Taxotere (6.63%). The increase in bioavailability was mainly due to the combined effect of the solubility enhancement, the inhibition of P-gp efflux system and the increase in permeability. 

Selecting the right emulsion excipients is vital to the efficiency and smoothness of formulation development. And in the worst-case scenario the formulator does not have a backup formulation, Ethyl Carbitol would be difficult to start over again to select alternative excipients without delaying the project timeline. Therefore, a relatively conservative approach in selecting excipients, including backups, is preferable. Using precedent excipients in commercial products for initial screening is highly recommended.

Formulators should make an effort to understand the properties of the excipients and their conditions of use in commercial products, including concentration ranges, compatibility with other ingredients. Publications and suppliers are often good sources of this information. If a novel or unprecedented excipient is considered as a potential ingredient, a prudent risk/benefit analysis must be conducted.

A number of scientific studies have demonstrated the function, safety, and potential applications of azone for transdermal and topical products since 1982 (Stoughton and McClure, 1983; Hadgraft et al., 1993). However, as yet there is no FDA-approved product containing azone on the market. Another example is transcutol (Ethyl Carbitol), which is a very good solvent for many compounds that are poorly soluble in either water or oil. Due to safety concerns, regulatory acceptance of a new excipient can take much longer than a project timeline can afford. Therefore, a formulator is better off to avoid selecting unapproved excipients unless Ethyl carbitolis absolutely necessary.

To accelerate the application of “new” excipients in chemical products, the International chemical Excipients Council (IPEC) of America has recently developed a New Excipient Evaluation Procedure (NEEP). The NEEP panel can provide independent and regulatory acceptable evaluation of “new” excipients, and the FDA has agreed to consider (but not guarantee) the conclusions of the panel. This is good news for formulators who are interested in the use of “new” excipients (DeMerlis et al., 2008).

The most critical excipient in an emulsion is the emulsifier. Commonly used emulsifiers, particularly in chemical products. The concentration limits are obtained from the FDA database of inactive ingredients. In general, the hydrophilic–lipophilic balance (HLB) values of emulsifiers provide guidance in selecting emulsifiers for either O/W or W/O emulsions. A mixture of more than one emulsifier often works better than a single emulsifier to improve physical stability.

The use of a secondary emulsifier is becoming more common both in cosmetic and chemical products, not only for improving stability, but also for enhancing solubilities. Some examples include methyl glucose sesquistearate and Ethyl Carbitol in an adapalene cream , lecithin and polysorbate 80 in an azelaic acid emulsion gel , methyl gluceth-10 and Ethyl Carbitol in Tri-luma cream, and polysorbate 60 and sorbitan monostearate in imiquimod cream . The inherent chemical stability of emulsifiers is also a factor of selection.

Ethyl Carbitol often contain trace amounts of peroxides, which sometimes cause oxidation of both API and inactive excipients in formulations. To resolve this issue, suppliers have developed higher quality emulsifiers, such as super-refined or ultrapure polysorbate 80, containing much less trace peroxides, metal ions, and other impurities. Using a purer emulsifier may significantly improve the stability of emulsions.

Ethyl Carbitol selectively blocks cyclooxygenase-2 and possesses antipyretic, anti inflammatory, and analgesic effects. The concentration and Km value of water, Smix, and oil were verified by central composite design and pseudo-ternary phase diagram. The authors then used 1% carbopol 934 to prepare the Ethyl Carbitol ME gel. 

Ethyl Carbitol (also known as EDG, 2-(2-ethoxyethoxyethanol, ethoxy diglycol and diethylene glycol monoethylether) is a clear, colourless liquid with a mild, yet characteristic odour. Ethyl Carbitol is miscible in water and also in alcohols, esters, ethers, and ketones.Ethyl Carbitol has low setting point and low viscocity at low temperature so Ethyl Carbitol is used in manufacturing Brake Fluid. Ethyl Diglycol is used as a flow and gloss promoter in paint industries. The extendability of solution has also increased. Ethyl Carbitol is used in production of printing ink and as a cleaner in offset printing.

Ethyl Carbitol is used in textile as a solvent for dyestuff in the printing and dying of fiber & fabrics. Ethyl Diglycol prevents the gel formation in liquid detergent and cleaner formulation. Ethyl Carbitol is also used a solubilizer in drilling and cutting coolants. Ethyl Diglycol is used in the production & formulation of pesticides & wood preservaties. Due to Ethyl Carbitol is low volatility property Ethyl Carbitol is used in Indian & ink ball point pastes. Ethyl Carbitol is also used in cosmetic & perfumary industry as a solvent. Ethyl diglycol (Ethyl Carbitol) does not attack rubber.

Ethyl Carbitol is a solvent with a boiling point of 77°C. The vapor pressure at room temperature 97 hPa. Ethylacetate has the chemical formula C4H8O2. It can be easily solved in acetone, and alcohols, but fairly bad in water (80g per Liter). Ethyl Carbitol is a slow evaporating ether–ester solvent with excellent solvent properties for a wide range of coating applications "Auto Motive, Coil Coating, Heavy anticorrosion and marine paint".

Ethyl Carbitol widely dissolve to many resins, such as Epoxy, Urethane, Acrylic fiber etc. Ethyl Carbitol is excellent solvent release from coating films. In the lacquer paints, excellent luster and clearness and anti-whitening are obtained as a retarder solvent The high electrical resistance property is suitable for the electrostatic spraying. Ethyl Carbitol is an excellent alternative solvent of Ethyl Carbitol.

Ethyl Carbitol Solvent by Dow Chemical is diethylene glycol monoethyl ether. Acts as a fast-acting solvent for non-grain-raising wood stains and coatings and carrier solvent for textile dyeing and printing. Possesses high boiling point and low vapor pressure. Ethyl Carbitol Solvent promotes uniform dispersion. Ethyl Carbitol can be used as the coagulant of acrylic resin, styrene acrylic resin and polyvinyl acetate to give the film excellent performance. Ethyl Carbitol is one of the most effective film forming aids for many waterborne coatings.

Ethyl Carbitol is mainly used as solvent for coating, printing ink, stamp printing ink, oil, resin, etc., as well as metal detergent, paint remover, lubricating oil remover, automobile engine detergent, dry cleaning solvent, epoxy resin solvent and drug extract, as stabilizer of emulsion paint, evaporation inhibitor of aircraft paint, surface processing improvement of high-temperature baking enamel, etc. Suitable for cleaning agents, especially for systems requiring very low volatilization speed, such as wax remover and floor cleaner. Ethyl Carbitol is a good coupling agent for lubricating grease and grease. Ethyl Carbitol can be used as paint remover and natural grease remover. 

Ethyl Carbitol copolymers were fractionated according to chemical composition, molecular weight, or monomer sequence length, which are fundamental distribution factors. Cloud points of polyethylene, polypropylene, and Ethyl Carbitol copolymer were determined prior to the fractionation. From the results, it was estimated that xylene–butyl cellosolve and tetralin–ethyl carbitol systems were suitable for the fractionations according to chemical composition and molecular weight, respectively. Ethyl Carbitol random‐type copolymers were fractionated using a xylene–butyl cellosolve system.

Separations according to chemical composition were obtained as expected. Then, the above polymer fractions were further fractionated in a tetralin–ethyl carbitol system. and the dependence on molecular weight was observed fairly well. Furthermore, fractionation according to monomer sequence length was satisfactorily achieved by solvent extraction using ethyl ether, n‐hexane, cyclohexane, and n‐heptane. Therefore, it is concluded that the more detailed characterizations of Ethyl Carbitol copolymers are made possible by a combination of these techniques.

Ethyl Carbitol is a low-cost, slow-evaporating, low-density mixture of ketone solvents. Ethyl Carbitol is useful as a retarder solvent for primers, coil coatings, maintenance coatings and high-solids enamels. In these coatings, Ethyl Carbitol improves gloss and leveling, reduces orange peel, minimizes solvent popping, and helps reduce VOCs. In many coatings, Ethyl Carbitol can be used alone or blended with other solvents to replace isophorone and dibasic esters.

Eastman Ethyl Carbitol has good solvency for a wide range of resins including nitrocellulose, alkyds, polyesters, acrylics, epoxies, and some vinyl chloride/vinyl acetate copolymers. Compared with other solvents in the same evaporation range, Ethyl Carbitol often offers an economic advantage.

Ethyl Carbitol is a high-boiling ester widely used as a solvent in printing inks and high-bake enamels; Ethyl Carbitol is also used as a coalescing aid in low pH latex paints. Ethyl Carbitol is especially applicable in screen inks and as a component in coil coatings. Ethyl Carbitol has also found use as a coalescing aid, a coil coating component, and in the separation of alcohols and ketones by distillation.

Ethyl Carbitol improves the flow-out and gloss of baking enamels, is an effective coalescent in both architectural and industrial maintenance formulations, can be used in printing inks to increase dry times, and provides excellent coupling ability for the effective removal of contaminants in Industrial & Institutional and/or household cleaners.

Ethyl Carbitol, Stabilized is a high-boiling glycol ether used in baking enamels, printing inks, textile dyeing, or as a coalescent in latex paints. This grade contains BHT antioxidant. Ethyl Carbitol is a colorless liquid, soluble in water and miscible in most organic solvents. Ethyl Carbitol is primarily used as a coalescing aid in paints and as a solvent in inks.

With broad resin solubility, it is suitable for use in coil coatings. Ethyl Carbitol is a very polar, slow-evaporating, mild odor, water-miscible solvent useful in wood stains and as a coalescent in latex paints and floor polishes. Ethyl Carbitol is a blend of Eastman DE glycol ether and EG (70/30 wt. %). Ethyl Carbitol is a colorless liquid, has very mild odor, and completely water miscible. Ethyl Carbitol is used as a coalescent in latex paints and in floor polishes.


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