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CAS NO.:  32449-92-6
EC/LIST NO.:  251-053-3

Glucuronolactone is a naturally occurring substance that is an important structural component of nearly all connective tissues.
Glucuronolactone is sometimes used in energy drinks,. 
Declarations that Glucuronolactone can be used to reduce "brain fog" are based on research conducted on energy drinks that contain other active ingredients, such as Caffeine, that have been shown to improve cognitive function. 
Glucuronolactone is also found in many plant gums

Glucuronolactone (IUPAC name = (2R)-2-[(2S,3R,4S)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-oxo-tetrahydrofuran-2-yl]-2-hydroxy-acetaldehyde) occurs naturally in the body. 
Glucuronolactone is a natural metabolite and carbohydrate formed when glucose is broken down. 
Glucuronolactone helps to remove harmful substances from the body, gives instant energy.

Glucuronolactone is a white solid odorless compound, soluble in hot and cold water. 
Glucuronolactones melting point ranges from 176 to 178 °C.
The compound can exist in a monocyclic aldehyde form or in a bicyclic hemiacetal (lactol) form.

Glucuronolactone has received some notoriety due to an urban legend that it was a Vietnam War-era drug manufactured by the American government and since banned due to brain tumor-related deaths. 
However, this claim is completely false, and the quoted British Medical Journal article does not exist.

Glucuronolactone is unknown if Glucuronolactone is safe for human consumtion due to a lack of proper human or animal trials. 
However, it likely has limited effects on the human body.
Furthermore research on isolated supplements of glucuronolactone is limited, no warnings appear on the Food and Drug Administration website regarding its potential to cause brain tumors or other maladies

Glucuronolactone is an ingredient used in some energy drinks Although levels of glucuronolactone in energy drinks can far exceed those found in the rest of the diet. 
Research into Glucuronolactone is too limited to assert claims about its safety The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has concluded that it is unlikely that glucurono-γ-lactone would have any interaction with caffeine, taurine, alcohol or the effects of exercise. 
The Panel also concluded, based on the data available, that additive interactions between taurine and caffeine on diuretic effects are unlikely.

According to The Merck Index, glucuronolactone is used as a detoxicant.

Glucuronolactone is also metabolized to glucaric acid, xylitol, and L-xylulose, and humans may also be able to use glucuronolactone as a precursor for ascorbic acid synthesis.

Glucuronolactone is a molecule that is commonly found in energy drinks (at around 10-60mg, with variance depending on brand), although in studies 'disassembling' the constituents of energy drinks suggest no significant contribution towards energy

In vitro, Glucuronolactone can be metabolized by a dehydrogenase into D-Glucaro-1,4-Lactone (G14L), where D-glucuronolactone appears to metabolize into a dilactone (d-glucaro-1,4-3,6-dilactone) and then spontaneously degrade into G14L.

Glucuronolactone acid is the main urinary metabolite of the glucuronic acid pathway,which synthesizes Glucuronic Acid for the purposes of conjugation by drug metabolizing enzymes (UGT transferases). 
Daily urine output of D-Glucaric Acid is approximately 30-100umol.

1,4-GL can be seen as protective for blood vessel health by alleviating oxidative/nitrative damage to lipoproteins from reactive species such as hydroperoxide and peroxynitrate, as well as acting as an anti-platelet aggregative compound.
Glucuronolactone may be synergistic with resveratrol in this regard.

When consuming an energy drink (80mg caffeine, 1000mg taurine, 800mg Glucuronolactone; sugar free with B-complex), an overall increase in platelet aggregation appears to occur in otherwise healthy persons with infrequent energy drink consumption.
Participants refrained from caffeine for a week prior to testing, and the contribution of Glucuronolactone towards the observed effects was not established

Glucuronolactone can be formed when glucuronic acid is degraded in subcritical water interchangeably

Glucuronolactone in combination with caffeine, beta-alanine, creatine, citrulline and taurine has a possible positive effect in improving aerobic and anaerobic performance.

Maybe the odd sounding compound rings a bell, maybe it doesn't. 
Glucuronolactone is something you have probably consumed if you have ever had an energy drink. 
Glucuronolactone is also quickly being adopted in the supplement world, typically in multiple ingredient ergogenic (performance enhancing) or pre-workout products.

There is relatively little information on the compound, which has led to a lack of awareness about its effects and even misinformation to the athletic community.

D-Glucurono-γ-lactone, or in organic chemistry nomenclature, D-glucurono-3,6-lactone (henceforth referred to as DGL) is a natural metabolite of glucose and regulates the formation of glycogen. 
Its precursor, D-glucuronic acid (henceforth referred to as DGA) remains in an equilibrium state with glucuronolactone at physiological pH.

Glucuronolactone (D-glucuronic acid γ-lactone) is a cyclic ester of glucuronic acid, which is an oxidized product of glucose. In many countries, glucuronolactone is a common ingredient in energy drinks, which also contain quite large amounts of caffeine and supposed energy enhancing components, such as taurine, vitamins, and herbal supplements. 
Energy drinks are popular, especially with young people1-2) ; however, these drinks are known to have serious harmful effects on children and young adults owing to their high caffeine content3). 
The health effects of energy drinks on children, adolescents, and young adults have been studied and the consequences of their many constituents are being researched. 
The pharmacological effects of energy drinks have not been verified, which has raised apprehension about the consumption of such drinks, particularly on children and young people3). 
Glucuronolactone can be incorporated into pharmaceutical products in Korea but its use as a food additive is strictly prohibited. 
To inspect illegal use of glucuronolactone, beverages have been tested consistently in Korea using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a diode array detector (DAD). 
Owing to its high polarity, low molecular weight, and absence of chromophores, the analysis of glucuronolactone using HPLC-DAD chromatography has been carried out through derivatization with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP)4).

Three HILIC columns with different column chemistries, including amide, amino, and non-derivatized silica, and two types of eluents, including an acidic (pH 3) and alkaline (pH 9) eluent, were tested to determine the optimized LC-MS/MS analytical conditions. 
Among the various combinations of columns and eluents, an amide column and alkaline acetonitrile-rich mobile phase performed best for evaluating the peak signalto- noise ratio, column retention, and ESI-MS response. 
Considering the guidelines of international organizations related to chemical analysis method validation, such as AOAC (Associaion of Analytical Communities), EURACHEM (Analytical Chemistry in Europe), and ICH (International Council for Harmonisation), the developed method was fully validated according to specificity, linearity, LOD, LOQ, precision, and accuracy. 
A reproducibility precision experiment was conducted among three laboratories to assess the degree of agreement of the results when the analysis conditions are as different as possible

Glucuronolactone dissolved in the pH 9 mobile phase and ionized in the negative mode gave the maximum mass spectrometry response for the precursor ion. 
Given the numerous electronegative oxygen atoms in the molecular structure of glucuronolactone, it is quite predictable that the mass spectrometry response was unparalleled in the pH 9 mobile phase and in the negative ionization mode. 
The precursor ion [M-H]− produced fragment ions and three product ions, and the maximum mass spectrometry responses were determined by varying the cone voltage and collision energy.

Glucuronolactone (GlcA) and d-glucuronolactone (GlcL) were treated with subcritical aqueous ethanol in the range of 0% to 80% (w/w) at 180°C in order to examine the effect of ethanol on the interconversion between GlcA and GlcL. 
When GlcA was treated at higher ethanol concentrations, less GlcA disappeared and more GlcL was formed compared to treatments at lower ethanol concentrations. 
For comparison, in the treatment of GlcL at higher ethanol concentrations, disappearance of GlcL was slower and less GlcA was formed. 
The degradation and interconversion of GlcA and GlcL were kinetically analyzed under the assumptions of first-order kinetics in order to evaluate the rate constants for each process. 
The rate constants were smaller at higher ethanol concentrations. 
This was particularly manifested in the significantly low rate constants observed at ethanol concentrations higher than 60%. 
The treatments of GlcA and GlcL were also examined at 200°C, and the effect of ethanol at 200°C was similar to that at 180°C.

Treatment of d-glucuronic acid or d-glucuronolactone in subcritical aqueous ethanol    GlcA or GlcL was dissolved in distilled water and was then mixed with ethanol to produce the solution with a final GlcA or GlcL concentration of 0.5% (w/w). 
The ethanol concentration was varied in the range from 0 to 80% (w/w). 
The feed solution was sonically degassed before the subcritical treatment and was connected to a nitrogen gasbag to prevent re-dissolution of atmospheric oxygen. 
The feed solution was delivered into a coiled stainless steel (SUS 316) tubular reactor (0.8 mm I.D. × 2.0 m length) immersed in SRX 310 silicone oil (Toray-Dow-Corning, Tokyo, Japan) with a residence time of 10 to 240 s by an L-7100 high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) pump (Hitachi, Tokyo, Japan). 
The residence time was calculated based on the inner diameter and length of the stainless steel tube and the density of the water-ethanol mixture under subcritical conditions, in reference to an earlier study (Wang et al., 2010). 
The reaction was conducted at both 180°C and 200°C. 
The reactor effluent was directly introduced to a stainless steel tube (0.8 mm I.D. × 1.0 m length) immersed in an ice-water bath (to terminate the reaction) and was collected in a sampling vessel. 
The pressure inside the tube was regulated at 10 MPa by a back-pressure regulator (high pressure adjustable BPR P-880; Upchurch, WA, USA). The effluent of a fixed volume (usually 0.20 mL) in a sampling vessel was evaporated under reduced pressure. 
The remainder was dissolved with distilled water of the same volume to prepare the sample for HPLC analysis.

Glucuronolactone is a natural organic compound widely used as nutritional supplements in food and beverage industries. 
As a nutrition supplement, D-Glucuronolactone can be used in a wide variety of industries

Glucuronolactone dehydrogenase occurs in the non-particulate fraction of liver homogenates, and in the presence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) converts D-glucuronolactone to D-glucaric acid1. 
The enzyme is probably responsible for the D-glucaric acid excreted in normal mammalian urine2; its activity is conveniently measured by the specific inhibitory effect of D-glucarate, after heating at acid pH, on β-glucuronidase.

Glucuronolactone is a naturally occurring chemical compound produced by the metabolism of glucose in the human liver. 
Glucuronolactone is an important structural component of nearly all connective tissues.
Glucuronolactone is also found in many plant gums.

Glucuronolactone has received some notoriety due to urban legends that it was a Vietnam War-era drug manufactured by the American government. 
The rumor goes on to say that it was banned due to several brain tumor-related deaths. 
The rumor has since been proven false, as neither the cited British Medical Journal article nor the "banning of its consumption" ever occurred. 
Furthermore, no warnings appear on the Food and Drug Administration website regarding its potential to cause brain tumors or other maladies

Glucuronolactone is present in many energy drinks. 
Most of these drinks also contain caffeine, but glucuronolactone is included because it is purported to fight fatigue and provide a sense of well-being. 
According to "The Merck Index" (14th edition) it is also used as detoxicant

Glucuronolactone is metabolized to glucaric acid, xylitol, and L-xylulose, and humans may also be able to use glucuronolactone as a precursor for ascorbic acid synthesis.

The liver uses glucose to create glucuronolactone, which inhibits the enzyme B-glucuronidase (metabolizes glucuronides), which should cause blood-glucuronide levels to rise. 
Glucuronides combine with toxic substances, such as morphine and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, by converting them to water-soluble glucuronide-conjugates which are then excreted from the body. 
Glucuronolactone is a popular ingredient in applications for detoxification.

Sodium glucuronate, glucuronolactone or glucose labeled uniformly with radiocarbon was administered intravenously to dogs together with an intravenous infusion of bilirubin. When sodium glucuronate was injected, the bile recovered in the succeeding 3 hours contained 4.16 x 10–6 and 8.33 x 10–7 of the labeled material injected per milligram bilirubin. 
Recoveries after injection of labeled glucuronolactone were 4.98 x 10–5 and 7.94 x 10–5 of the administered label per milligram bilirubin excreted, and when labeled glucose was given, the fractions recovered were 3.39 x 10–4 and 4.91 x 10–4/mg bilirubin. Radioautograms of paper chromatograms of bile showed radioactivity at the spots corresponding to bilirubin glucuronide when glucose was the labeled substrate. 
An average of 0.89% glucuronolactone-1-C14 given together with borneol to rats appeared in the borneol glucuronide isolated from urine. 
When glucuronolactone-6-C14 was used as substrate, the incorporation into borneol glucuronide was not significant. 
These data are interpreted to indicate the incorporation of a very small but definite fraction of administered glucuronolactone into glucuronide conjugates via an indirect pathway; significant direct incorporation does not occur in the intact animal. 
However, glucose is a more effective precursor of bilirubin glucuronide than glucuronolactone.

A rapid, sensitive analytical method for glucuronolactone in beverages was developed and validated using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-ESI-MS/MS). 
To determine the optimum analytical conditions for glucuronolactone, three different kinds of HILIC columns and two mobile phases with different pH values were examined. 
An amide-bonded stationary phase with a pH 9 acetonitrile-rich mobile phase was the best condition in terms of column retention, ESI-MS/MS response area, and signal-to-noise ratio. 
After extraction, glucuronolactone was separated through the HILIC amide column and detected by negative ESI-MS/MS in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. 
Nine energy drinks sold in Korea were spiked with glucuronolactone at a concentration of 5 ng/mL; the Monster EnergyTM sample showed the smallest peak area and its signal-to-noise ratio was used for method validation. 
Good linearity was obtained in the concentration range from 20 to 1500 ng/mL with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.998. 
The developed method had a limit of detection (LOD) of 6 ng/mL and a limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 20 ng/mL. 
The recovery of this method at concentration of 20, 100, 500, and 1000 ng/mL was 96.3%-99.2% with relative standard deviations (RSD) of 1.6%- 14.0%. 
A reproducibility precision assessment at concentration of 100 and 500 ng/mL was carried out among three laboratories. 
The recovery of that evaluation was 95.1%-102.3% with RSD of 2.7%-7.0%. 
An analysis of variance indicated that there was no difference between the recovery results of the three laboratories at the 5% significance level. 
The validated method is applicable to inspecting beverages adulterated with glucuronolactone in Korea.

Glucuronolactone is white crystalline powder, mainly used for strengthening the liver's function of toxicant elimination,renovating and optimizing the function of cerebrum and regulating the immunologic function.
After entering the body,this product appears in the form of glucuronic acid, which is directly absorbed by human body without any side effect.

One of the characteristic reactions of glucuronic acid derivatives is the base-catalysed elimination of a 4-(substituted) hydroxy group to generate a Δ 4,5 pyranose.
Following hydrogenation, proceeding mainly from the α-face provided the anomeric configuration is β, the initial C(5)-configuration is restored. 
This sequence affords access to a number of 4-deoxypyranoses: thus 4-deoxyglucoses are readily available by reduction at C(6). 
Conversion to a glycal, then cis-dihydroxylation at C(2)/C(3) leads to the d-lyxo configuration (found in neosidomycin). 
Finally a less obvious relationship to the KDO series is revealed, again by dihydroxylation

Our ground coffee contains effective doses of nootropics: a class of supplements known for improving cognition, focus, and energy. 
While glucuronolactone has cognitive benefits, it’s also an incredibly versatile supplement for physical health. 
Here are the benefits of Glucuronolactone you’ll find in our coffee:

Glucuronolactone protects your blood vessels by regulating the platelet function. 
This is incredibly useful since it lowers your chance of heart attack and stroke.

Glucuronolactone is a component of one of the most popular joint support supplements: 
Chondroitin Sulfate. 
The more glucuronolactone your body has, the more you can contribute and support the health of your ligaments, tendons, and cartilage

Glucuronolactone is a natural metabolite and carbohydrate formed when glucose is broken down. 
Insufficient Glucuronolactone occurs naturally in the body.
Glucuronolactone is a natural metabolite and carbohydrate formed when glucose is broken down.
Glucuronolactone helps to remove harmful substances from the body, gives instant energy.

The main ingredients of energy drinks are caffeine, taurine and glucuronolactone.
Some new products coming to the market also contain poppy seed extract or ephedrine.

Taurine is an amino acid found naturally in the body.
Amino acids contribute to protein production.
In addition, it is among the findings that they purify the body from harmful substances and toxins.
During stressful times and intense physical activity, the body can lose small amounts of taurine.
Some people drink energy drinks to restore or increase the level of taurine in their body.
While taurine, a natural amino acid, is found in the body between 40-400 mg, it is found as 1000 mg in energy drinks.
Studies have shown that taurine increases locomotor activity by increasing dopamine production, reduces alcohol-induced amnesia, and reduces the toxic effect of alcohol on the liver.
Glucuronolactone is also known that taurine is an anti-anxiety agent by affecting gamma amino butyric acid (GABA), the most important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain.
However, despite its positive properties, according to the results obtained in a study on rats, it was determined that excessive consumption of taurine alters cerebral dopaminergic transmission and thus causes hypothermia.

Glucuronolactone is also found naturally in the body.
Glucuronolactone is a natural metabolite and carbohydrate formed when glucose is broken down.
Glucuronolactone helps to remove harmful substances from the body, gives instant energy.

Caffeine, by acting on the central nervous system, accelerates the messages to and from the brain;
thus, Glucuronolactone is a stimulant that makes the person more alert and active.
The thermogenic property of caffeine makes it the most commonly used psychoactive substance.
Therefore, while caffeine intake is an important factor that makes the person more productive and more concentrated at the beginning, after taking it in small doses for 4-6 weeks, it decreases the concentration by causing neurotransmitter destruction, thus reducing the learning ability, causing problems such as falling asleep and insomnia. known.
However ; Glucuronolactone has been observed that consumption of less than 400 mg of caffeine per day does not cause the mentioned side effects in healthy adults, but side effects occur in case of consumption of more than 400 mg per day.

Glucuronolactone or Glucuron is a medicinal raw material, active pharmaceutical ingredient, API.
Glucuronolactone will be catalyzed by the enzyme in our body system as glucuronic acid.
After combined with metabolites, tonic agents or drugs from the liver and intestinal tract, the non-toxic combination of glucuronic acid will be produced and excreted in the urine.
Meanwhile, Glucuronolactone or Glucuron will reduce liver amylase activity, prevent glycogenolysis, increase glycogen content, reduce bad fat storage in our body.

Glucuronolactone or Glucuron is also thought to help in the fight against hepatitis, hepatocirrhosis, food and drug poisoning.
Glucuronolactone or Glucuron arthritis is an adjuvant drug for rheumatoid arthritis.

As a food additive, Glucuronolactone or Glucuron is widely applied foods and functional or energy drinks.
Glucuronolactone is an essential food ingredient for our food supply.
Glucuronolactone or Glucuron regulates immune function.
Glucuronolactone will also have anti-aging ability.
Glucuronolactone or Glucuron improves our brain's oxygen delivery, this will speed up recovery from fatigue.
Glucuronolactone can also be used as a detoxifier.

As an antidote, Glucuronolactone combines poisons from the liver and gut into a non-toxic combination of glucuronic acid.
This process will reduce the work of our liver.
In this way, Glucuronolactone is liver protector.

Glucuronolactone (Glucuron) occurs naturally.
Glucuronolactone can also be produced in large quantities.
Glucuronolactone can be found in some plant gums.

Glucuronolactone or Glucuron Raw Material, API improves liver function.
This is why it is widely used in food additives, some beverages and medicines.

Glucuronolactone or Glucuron Raw Material, API is also used in the animal health industry.

Appearance : White crystals or white crystalline powder
Identification :Positive
Appearance of solution : Clarify & colourless
Specific rotation(°) : +18.0 - +20.0
Loss on drying(%) : 0.5 Max
Residue on ignition(%) :0.1 Max
Melting point(℃) :170 - 176
Assay(%) : 98.5 - 102.0
Heavy metal(ppm) : 10 Max
As(ppm) : 1.0 Max
NH4(%) :200 Max
TPC(cfu/g) :1000 Max
Yeast & Mold(cfu/g) :100 Max
E.Coli :Neg
Salmonella  :Neg

Glucuronolactone (D-glucurono-3, 6-lactone; DGL)) - an organic chemical compound, a glucose metabolite found naturally in foods.
Glucuronolactone affects the course of energy changes occurring in the body, in addition, it has a certain detoxification and hepatoprotective potential, and also has a positive effect on the functioning of the locomotor system.
Glucuronolactone can be used as an element that supports exercise capacity, but above all as an additive that helps to get rid of unnecessary metabolic products.
A so-called integral component is also found in energy drinks, pre- and post-workout preparations, keratin stacks and special drinks for athletes.
There are no mono-preparations containing this substance on the market.
Glucuronolactone should be noted that there is no justification in the form of professional literature, as you can find information on the negative effects of the above-mentioned substances on the Internet.

Glucuronolactone is white crystal or white crystalline powder.
Glucuronolactone is soluble in water, some of it turns into glucuronic acid, the solution is acidic, slightly soluble in ethanol and methanol.

The main function of glucuronolactone is to enhance the detoxification function of the liver, restore or improve brain function, regulate immune function and nourish the skin, delay aging, improve hypoxia, eliminate fatigue and enhance function.
coordination of various organ functions.
Glucuronolactone is used in acute and chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis or poisoning and detoxification of food or drugs.

Appearance : White crystal or white crystalline powder.
Identity: Positive
Melting point: 170 ~ 176 ℃
Specific rotation: +18.0 20.0°
What the solution looks like: Clarity and colouless
Drying loss: ≤0.5%
Residue on ignition : ≤0.1%
Sulphate (SO4) : ≤1ppm
Arsenic : ≤1ppm
Ammonium salts (NH4) : ≤200ppm
Heavy metals : ≤10ppm
assay : ~ 102.0, 98.5%,%
Total number of plates: ≤1000cfu/gr
Mold and Yeast: ≤100cfu/gr
E. coli : Negative / 25g
poisoning microbe: Negative / 375g
S. aureus : Negative / 25g
coliforms : Negative / 25g

Glucuronolactone of glucose metabolism, that is, a type of carbohydrate formed when glucose is broken down.
Glucuronolactone provides energy to the body.
Glucuronolactone is produced synthetically and used in energy drinks.

Glucuronolactone, also known as Glucuronolactone acid or DGL, is naturally made in our bodies when glucose metabolizes in our liver. 
Glucuronolactone is also an important component of our connective tissues. 
Although DGL is produced naturally (it is a part of our various tendons, ligaments and cartilage), very small amounts of DGL are found in our bodies.

Glucuronolactone is also present in animal connective tissues, certain plants and energy drinks. 
Because of its many benefits,Glucuronolactone is a powerful supplement that enhances physical and mental functions of our bodies

Glucuronolactone have been heavily studied in the numerous products that contain it — particularly sports and energy drinks (x). 
In many of these studies, Glucuronolactone is combined with other active ingredients like caffeine and taurine. 
However, Glucuronolactone still gets credit for the improvement of several bodily functions.

A water-soluble crystalline compound that is found in plant gums in polymers with other carbohydrates. 
Glucuronolactone an important structural component of almost all fibrous and connective tissues in animals.

Glucuronolactone occurs in some of the drinks we consume. 
Red wine has arguably the highest natural amount of DGL with as much as 20 mg per liter. 
Other drinks that contain DGL include the following:

Chewable coffee 
Monster energy drink 
Revitalizer soda 

When combined with other ingredients such as taurine and caffeine in energy drinks, DGL enhances an individual’s momentum to carry out daily tasks . 
Anyone can find value in this supplement because it provides the one thing that each one of us needs to make it through the day — energy.

Intensive exercise typically produces exhaustion and fatigue. 
However, several trials show that DGL helps to prevent effects of energy depletion, even after vigorous activity . 
Glucuronolactone will give you that burst of energy to persist and carry any workout or strenuous task.

Glucuronolactone contributes to numerous benefits for physical performance, as it is an active ingredient that aids in improving aerobic and anaerobic performance . 
Some people need help to get through an aerobic, high-cardio workout. 
Labored breathing during an (anaerobic) high-intensity interval training (HIIT) workout might also require a bit of reinforcement. 
Glucuronolactone provides support for both.

Glucuronolactone also works well with other ingredients as a pre-workout supplement because it leads to the gain of muscle protein and the ability to perform repetitious workout tasks . 
Many athletes work to build stamina and strength because their long-term goal is to gain muscle.
Glucuronolactone provides benefits that helps athletes to accomplish all of these goals.

Those who incorporate exercises to increase cardiac health and trim fat into lean muscle will likely consider glucuronolactone a necessary addition to their athletic routine.


(2R)-2-[(2S,3R,4S)-3,4-Dihydroxy-5-oxo -tetrahydrofuran-2-yl]-2-hydroxy-acetaldehyde

(2R)-2-[(2S,3R,4S)-3,4-Dihydroxy-5-oxo- oxolan-2-yl]-2-hydroxy-acetaldehyd





D-Glucuronic acid lactone 
Glucuronic acid lactone

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