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GLYCEROL = Glycerin = 1,2,3-Propanetriol 

CAS Number: 56-81-5
EC Number: 200-289-5
MDL number: MFCD00004722
Molecular Weight: 92.09  g/mol

Glycerol is a triol with a structure of propane substituted at positions 1, 2 and 3 by hydroxy groups. 
Glycerol has a role as an osmolyte, a solvent, a detergent, a human metabolite, an algal metabolite, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolite, an Escherichia coli metabolite, a mouse metabolite and a geroprotector. 
Glycerol is an alditol and a triol.
Glycerin is a trihydroxyalcohol with localized osmotic diuretic and laxative effects. 
Glycerin elevates the blood plasma osmolality thereby extracting water from tissues into interstitial fluid and plasma. 
Glycerol also prevents water reabsorption in the proximal tubule in the kidney leading to an increase in water and sodium excretion and a reduction in blood volume. 
Administered rectally, glycerin exerts a hyperosmotic laxative effect by attracting water into the rectum, thereby relieving constipation. 
Glycerin is used as a solvent, humectant and vehicle in various pharmaceutical preparations.
Glycerine appears as a colorless to brown colored liquid. 
Combustible but may require some effort to ignite.
Glycerol is a naturally occurring chemical. 
Glycerol, a clear, colourless, viscous, sweet-tasting liquid belonging to the alcohol family of organic compounds.
Until 1948 all glycerol was obtained as a by-product in making soaps from animal and vegetable fats and oils, but industrial syntheses based on propylene or sugar has accounted for an increasingly large percentage of production since that time. 
Glycerol is described as the “sweet principle of fat.”
Fats and oils are valued chiefly as sources of the carboxylic acids that are present, combined in the form of esters with glycerol. 
When the acids are set free from these compounds, glycerol remains as a solution in water and is purified by coagulating and settling extraneous matter, evaporating the water, and distilling.
Glycerol or glycerin is a colourless, odourless, viscous liquid that is sweet-tasting and mostly non-toxic. 
Glycerol is widely used in the food industry as a sweetener and humectant and in pharmaceutical formulations. 
Glycerol is an important component of triglycerides (i.e. fats and oils) and of phospholipids. 
Glycerol is a three-carbon substance that forms the backbone of fatty acids in fats.
When the body uses stored fat as a source of energy, glycerol and fatty acids are released into the bloodstream. 
The glycerol component can be converted into glucose by the liver and provides energy for cellular metabolism. 
Glycerol shows very little acute toxicity and very high oral doses or acute exposures can be tolerated. 
A sweet syrupy hygroscopic trihydroxy alcohol C3H8O3 usually obtained by the saponification of fats and used especially as a solvent and plasticizer, as a moistening agent, emollient, and lubricant, and as an emulsifying agent.
Glycerol is the simplest triol. 
Glycerol can be found in all natural fats and oils as fatty esters and is an important intermediate in the metabolism of living organisms. 
Glycerol is completely miscible with water and many alcohols and also with many heterocyclic compounds. 
A remarkable and growing source of glycerol is as a byproduct in the production of biodiesel. 
Glycerol is presently used in a large variety of applications because of Glycerols particular combination of chemical and physical properties and because Glycerol is physiologically innocuous.
Glycerol, which bears green, low-cost, and good miscibility features, provides a variety of solvent portfolios to satisfy the complex market demands. 
Owing to Glycerols abundant feedstock and unique properties, glycerol is a good candidate in catalysis, high-value-added chemical conversion, and solvents. 
Glycerol can also be used as an energy transportation medium attributed to its high boiling temperature, promising thermal stability, and fertile hydrogen bond.
Glycerol is a colorless, odorless and viscous liquid which is sweet in taste and is non-toxic. 
Not that we have tasted glycerol but the literature states Glycerol is a sweet-tasting liquid, and Glycerols name is derived from the Greek word for sweet which is glykys. 
Commercially, glycerol is known as glycerine, and most people will probably have heard of glycerols nitrated version, nitroglycerine.
Glycerol is a triol containing two primary alcohols (RCH2OH) and one secondary alcohol (R2CHOH) and Glycerols unambiguous IUPAC name is given as propane-1,2,3-triol. 
Glycerol is miscible with water as forms extensive hydrogen bonds, and is also soluble in alcohols which is important for Glycerols use in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. 
Glycerol's also extremely important in the body as a way to store important fatty acids.
Glycerol is often included in polyacrylamide gels to prevent dissociation of nucleosomes and other protein-DNA complexes during electrophoresis. 
With glycerol included, fractionation seems to be largely based on particle mass and charge. 
The concentration of glycerol during electrophoresis strongly affects the separation characteristics of polyacrylamide gels. Glycerol is an inevitable by-product of oils/fats processing, regardless of the pathway. 
Fermentative metabolism of glycerol has been studied in great detail in several species of the Enterobacteriaceae family, such as Citrobacter freundii and Klebsiella pneumoniae. 
The use of anaerobic fermentation to convert abundant and low-priced glycerol streams generated in the production of biodiesel into higher value products represents a promising route to achieve economic viability in the biofuels industry.
Petrochemical, animal fat and vegetable oil-based biodiesel industries produce glycerol (glycerin) as a by-product. 
The crude glycerol contains impurities and therefore needs to be refined in order to be used in food, cosmetics and drugs manufacturing. 
Glycerol is first physically refined which means filtration or centrifugation, chemical additions and fractional vacuum distillation. 
Glycerol is an osmotic dehydrating agent with hygroscopic and lubricating properties which increases plasma osmolality, resulting in the movement of water from extravascular spaces into the plasma through osmosis. 
Glycerol has a demulcent property which possibly blocks sensory cough receptors in the respiratory tract.

Uses and Applications of GLYCEROL: 
-People use Glycerol as a medicine. 
-Glycerol is most commonly used for constipation, improving hydration and performance in athletes, and for certain skin conditions. 
-Glycerol is also used for meningitis, stroke, obesity, ear infections, and other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses.
-Glycerin is a basic ingredient in the gums and resins used to make many modern protective coatings such as automotive enamels and exterior house paints. 
-Glycerin reacted with nitric and sulfuric acid forms the explosive nitroglycerin (or nitroglycerine).
-Glycerol is also a component of mono- and diglyceride emulsifiers, which are used as softening agents in baked goods, plasticizers in shortening, and stabilizers in ice cream. 
-Glycerols varied uses in the pharmaceutical and toilet goods fields include skin lotions, mouthwashes, cough medicines, drug solvents, serums, vaccines, and suppositories. 
-Another significant use is as a protective medium for freezing red blood cells, sperm cells, eye corneas, and other living tissues. 
-At one time, Glycerols largest single use was as automotive antifreeze; methanol and ethylene glycol have replaced Glycerol for this purpose.
-For skin and hair. 
-Moistener, skin protection, improves hair structure, softens skin.
-Glycerol is useful for sample preparation/protein stabilization and as a storage buffer component.
-Glycerol is useful in a variety of applications, glycerol is used as a solvent, plasticizer and humectant. 
-In polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, glycerol is used in sample preparation and gel formation. 
-At a concentration of 5-10%, glycerol is used to increase the density of a sample so that Glycerol will layer at the bottom of a sample well. 
-Additional uses include as an aid in casting gradient gels, a protein stabilizer, and storage buffer component.
-Glycerol serves as a sweetener, solvent, and humectants in food and beverages and can also help in preserving food. 
-Glycerol is also used in commercially prepared low-fat foods as filler and in liqueurs as a thickening agent. 
-Glycerol is also used along with water to preserve certain types of leaves. 
-Glycerol is also used as a sugar substitute.
-Glycerol is utilized in pharmaceutical and personal care products preparations, majorly as a means of developing smoothness, for providing lubrication and as humectants. 
-In tablets dosage, Glycerol is used a holding agent and Glycerol is also a component of glycerin soap. 
-Glycerol is found in cough syrups, elixirs, toothpaste, mouthwashes, products of skin care and water-based personal care lubricants.
-Glycerol is used in the production of nitroglycerin. 
-Allyl iodide can be synthesized by utilization of elemental phosphorus and iodine on glycerol. 
-Crude glycerol for a renewable energy source as an additive to biomass when burnt or gasified is being examined.
-When filming scenes which involve water to stop drying out of areas too quickly glycerol are used by the film industry.
-Vegetable glycerine with propylene glycol, in one of the common component of e-cigarette liquid. 
-This glycerol produces the aerosol when heated with an atomizer, delivering nicotine to the consumer.
-Glycerol is important as Glycerol is a viscous liquid and can contribute to a wine’s texture, body and mouthfeel. 
The weight that Glycerol brings can help to smooth off a wine’s rough edges and while Glycerol has no taste Glycerol can bring a slight sweet sensation to wines, which can be favourable especially in wines like Amarone.
-Glycerol also plays an important role during fermentation. 
The production of glycerol has two important functions for yeast: to combat osmotic stress and to maintain the oxidation-reduction balance.
-Glycerol, sometimes referred to as glycerin, is a sugar alcohol widely used in a variety of personal care products, including toothpaste, hair conditioner, cosmetics, and moisturizers.
-In products such as moisturizer creams, Glycerol helps to bring moisture to the surface of the skin, to help skin smooth. 
-Glycerol is also added to hair conditioner, shaving creams and eye drops for the same purpose.
-In over-the-counter skin care products, such as moisturizers, glycerol is added to help protect the skin from irritants. -This is also why glycerol is added to cough syrups – to help prevent irritation in throats which leads to coughing
-Glycerol is widely used in many industrial and consumer products, e.g. soaps/detergents, medicines, cosmetics, food, drinks, paints, resins and paper.
-Manufacturers add glycerol to tobacco to help keep it moist, and this is mostly via the sauce or “casing”, which is added to help process the tobacco.
-Glycerol is also used in the cigarette paper.
-Glycerol can be used safely to decrease the brain edema associated with ischemic stroke.
-Synthetic glycerine is used in food products, nutritional supplements, pharmaceutical products, personal-care products, and oral-care products. 
-In the pharmaceutical industry, glycerin is used as a sweetener in syrups, lozenges, and as an excipient in eyewash solutions. 
-Glycerol my also be found in ear drop products, jellies and creams for topical use, in expectorants for congestion, suppositories, and gel capsules. 
-As an individual prescription product, glycerin has uses as a hyperosmotic, osmotic diuretic, and ophthalmic agent. 
-Glycerol may be used as eye drop in the treatment of glaucoma to reduce the intraocular pressure, as a solution or suppository for short-term treatment of constipation or to evacuate the bowel, and in some ocular surgeries. 
-Glycerol may be given intravenously to reduce pressure inside the brain, and used externally on the skin as a moisturizer. -Glycerin has many other uses in the agricultural, food and pharmaceutical industry.


Physical and chemical properties of GLYCEROL:
Molecular Formula: C3H8O3 
Appearance Form: viscous
Colour: colourless
Odour: odourless
Odour Threshold: No data available
pH: 5,5 - 8
Melting point/freezing point: Melting point/range: 20 °C
Initial boiling point and boiling range: 182 °C at 27 hPa
Flash point: 199 °C at ca.1013,0 hPa
Evaporation rate: No data available
Flammability (solid, gas): No data available
Upper/lower flammability or explosive limits: 
Upper explosion limit: 19 %(V) at 1013 hPa
Lower explosion limit: 2,7 %(V) at 1013 hPa
Vapour pressure:
0,004 hPa at 50 °C
0,260 hPa at 100 °C
5,7 hPa at 150 °C
Vapour density: 3,18 - (Air = 1.0)
Relative density: 1,25 g/mL
Water solubility: miscible
Partition coefficient n-octanol/water: log Pow: -1,75 at 25 °C
Auto-ignition temperature: 370 °C
Decomposition temperature: No data available
Viscosity: No data available
Explosive properties: No data available
Oxidizing properties: No data available
Surface tension: ca.63,4 mN/m at 20 °C
Relative vapour density: 3,18 - (Air = 1.0)

Functional Class:    
Flavouring Agent
Food Additives

First aid measures of GLYCEROL: 
-Description of first aid measures:
General Information: 
Immediately remove any clothing contaminated by the product. 
Move out of dangerous area. 
Consult a physician and show this safety data sheet.
If inhaled:
If breathed in, move person into fresh air. 
If not breathing, give artificial respiration.
If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. 
Obtain medical aid.
In case of skin contact:
Immediately flush skin with running water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. 
Wash clothing before reuse. 
Obtain medical aid immediately
In case of eye contact:
Immediately flush open eyes with running water for at least 15 minutes. 
Flush eyes with water as a precaution.
Obtain medical aid immediately
If swallowed:
Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. 
Rinse mouth with water.
-Indication of any immediate medical attention and special treatment needed:
No data available

Exposure controls/personal protection of GLYCEROL:
-Control parameters:
Appropriate engineering controls: 
Avoid contact with skin, eyes, and clothing. 
Wash hands before breaks and immediately after handling the product. 
Facilities storing or utilizing this material should be equipped with an eyewash fountain. 
Use adequate general and local exhaust ventilation to keep airborne concentrations low.
Components with workplace control parameters:
-Exposure controls:
Appropriate engineering controls:
General industrial hygiene practice.
Personal protective equipment:
Eye/face protection:
Based on an evaluation of the eye or face hazards present, wear chemical splash-resistant safety glasses or goggles with side protection. 
A face shield may be appropriate in some workplaces. 
Use equipment for eye protection tested and approved under appropriate government standards such as NIOSH (US) or EN 166(EU).
Hands protection: 
Wear gloves selected based on an evaluation of the possible hazards to hands and skin, the duration of use, the physical conditions of the workplace, and the chemical resistance and physical properties of the glove material.
Skin protection:
Protective clothing must be selected based on the hazards present in the workplace, the physical environment, the duration of exposure, and other factors. 
No fabric can provide protection against all potential hazards; therefore it is important to select the appropriate protective clothing for each specific hazard.
At the minimum, wear a laboratory coat and close-toed footwear.
Handle with gloves. 
Gloves must be inspected prior to use. 
Use proper glove removal technique (without touching glove's outer surface) to avoid skin contact with this product. 
Dispose of contaminated gloves after use in accordance with applicable laws and good laboratory practices. 
Wash and dry hands.
Full contact
Material: Nitrile rubber
Minimum layer thickness: 0,11 mm
Break through time: 480 min
Splash contact
Material: Nitrile rubber
Minimum layer thickness: 0,11 mm
Break through time: 480 min
Body Protection:
Impervious clothing, The type of protective equipment must be selected according to the concentration and amount of the dangerous substance at the specific workplace.
Respiratory protection:
Respirators are not a substitute for accepted engineering control measures such as enclosure or confinement of the operation, general and local ventilation, and substitution of less toxic materials. 
When respiratory personal protective equipment is appropriate based on an assessment of respiratory hazards in the workplace, use a NIOSH- or CEN-certified respirator.
Respiratory protection not required.
Control of environmental exposure:
No special environmental precautions required.

Stability and reactivity of GLYCEROL:
-Reactivity: No data available
-Chemical stability:
Stable under recommended storage conditions.
Stable under recommended temperatures and pressures.
-Possibility of hazardous reactions: No data available
-Conditions to avoid: No data available
-Incompatible materials:
Strong oxidizing agents
-Hazardous decomposition products:
Hazardous decomposition products formed under fire conditions: Carbon oxides
Other decomposition products: No data available

Disposal considerations of Glycerin:
-Waste treatment methods:
Offer surplus and non-recyclable solutions to a licensed disposal company.
Contaminated packaging:
Dispose of as unused product.
Chemical waste generators must determine whether a discarded chemical is determination are listed in 40 CFR 261.3. 
Additionally, waste generators must consult state and local hazardous waste regulations to ensure complete and accurate classification.
Observe all federal, state and local regulations when disposing of the substance.
-Disposal of packaging: 
Do not reuse containers. 
Dispose of as unused product.

Firefighting measures of Glycerin:
-Extinguishing media
Suitable extinguishing media:
Use water spray, alcohol-resistant foam, dry chemical or carbon dioxide.
Unsuitable extinguishing media:
For this substance/mixture no limitations of extinguishing agents are given.
-Special hazards arising from the substance or mixture:
Carbon oxides
-Advice for firefighters:
Wear self-contained breathing apparatus for firefighting if necessary.
As in any fire, wear a NIOSH-approved or equivalent, pressure-demand, self-contained breathing apparatus and full protective gear. 
During a fire, irritating and highly toxic gases may be generated by thermal decomposition or combustion.
-Further information:
No data available

Accidental release measures of Glycerin:
-Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures:
Wear protective equipment and keep unprotected personnel away. 
Ensure adequate ventilation. 
Remove all sources of ignition. 
Prevent further leak or spill if safe to do so.
Avoid breathing vapours, mist or gas.
-Environmental precautions:
Do not let product enter drains, other waterways, or soil.
No special environmental precautions required.
-Methods and materials for containment and cleaning up:
Keep in suitable, closed containers for disposal.
Prevent further leak or spill if safe to do so. 
Vacuum, sweep up, or absorb with inert material and place into a suitable disposal container.
Consult local regulations for disposal.

Handling and storage of Glycerin:
-Precautions for safe handling:
Avoid contact with skin, eyes, and personal clothing. 
Wash hands thoroughly after handling. 
Avoid breathing fumes. 
Use only with adequate ventilation. 
Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves, and eye/face protection. 
Keep away from sources of ignition. 
Minimize dust generation and accumulation. 
Keep container tightly closed. 
Open and handle container with care. 
Do not eat, drink, or smoke while handling.
-Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities:
Keep container tightly closed in a dry and well-ventilated place. 
Store in cool place.
-Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities: 
Store in a tightly-closed container when not in use. 
Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances.
Keep away from sources of ignition.
-Specific end use(s):
No other specific uses are stipulated.

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