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CAS NUMBER: 9005-79-2



Glycogen is an important source for energy and glycogen is its cellular storage form, which is most abundant in liver and muscle. 
Glycogen is found in the cytoplasm in the form of granules ranging from 10 to 40 nm in diameter, the so-called β particles, which are typical for muscle cells. 
In hepatocytes, the β particles assemble to form characteristic rosettes of glycogen, the a particles (arrows). 
The α particles do not consist solely of glycogen but additionally contain various enzymatic proteins involved in the synthesis of glycogen, hence the name glycosomes. During glycogen synthesis, glycogenin, which initiates the synthesis, and glycogen synthase, which elongates the glucose chain, form a complex with glucose.
Glycogen is a glucose polysaccharide occurring in most mammalian and nonmammalian cells, in microorganisms, and even in some plants. 
Glycogen is an important and quickly mobilized source of stored glucose. 
In vertebrates it is stored mainly in the liver as a reserve of glucose for other tissues. 
In hepatocyte cells it is accumulated and mobilized according to blood glucose availability and to extrahepatic cells. 

Glycogen is also stored in muscles and fat cells. 
In the muscle it seems to be mainly used for energy purposes as metabolic fuel for glucolysis producing glucose 6-phosphate. Thus, glycogen plays a crucial role as a systemic and cellular energy source and also as an energy store. 
A great number of enzymes and hormones control the synthesis and degradation of glycogen. Consequently, stores of human body glycogen may vary dramatically due to diet, exercise, and stress.
Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in animals, fungi, and bacteria. 
The polysaccharide structure represents the main storage form of glucose in the body.
Glycogen is a stored form of glucose. 
Glycogen is a large multi-branched polymer of glucose which is accumulated in response to insulin and broken down into glucose in response to glucagon.

Glycogen is a natural organic acid, also called alpha-hydroxy acids (AHA).
Glycogen is usually made from sugar cane.
Glycogen is used in light peels and acid-based exfoliators.
Glycogen accelerates the loss of dead cells and supports cell regeneration.
Like other fruit acids, Glycogen is used to smooth wrinkles, brighten the skin, fade pigments and smooth out skin irregularities.
With its short definition, glycogen is the stored form of the glucose product, which is the body's main energy source.
As can be understood from the definition of glycogen, glycogen is actually expressed as glucose nuggets. 

Glycogen is quickly made and broken down by enzymes. 
Glycogen is useful for storing energy in bacteria, many animals and fungi.
If there is more glucose than the body's capacity, it stores the excess by converting it to glycogen form for later use. 
This storage process is called the storage of glucose as glycogen. 
Glycogen serves as the body's main energy source.

When we consume foods containing carbohydrates, the body goes through certain processes. 
The first of these processes is to break down the carbohydrate foods consumed. 
The second stage is the conversion of carbohydrates into sugars called glucose.
Glycogen is taken into the body from certain foods. 
There is a phase of conversion of glucose to the name glycogen. 
This process begins with consuming carbohydrate foods. 
The body goes through the phase of breaking down food. 

Glycogen also passes the phase of converting the consumed carbohydrates into sugar called glucose.
If there is plenty of glucose available, the body stores this sugar for later use and converts it into glycogen.For example, imagine that at any given time you have up to 4 grams of glucose, or sugar, in your blood. 
This sugar is formed when more carbohydrates are consumed. 
This current level of 4 grams may begin to decrease. 
Glycogens decrease occurs when sports and glucose, that is, sugar-containing foods, are not consumed. 
A decrease in the level means a decrease in the insulin level.
When the level rises, glucose is stored. When the level drops, glucose is released. 
In this sense, it has the task of keeping the blood sugar level in balance.
When the blood sugar level rises, the hormone insulin will be released, which promotes the uptake of glucose sugar into the liver cells.
When too much glucose is converted and stored in the liver as glycogen, glycogen can share up to ¼ of the liver weight.

Glycogen is mainly stored in the liver and the muscles and provides the body with a readily available source of energy if blood glucose levels decrease.
Glycogen functions as one of two forms of energy reserves, glycogen being for short-term and the other form being triglyceride stores in adipose tissue (i.e., body fat) for long-term storage. 
In humans, glycogen is made and stored primarily in the cells of the liver and skeletal muscle.
In the liver, glycogen can make up 5–6% of the organ's fresh weight, and the liver of an adult, weighing 1.5 kg, can store roughly 100–120 grams of glycogen.
In skeletal muscle, glycogen is found in a low concentration (1–2% of the muscle mass) and the skeletal muscle of an adult weighing 70 kg stores roughly 400 grams of glycogen.
The amount of glycogen stored in the body—particularly within the muscles and liver—mostly depends on physical training, basal metabolic rate, and eating habits (in particular oxidative type 1 fibres). 
Different levels of resting muscle glycogen are reached by changing the number of glycogen particles, rather than increasing the size of existing particles though most glycogen particles at rest are smaller than their theoretical maximum.
Small amounts of glycogen are also found in other tissues and cells, including the kidneys, red blood cells, white blood cells, and glial cells in the brain. 
The uterus also stores glycogen during pregnancy to nourish the embryo.
Approximately 4 grams of glucose are present in the blood of humans at all times; in fasting individuals, blood glucose is maintained constant at this level at the expense of glycogen stores in the liver and skeletal muscle.

Glycogen stores in skeletal muscle serve as a form of energy storage for the muscle itself; however, the breakdown of muscle glycogen impedes muscle glucose uptake from the blood, thereby increasing the amount of blood glucose available for use in other tissues.
Liver glycogen stores serve as a store of glucose for use throughout the body, particularly the central nervous system.
The human brain consumes approximately 60% of blood glucose in fasted, sedentary individuals.
Glycogen is the analogue of starch, a glucose polymer that functions as energy storage in plants. 
It has a structure similar to amylopectin (a component of starch), but is more extensively branched and compact than starch. 
Both are white powders in their dry state. Glycogen is found in the form of granules in the cytosol/cytoplasm in many cell types, and plays an important role in the glucose cycle. Glycogen forms an energy reserve that can be quickly mobilized to meet a sudden need for glucose, but one that is less compact than the energy reserves of triglycerides (lipids). As such it is also found as storage reserve in many parasitic protozoa.

While glycogen is indispensable to athletes, we have a very limited capacity to store it. 
For example, carbohydrates account for only about 1-2% of total bodily energy stores1. 
Most of this is stored as glycogen in muscle (80%) and liver (14%), and about 6% is stored in the blood as glucose.  
Despite its limited storage capacity, glycogen is crucial for energy production at all levels of effort. 
At rest, muscle glycogen is used for about 15-20% of energy production. 
At moderate intensities (~55-60% of max) glycogen usage could rise to as much as 80-85%2, and this increases even more at higher exercise intensities.
Research has shown that aerobic endurance is directly related to the initial muscle glycogen stores, that strenuous exercise cannot be maintained once these stores are depleted, and that perception of fatigue during prolonged intense exercise parallels the decline in muscle glycogen.
Glycogen is stored glucose and carbohydrates, found in your muscles, liver, and brain. When carbohydrate energy is needed, glycogen is converted into glucose for quick use by your muscles’ cells.


Glycogen is used as a dyeing and tanning agent in the textile industry, as a flavoring agent and preservative in food processing, and as a skin care agent in the pharmaceutical industry.
Glycogen is also used in adhesives and plastics.
Glycogen is often incorporated into emulsion polymers, solvents, and ink and paint additives to improve flow properties and impart gloss.
Glycogen is used in surface treatment products that increase the friction coefficient on tile floors.
Glycogen is the active ingredient of the household cleaning liquid PineSol.

Glycogen is very slightly soluble in water. 
Glycogen turns brown and red with iodine. 
Glycogen, which is stored in the body, is taken into the body thanks to certain foods. Some foods naturally contain glycogen.

Glycogen is a substance related to biochemistry. 
The name glycogen is the name given to the stored form of glucose. 
Glycogen is actually glucose that is naturally stored and found in food.
Glycogen in food is a sugar. Foods containing carbohydrates are taken and glucose is provided. When consumed too much, the body stores it as glycogen.

Glycogen is found in many grain products, legumes, fruits and vegetables. 
These products are counted as honey, grapes, apricots, figs, dates, plums, candies, granulated sugar, syrup, powdered sugar, soft drinks, energy drinks, baby foods, fruit juices.
When cereal products, legumes and vegetables are considered, it is found in kidney beans, potatoes, almonds, broccoli, cucumbers, wheat bread, peanuts, milk, jam, breakfast cereals, chocolate.


Because of its ability to penetrate the skin, Glycogen finds application in skin care products, most often as a chemical peel.
Physician-strength peels can have a pH as low as 0.6 (strong enough to completely keratolyze the epidermis), while acids for home peels can be as low as 2.5.
When Glycogen is applied, it reacts with the upper layer of the epidermis and weakens the binding properties of lipids that hold dead skin cells together.
This allows the stratum corneum to exfoliate and expose living skin cells.
Many plants produce Glycogen during photorespiration.

Glycogens role consumes a significant amount of energy.
In 2017, researchers announced a process that uses a new protein to reduce energy consumption/loss and prevent plants from releasing harmful ammonia.
The process converts glycolate to glycerate without using the traditional BASS6 and PLGG1 pathway

Glycogen is 2-hydroxy monocarboxylic acid, acetic acid in which the methyl group is hydroxylated.
Glycogen acts as a metabolite and a keratolytic drug.
Glycogen is a 2-hydroxy monocarboxylic acid and a primary alcohol.
Glycogen is obtained from an acetic acid.
Glycogen is the conjugate acid of a glycolate.

Glycogen (hydroacetic acid or hydroxyacetic acid); chemical formula C2H4O3 (also spelled HOCH2CO2H) is the smallest α-hydroxy acid (AHA).
This colorless, odorless and hygroscopic crystalline solid is highly soluble in water.
Glycogen is used in various skin care products.
Glycogen is found in some sugar crops.
A glycolate or glycolate is a salt or ester of Glycogen.

Glycogen, the most common alpha hydroxide acid (AHA), stimulates new growth of skin, collagen and elastin.
In addition to working to reduce brown spots and hyperpigmentation, it also reduces fine lines, wrinkles, acne, scars and other signs of aging.
Glycogen Brightening Solution increases cell turnover by preventing dead cells from clumping together.
Skin appears radiant and rejuvenated reflecting a healthy glow.
Glycogen is the most widely used form of Alpha Hydroxy Acids (AHAs), a group of naturally occurring acids derived from certain plants and fruits.

Glycogen is thought to reduce the stratum corneum barrier and increase the penetration of topical agents; it works by stimulating new skin and collagen growth and has an exfoliating effect, when Glycogen is applied it reacts with the upper layer of the epidermis, weakening the binding properties of lipids that hold dead skin cells together. 
Glycogen also stimulates glucose-aminos-glycans such as hyaluronic acid. 
The result is a much smoother skin surface and a younger appearance.

Another benefit is the ability of Glycogen to attract moisturizers to the surface of newly exfoliated skin.
Glycogen reduces the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles, age spots and also heals sun damaged skin.
When used in combination with polyvitamins, Glycogen is also beneficial for reducing stretch marks.

Glycogen is a natural component of cane sugar and normalizes the skin's exfoliation process, improving the appearance of pore size and smoothing the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles while retexturing the skin.
Alpha hydroxy acids, or AHAs, have long been known to be excellent additions to any skincare routine, but you may not immediately recognize these ingredients when you see them on product labels. 
One of the five AHAs, Glycogen is probably the most common in this group for its use in skin care products.
Glycogen is one of the alpha hydroxy acids. Glycogen is derived from sugar cane and is the smallest molecule of the five AHAs.

Along with lactic acid, citric acid, malic acid, and tartaric acids, Glycogen is one of the alpha hydroxy acids.
These ingredients occur naturally, although they can also be created synthetically.
Glycogen is derived from sugar cane and is the smallest molecule of the five AHAs.
Thanks to this quality, it easily penetrates the skin and makes an excellent addition to skin care products that aim to improve the appearance of skin discoloration and dullness.
While several ingredients are hailed as miracle agents in the skincare industry, a consistent winner that gets maximum mention by dermatologists is Glycogen. Glycogen, a plant-derived active ingredient, can address a variety of skin issues, from acne to pigmentation to aging.

Additionally, using Glycogen with other skin care products can help increase the effectiveness of these products by exfoliating the skin's surface.
Essentially, Glycogen is a skin-restructuring ingredient that works to sweep away the outer layer of dead skin cells to reveal fresh, revitalized skin underneath. 
Glycogen can also help reduce the appearance of acne scars, blemishes, age spots and large pores by aiding cell regeneration.
Additionally, using Glycogen with other skin care products can help increase the effectiveness of these products by exfoliating the skin's surface, which can help topical products penetrate fully (American Academy of Dermatology).
For a relaxing effect, ingredients like allantoin glycyrrhetinic acid, bisabolol, and portulaca extract work together with Glycogen and retinoid to provide a sense of calm.
Glycogen skin care products come in many different forms, but for a more comprehensive anti-aging strategy, it can be most effective when used in combination with other anti-aging ingredients.
Glycogen is a powerful ingredient in many skin care products.
From anti-aging to hydration to hyperpigmentation to dullness, Glycogen treats a host of skincare issues, all without dryness or irritating sensitive skin.


Glycogen is slightly stronger than acetic acid due to the electron withdrawing power of the terminal hydroxyl group.
The carboxylate group can coordinate metal ions forming coordination complexes.
Particularly noteworthy are complexes with Pb2 + and Cu2 +, which are significantly stronger than complexes with other carboxylic acids.
This indicates that the hydroxyl group is involved in the complex formation, possibly by loss of its proton.


Glycogen is found in the body as stored in the liver. In foods, glycogen is found as glucose. Glycogen means sugar. Glucose is provided by consuming foods containing carbohydrates. 
When consumed too much, the body stores it as glycogen in the liver.Glycogen is found in many grain products, legumes, vegetables and fruits. Foods containing the glucose product are:
Sugary products are referred to as carbohydrate products.

-Dried fruits such as grapes, apricots, dates, figs, plums
-Sugar and sugar products e.g. icing sugar, confectionery, granulated sugar, syrup
-Ready-made baby foods
-energy drinks
-Soft drinks
-Freshly squeezed juice
-Kidney bean
-Sweet potato
-Wheat bread
-Unprocessed milk


Glycogen is a branched biopolymer consisting of linear chains of glucose residues with an average chain length of approximately 8–12 glucose units and 2,000-60,000 residues per one molecule of glycogen.Glycogen units are linked together linearly by α(1→4) glycosidic bonds from one glucose to the next. Branches are linked to the chains from which they are branching off by α(1→6) glycosidic bonds between the first glucose of the new branch and a glucose on the stem chain.
Due to the way glycogen is synthesised, every glycogen granule has at its core a glycogenin protein.
Glycogen in muscle, liver, and fat cells is stored in a hydrated form, composed of three or four parts of water per part of glycogen associated with 0.45 millimoles (18 mg) of potassium per gram of glycogen.Glycogen is an osmotic molecule, and can have profound effects on osmotic pressure in high concentrations possibly leading to cell damage or death if stored in the cell without being modified.
Glycogen is a non-osmotic molecule, so it can be used as a solution to storing glucose in the cell without disrupting osmotic pressure.


Glycogen plays an important role in keeping our muscles fuelled for exercise. 
When we exercise, our muscles will take advantage of their stored glycogen. Glycogen in our blood and glycogen stored in the liver can also be used to keep our muscles fuelled.

Once we complete our exercise session, our muscles will replenish their glycogen stores. 
The time it takes to fully replenish glycogen stores can depend on how hard and how long we exercise and can vary from a few hours to several days.

Exercise can therefore be a useful way to reduce blood glucose levels and can be particularly useful in people with type 2 diabetes Following exercise, the muscles will try to replenish their stores of glycogen and will therefore take in available glucose from the blood to do so, helping to lower blood glucose over this period.
A polysaccharide that is the main carbohydrate store of animals. 
Glycogen is composed of many glucose units linked in a similar way to starch. 
Glycogen is readily hydrolyzed in a stepwise manner to glucose itself. 
Glycogen is stored largely in the liver and in muscle but is found widely distributed in the body.



As a meal containing carbohydrates or protein is eaten and digested, blood glucose levels rise, and the pancreas secretes insulin. 
Blood glucose from the portal vein enters liver cells (hepatocytes). Insulin acts on the hepatocytes to stimulate the action of several enzymes, including glycogen synthase. Glycogen molecules are added to the chains of glycogen as long as both insulin and glucose remain plentiful. 
In this postprandial or "fed" state, the liver takes in more glucose from the blood than it releases.
After a meal has been digested and glucose levels begin to fall, insulin secretion is reduced, and glycogen synthesis stops. 
When it is needed for energy, glycogen is broken down and converted again to glucose. 
Glycogen phosphorylase is the primary enzyme of glycogen breakdown. 
For the next 8–12 hours, glucose derived from liver glycogen is the primary source of blood glucose used by the rest of the body for fuel.
Glucagon, another hormone produced by the pancreas, in many respects serves as a countersignal to insulin. 
In response to insulin levels being below normal (when blood levels of glucose begin to fall below the normal range), glucagon is secreted in increasing amounts and stimulates both glycogenolysis (the breakdown of glycogen) and gluconeogenesis (the production of glucose from other sources).


Muscle cell glycogen appears to function as an immediate reserve source of available glucose for muscle cells. 
Other cells that contain small amounts use it locally, as well. 
As muscle cells lack glucose-6-phosphatase, which is required to pass glucose into the blood, the glycogen they store is available solely for internal use and is not shared with other cells. 
This is in contrast to liver cells, which, on demand, readily do break down their stored glycogen into glucose and send it through the blood stream as fuel for other organs.


Glycogen is a strong irritant, depending on pH.
Like ethylene glycol, it is metabolized to oxalic acid, which can become dangerous if swallowed.


We reported that excess glucose from food is stored as glycogen in the body. 
Liver and muscle cells in the body are the areas where glycogen is stored.
When bacteria and fungi are considered, glucose is stored in the form of glycogen.
While the storage state of glucose in the animal and human body is called glycogen, it is called starch in plants.
Although glycogen is stored in the liver and skeletal muscles in the human body, it is present in many cells. 
On average, between 80 and 100 grams of glycogen is stored in the liver organ.
In striated muscles, this ratio is stored as 300 to 500 grams. 
The entry of glucose into the cells occurs with the intake of carbohydrates and the secretion of the hormone insulin.
The storage phase begins with the conversion of the glucose molecule to glucose 6 phosphate. 
In the glycolysis cycle, glucose 6 phosphate is converted to ATP for immediate use by the cell or to glycogen for storage.
As can be understood from this information, glycogen storage is important for individuals who are constantly on the move. 
Doing sports is also included in the act of being in constant motion.




Glycogen, from oyster


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