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CAS Number: 75-01-4 
EC Number:  200-831-0
IUPAC name: Chloroethene
Molecular Formula:  C2H3Cl

Vinyl chloride is a colorless gas that burns easily. 
Vinyl chloride does not occur naturally and must be produced industrially for its commercial uses. 
Vinyl chloride is used primarily to make polyvinyl chloride (PVC); PVC is used to make a variety of plastic products, including pipes, wire and cable coatings, and packaging materials. 
Vinyl chloride is also produced as a combustion product in tobacco smoke.
Vinyl chloride is a man-made volatile organic chemical. 
Vinyl chloride does not occur naturally, but can be formed in the environment from the breakdown of other volatile organic chemicals such as tetrachloroethene, trichloroethene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane. 
Vinyl chloride can also get into the environment as a result of improper waste disposal. 
Vinyl chloride's primary use is the production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC or "vinyl") plastic. 
PVC is used in many products including water pipes, wire and cable coatings, packaging materials, furniture automobile upholstery, housewares and toys.

Vinyl Chloride is a chlorinated hydrocarbon occurring as a colorless, highly flammable gas with a mild, sweet odor that may emit toxic fumes of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen chloride and phosgene when heated to decomposition. 
Vinyl chloride is primarily used to make polyvinyl chloride to manufacture plastics. 
Exposure to this substance affects the central and peripheral nervous system and causes liver damage. 
Prolonged exposure to vinyl chloride can cause a set of symptoms that is characterized by Raynaud's phenomenon, joint and muscle pain and scleroderma-like skin changes. 
Vinyl chloride is a known human carcinogen and is associated with an increased risk of developing liver cancer, predominantly angiosarcoma of the liver, but is also linked to brain and lung cancer as well as cancer of the lymphatic and hematopoietic system. 
Vinyl chloride appears as a colorless gas with a sweet odor. 
Vinyl chloride is Easily ignited. 
Vinyl chloride is Shipped as a liquefied gas under own vapor pressure. 
Contact with the unconfined liquid may cause frostbite by evaporative cooling. 
Leaks may be liquid or vapor. 
Vapors are heavier than air. 
May asphyxiate by the displacement of air. 
Under prolonged exposure to fire or intense heat the containers may rupture violently and rocket. Suspected carcinogen. 
Vinyl chloride is Used to make plastics, adhesives, and other chemicals.
Vinyl chloride is a colorless gas. 
Vinyl chloride burns easily and it is not stable at high temperatures.
Vinyl chloride has a mild, sweet odor. 
Vinyl chloride is a manufactured substance that does not occur naturally. 
Vinyl chloride can be formed when other substances such as trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene are broken down. 
Vinyl chloride is used to make polyvinyl chloride (PVC). 
Vinyl chloride is also known as chloroethene, chloroethylene, and ethylene monochloride.
Vinyl chloride is a very important raw material, 95 percent of which is used in the production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). 
PVC is a plastic with a wide array of consumer and industrial uses, such as water distribution systems, credit card production and numerous plastic products.
Vinyl chloride can be inhaled or absorbed through the skin.

At room temperature, vinyl chloride is a colorless, highly flammable, potentially explosive gas. 
Vinyl chloride has a faint sweet odor. 
The odor threshold for vinyl chloride is about 3,000 ppm in air, depending on the individual. 
When confined under high pressure in special containers, vinyl chloride exists in a liquefied state. 
Vinyl chloride is shipped and handled this way. 
When burned or heated to a high enough temperature, vinyl chloride decomposes to hydrogen chloride, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and traces of phosgene. 
Vinyl chloride should be stored in a cool, dry, well ventilated location, separate from oxidizing materials and accelerants. 
Phenol is often added as a stabilizer.
Vinyl chloride, also called chloroethylene, a colourless, flammable, toxic gas belonging to the family of organohalogen compounds and used principally in making polyvinyl chloride, or PVC, a widely used plastic with numerous applications.

The major industrial preparation of vinyl chloride begins with ethylene and has two variants. 
In one, ethylene is converted to 1,2-dichloroethane (ethylene chloride) by reaction with chlorine. Heating 1,2-dichloroethane in the presence of a charcoal catalyst gives vinyl chloride.

In the other process (called oxychlorination), ethylene, hydrogen chloride, and oxygen (or air) are heated in the presence of a copper catalyst to give vinyl chloride and water.
Typically, a vinyl chloride plant is designed to integrate the two processes so that the hydrogen chloride produced by heating 1,2-dichloroethane is used as a reactant in the oxychlorination method.
Processes based on acetylene were developed in the 1930s and are more direct, but because acetylene is much more expensive than ethylene, these processes are used far less than ethylene-based ones.
Vinyl chloride can cause liver damage, and it is classified as a known human carcinogen.,

Vinyl chloride is an organochloride with the formula H2C=CHCl. 
It is also called vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) or chloroethene. 
This colorless compound is an important industrial chemical chiefly used to produce the polymer polyvinyl chloride (PVC). 
About 13 billion kilograms are produced annually. 
VCM is among the top twenty largest petrochemicals (petroleum-derived chemicals) in world production.
The United States currently remains the largest VCM manufacturing region because of its low-production-cost position in chlorine and ethylene raw materials. 
China is also a large manufacturer and one of the largest consumers of VCM. 
Vinyl chloride is a gas with a sweet odor. 
Vinyl chloride is highly toxic, flammable, and carcinogenic. 
Vinyl chloride can be formed in the environment when soil organisms break down chlorinated solvents. 
Vinyl chloride that is released by industries or formed by the breakdown of other chlorinated chemicals can enter the air and drinking water supplies. 
Vinyl chloride is a common contaminant found near landfills. 
In the past VCM was used as a refrigerant.

Vinyl chloride (chloroethene), a chlorinated hydrocarbon, is a colorless gas with a mild, sweet odor. Most vinyl chloride is used in the process of making polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic and vinyl products, thus may be emitted from industrial processes.
Vinyl chloride has been detected near landfills, sewage treatment plants, and hazardous waste sites, due to microbial breakdown of chlorinated solvents, although levels above the standard have not been measured in California since the 1970’s. 
Today, vinyl chloride exposure is primarily an occupational concern.

CAS Number: 75-01-4 
EC Number:  200-831-0
IUPAC name: Chloroethene
Molecular Formula:  C2H3Cl

Tobacco smoke, which contains low levels of vinyl chloride, is a possible source for vinyl chloride in indoor air.
Another possible source is evaporation from contaminated well water that is used for household purposes. 
Vinyl chloride may also enter homes through soil vapor intrusion, which occurs when the chemical evaporates from groundwater, enters soil vapor (air spaces between soil particles), and migrates through building foundations into the building's indoor air. 
Vinyl chloride has also been found at low concentrations in outdoor air, but usually only near industrial facilities that work with vinyl chloride. 
This could also be source of vinyl chloride in indoor air at some locations.

USES OF Vinyl chloride:
Vinyl chloride, also called vinyl chloride monomer (VCM), is exclusively used as a precursor to PVC. Due to its hazardous nature, VCM is not found in other products. 
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is very stable, storable and not toxic.
Until 1974, vinyl chloride was used in aerosol spray propellant.
Vinyl chloride was briefly used as an inhalational anaesthetic, in a similar vein to ethyl chloride, though its toxicity forced this practice to be abandoned.
Smaller amounts of vinyl chloride are used in furniture and automobile upholstery, wall coverings, housewares, and automotive parts.
Vinyl chloride has also been used in the past as a refrigerant.
Vinyl chloride is chemical intermediate in the production of PVC, automobile upholstery, housewares, and automotive parts; component of tobacco smoke. 
Vinyl chloride is formerly used as aerosol spray propellant until 1974, as a refrigerant, and briefly as an inhalational anaesthetic.
Most of the vinyl chloride produced in the United States is used to make polyvinyl chloride (PVC), a material used to manufacture a variety of plastic and vinyl products including pipes, wire and cable coatings, and packaging materials. 

VCM is used primarily as a raw material in industrial operations that manufacture polyvinyl chloride (PVC). 
The polyvinyl chloride, in turn, is used in products such as:
• Building materials – siding, roofing, water distribution, irrigation, sewer and sprinkler pipe,
fencing; wire and cable insulation; electrical conduit; floor and wall coverings, window frames,
gutters and downspouts
• Industrial processes - landfill liners, piping used in food processing, chemical processing and
other manufacturing
• Medical devices - for blood and intravenous bags, kidney dialysis and blood transfusions, cardiac
catheters, endotracheal tubes, artificial heart valves and many others
• Automotive components - for body side moldings, interior upholstery, under-the hood wiring,
under-the-car abrasion coatings, floor mats, dashboards and arm rests
• Electronics – components in air conditioners, floppy disks, components, housings, keyboards,
phone systems, computers, power tools, electrical cords, refrigerators, fiber optics, washers 
• Toys - for rigid and flexible parts 
• Packaging materials - for flexible food wrap, shrink wrap, jar lids and can linings; and for rigid
blister and clamshell packaging, and bottles to store household, personal care products, and
automotive lubricants

VCM is consumed and converted into PVC during the manufacture of PVC resin. 

CAS Number: 75-01-4 
EC Number:  200-831-0
IUPAC name: Chloroethene
Molecular Formula:  C2H3Cl

PRODUCTION OF Vinyl chloride:
Vinyl chloride was first produced in 1835 by Justus von Liebig and his student Henri Victor Regnault. They obtained it by treating 1,2-dichloroethane with a solution of potassium hydroxide in ethanol.
In 1912, Fritz Klatte, a German chemist working for Griesheim-Elektron, patented a means to produce vinyl chloride from acetylene and hydrogen chloride using mercuric chloride as a catalyst. This method was widely used during the 1930s and 1940s in the West. 
It has since been superseded by more economical processes based on ethylene in the United States and Europe. 
The mercury-based technology is the main production method in China.
Approximately 31.1 million tons were produced in 2000.
Two methods are employed, the hydrochlorination of acetylene and the dehydrochlorination of ethylene dichloride (1,2-dichloroethane).
Numerous attempts have been made to convert ethane directly to vinyl chloride.
Other routes:
Gold- and platinum-based catalysts have been proposed as replacements for mercury.
1,2-Dichloroethane, ClCH2CH2Cl (also known as ethylene dichloride, EDC), can be prepared by halogenation of ethane or ethylene, inexpensive starting materials. 
EDC thermally converts vinyl chloride and anhydrous HCl. 
This production method become the major route to vinyl chloride since the late 1950s.

ClCH2CH2Cl → CH2=CHCl + HCl
The thermal cracking reaction is highly endothermic, and is generally carried out in a fired heater. Even though residence time and temperature are carefully controlled, it produces significant quantities of chlorinated hydrocarbon side products. 
In practice, the yield for EDC conversion is relatively low (50 to 60 percent). 
The furnace effluent is immediately quenched with cold EDC to minimize undesirable side reactions. The resulting vapor-liquid mixture then goes to a purification system. 
Some processes use an absorber-stripper system to separate HCl from the chlorinated hydrocarbons, while other processes use a refrigerated continuous distillation system.

Acetylene reacts with anhydrous hydrogen chloride gas over a mercuric chloride catalyst to give vinyl chloride:
C2H2 + HCl → CH2=CHCl
The reaction is exothermic and highly selective. 
Product purity and yields are generally very high.

This route to vinyl chloride was common before ethylene became widely distributed. 
When vinyl chloride producers shifted to using the thermal cracking of EDC described above, some used byproduct HCl in conjunction with a colocated acetylene-based unit. 
The hazards of storing and shipping acetylene meant that the vinyl chloride facility needed to be located very close to the acetylene generating facility.
China still uses this method to produce vinyl chloride due to the large reserves of coal from which acetylene is produced.
Ethane is readily available, particularly on the U.S. Gulf coast. 
Ethylene is made from ethane by cracking ethane and then ethylene is used for production of vinyl chloride. 
Hence, to save the processing cost for manufacturing ethylene, numerous attempts have been made to convert ethane directly to vinyl chloride. 
The direct feed of ethane to vinyl chloride plants could thus considerably decrease the raw material costs and make the plants less dependent on cracker capacity. 
The conversion of ethane to vinyl chloride can be performed by various routes:
High-temperature chlorination:
C2H6 + 2 Cl2 → C2H3Cl + 3 HCl
High-temperature oxychlorination:
C2H6 + HCl + O2 → C2H3Cl + 2 H2O
High-temperature oxidative chlorination:
2 C2H6 + 3⁄2 O2 + Cl2 → 2 C2H3Cl + 3 H2O
A major drawback to the use of ethane are the forcing conditions required for its use, which can be attributed to its lack of molecular functionality. 
In contrast to ethylene, which easily undergoes chlorine addition, ethane must first be functionalized by substitution reactions, which gives rise to a variety of consecutive and side-chain reactions. 
The reaction must, therefore, be kinetically controlled in order to obtain a maximal vinyl chloride yield. Vinyl chloride yields average 20–50% per pass. 
Ethylene, ethyl chloride, and 1,2-dichloroethane are obtained as major byproducts. 
With special catalysts and at optimized conditions, however, ethane conversions of greater than 96% have been reported from oxychlorination reactions. 
The ethylene formed can either be recycled or oxychlorinated and cracked in a conventional manner. Many such ethane-based processes have been and are being developed.

CAS Number: 75-01-4 
EC Number:  200-831-0
IUPAC name: Chloroethene
Molecular Formula:  C2H3Cl

Chemical formula:    C2H3Cl
Molar mass:    62.50 g•mol−1
Appearance:    Colorless gas
Odor:    pleasant
Density    :0.911 g/ml
Melting point:    −153.8 °C (−244.8 °F; 119.3 K)
Boiling point:    −13.4 °C (7.9 °F; 259.8 K)
Solubility in water:    2.7 g/L (0.0432 mol/L)
Vapor pressure:    2580 mm. of mercury 20 °C (68 °F)
Magnetic susceptibility: (χ)    -35.9•10−6 cm3/mol
Heat capacity (C):    
0.8592 J/K/g (gas)
0.9504 J/K/g (solid)
Std enthalpy of formation (ΔfH⦵298):    −94.12 kJ/mol (solid)
Flash point:    −61 °C (−78 °F; 212 K)
Explosive limits:    3.6–33%[1]
Molecular Weight:    62.50    
XLogP3-AA:    1.5    
Hydrogen Bond Donor Count:    0    
Hydrogen Bond Acceptor Count:    0    
Rotatable Bond Count:    0    
Exact Mass:    61.9923278
Monoisotopic Mass:    61.9923278    
Topological Polar Surface Area:    0 Ų    
Heavy Atom Count:    3    
Formal Charge:    0    
Complexity:    10.3    
Isotope Atom Count:    0    
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count:    0    
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count:    0    
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count:    0    
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count:    0    
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count:    1    
Compound Is Canonicalized:    Yes

Relative vapour density: 2.2 (air = 1)
Refractive index: nD20 1.3700
Spectroscopy data: Infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectral data have been tabulated 
Solubility: Slightly soluble in water (1.1 g/L at 25 °C); soluble in ethanol; very soluble in ether, carbon tetrachloride and benzene
Volatility: Vapour pressure, 2530 mm Hg at 20 °C
Flash-point: –78 °C (closed cup)
Stability: The substance can, under specific circumstances, form peroxides and initiate explosive polymerization. 
The substance decomposes on burning to produce toxic and corrosive fumes (hydrogen chloride, phosgene).
Octanol/water partition coefficient: log Pow, 0.6
Auto ignition temperature: 472 °C
Explosion limit in air: 3.6–33%
Henry’s law constant: 18.8 at 20 °C
Conversion factor: mg/m3 = 2.6 × ppm

CAS Number: 75-01-4 
EC Number:  200-831-0
IUPAC name: Chloroethene
Molecular Formula:  C2H3Cl

Vinyl chloride is stored as a liquid. 
The presently accepted upper limit of safety as a health hazard is 500 ppm. 
Often, the storage containers for the product vinyl chloride are high capacity spheres. 
The spheres have an inside sphere and an outside sphere. 
Several inches of empty space separate the inside sphere from the outside sphere. 
This void area between the spheres is purged with an inert gas such as nitrogen. 
As the nitrogen purge gas exits the void space it passes through an analyzer that is designed to detect if any vinyl chloride is leaking from the internal sphere. 
If vinyl chloride starts to leak from the internal sphere or if a fire is detected on the outside of the sphere then the contents of the sphere are automatically dumped into an emergency underground storage container. 
Containers used for handling vinyl chloride at atmospheric temperature are always under pressure. Inhibited vinyl chloride may be stored at normal atmospheric conditions in suitable pressure vessel. Uninhibited vinyl chloride may be stored either under refrigeration or at normal atmospheric temperature in the absence of air or sunlight but only for a duration of a few days. 
If for longer periods, regular checks should be made for the presence of polymers.

Transporting VCM presents the same risks as transporting other flammable gases such as propane, butane (LPG) or natural gas (for which the same safety regulations apply). 
The equipment used for VCM transport is specially designed to be impact and corrosion resistant.

Vinyl Chloride is an extremely volatile and flammable gas, vapor, or liquefied gas. 
It should be stored away from direct sunlight in a dry, cool and well-ventilated area away from incompatible materials. 
Vinyl Chloride vapor concentrations between 3.6% and 33% by volume in air are explosive by ignition. 
When exposed to open flames, open electrical elements, or electrical arcs, Vinyl Chloride liquid or vapor can decompose to form toxic and corrosive fumes. 
Depending on conditions, when Vinyl Chloride is exposed to high temperatures, heat, or ignition, hydrogen chloride gas, which is highly irritating to the nose and throat, as well as trace levels of phosgene gas, may be produced. 
As a result, all heat and ignition sources should be eliminated during handling and storage. 
Fire and explosion hazards can be minimized by adequate ventilation, using the proper types and arrangement of equipment, and taking reasonable precautions and care in handling. 
All metal parts of equipment must be grounded to avoid ignition of vapors by static electricity discharge.
The following materials are incompatible with Vinyl Chloride, and contact can result in strong exothermic reactions: oxygen, moisture, polymerization additives, copper, aluminum, oxidizing agents, strong alkalis, and strong acids.
During Vinyl Chloride transfer operations, all equipment, including unloading pumps, must be properly grounded and bonded to prevent the buildup of static electricity. 
If tank car valves are defective or leaking, do not unload.
Air should never be permitted to enter Vinyl Chloride tank cars or other containers during or after unloading.
Close and seal all openings.
Leave at least 10 psig of Vinyl Chloride vapor pressure or nitrogen pressure in an empty tank car being returned, depending on the vinyl tank car unloading system setup.

In the U.S., OSHA lists vinyl chloride as a Class IA Flammable Liquid, with a National Fire Protection Association Flammability Rating of 4. 
Because of its low boiling point, liquid VCM will undergo flash evaporation (i.e., autorefrigerate) upon its release to atmospheric pressure. 
The portion vaporized will form a dense cloud (more than twice as heavy as the surrounding air). 
The risk of subsequent explosion or fire is significant. 
According to OSHA, the flash point of vinyl chloride is −78 °C (−108.4 °F). 
Its flammable limits in air are: lower 3.6 volume% and upper 33.0 volume%. 
The explosive limits are: lower 4.0%, upper 22.05% by volume in air. 
Fire may release toxic hydrogen chloride (HCl) and carbon monoxide (CO). 
VCM can polymerise rapidly due to heating and under the influence of air, light and contact with a catalyst, strong oxidisers and metals such as copper and aluminium, with fire or explosion hazard. 
As a gas mixed with air, VCM is a fire and explosion hazard. 
On standing, VCM can form peroxides, which may then explode. 
VCM will react with iron and steel in the presence of moisture

VCM is extremely flammable. 
At concentrations of about 3.6 percent VCM in air, VCM can be an explosion hazard. 
Direct contact with open flames or a high energy heat source will result in combustion and corrosive, noxious gases. 
If combustion occurs, extinguish fires using dry chemical, foam, or carbon dioxide. 
Water may be ineffective, but should be used to keep fire-exposed containers cool.
VCM will polymerize if exposed to air, elevated temperatures or other activating substances. Inhibitors are often added to VCM to prevent polymerization during storage. 
VCM can be stored in vessel made of common materials of construction. 
VCM is stable with common metals other than aluminum and aluminum alloys and copper and copper alloys (including brass). 
When moisture is present, VCM can corrode iron and steel. 
Avoid VCM contact with moisture, pure oxygen, strong alkalis, alkali metals, open flames and welding arcs, and other high temperature sources, which induce thermal decomposition to irritating and corrosive hydrochloric acid.
Health Effects:
Several minutes of exposure to high, but attainable concentrations (over 1000 ppm) may cause central nervous system depression with effects such as dizziness, drowsiness, disorientation, tingling, numbness or burning sensation of the hands and feet, impaired vision, nausea, headache, difficulty breathing, cardiac arrhythmias, unconsciousness, or even death.
Eye and Skin Contact:
Contact with rapidly evaporating liquid VCM can cause frostbite.
Ingestion is not a likely route of exposure because VCM is a vapor at normal temperature.
Chronic effects:
VCM is a known human carcinogen. 
Occupational overexposure has produced a specific cancer (angiosarcoma of the liver) and is associated with hepatocellular and cholangiocellular cancer.
Occupational exposure has also resulted in changes in bones and skin, especially in the extremities such as the fingers (acroosteolysis). 
Additionally, repeated exposure may result in dose-related sensory disorders, nervous system effects, blood system damage, lymphatic system changes, liver malfunction, pulmonary insufficiency, and dermatitis.
Developmental/Reproductive Studies:
VCM did not cause birth defects when tested in rats, mice, or rabbits. 
Studies in rats show that inhalation produces fetal toxicity only at exposure levels that also produce maternal toxicity.
Environmental Effects:
If released to soil, VCM is expected to have high mobility. 
Volatilization from moist soil surfaces is expected to be an important fate process based on its vapor pressure.
If VCM is released into water, it is not expected to adsorb to suspended solids and sediment in the water.
The biodegradation half-life of vinyl chloride in aerobic and anaerobic waters was reported as 28 and 110 days, respectively. 
Volatilization from water surfaces is expected to be an important fate process. 
The estimated volatilization half-lives for a model river and model lake are 1 hour and 3 days, respectively.
VCM is practically non-toxic to fish on an acute basis.
If released to air, VCM will exist solely as a gas in the ambient atmosphere. 
It will be degraded in the atmosphere by reaction with photochemically-produced hydroxyl radicals; the half-life for this reaction in air is estimated to be 55 hours.
The most likely ways exposures could occur are:
Worker exposure – Exposure could occur in the manufacturing facility or in industrial facilities that use VCM. Exposures could occur by inhalation of vapors or by contact to the
skin or eye. 
VCM is used in closed systems in manufacturing processes to minimize exposures. 
In the U.S., the Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulates VCM.
It contains requirements for personal protective equipment, medical surveillance, and training.
Consumer exposure – OxyChem does not sell VCM for use directly in consumer products.
Releases – If a spill occurs, emergency personnel should wear protective equipment to minimize exposures. 
The leak should be stopped if it is possible to do so without personal risk. 
Any ignition sources in the area should be removed, and closed spaces must be ventilated before they are entered.

CAS Number: 75-01-4 
EC Number:  200-831-0
IUPAC name: Chloroethene
Molecular Formula:  C2H3Cl

How are people exposed to vinyl chloride?
Workers at facilities where vinyl chloride is produced or used may be exposed primarily through inhalation. 
The general population may be exposed by inhaling contaminated air or tobacco smoke. 
In the environment, the highest levels of vinyl chloride are found in air around factories that produce vinyl products. 
If a water supply is contaminated, vinyl chloride can enter household air when the water is used for showering, cooking, or laundry.

Which cancers are associated with exposure to vinyl chloride?
Vinyl chloride exposure is associated with an increased risk of a rare form of liver cancer (hepatic angiosarcoma), as well as brain and lung cancers, lymphoma, and leukemia.

How can exposures be reduced?
The U.S. Occupational Safety & Health Administration provides information about exposure limits to vinyl chloride.

Where is vinyl chloride found?
Vinyl chloride can be found in measurable quantities near manufacturing and processing plants.
It is also in hazardous waste sites as well as landfills. 
Following leaks, spills or improper disposal, vinyl chloride can also be detected in groundwater. 
Traces of vinyl chloride can be found in products that are made using PVC. 
Vinyl chloride is also found in tobacco smoke.

What evidence links vinyl chloride to breast cancer?
Vinyl chloride became classified as a human carcinogen after various studies demonstrated toxic effects in humans and animals.

A study completed on retired teachers and administrators in California found breast cancer incidence to be linked with high levels of chemical exposure. 
Vinyl chloride was among these chemicals.
Research completed on women who worked in the manufacturing of plastics found elevated risks of breast cancer to be associated with exposure to chemicals, including vinyl chloride. 
Contaminated drinking water at a Marine Corps base camp in North Carolina was found to cause an increased incidence of male breast cancer. 
The water contained detectable levels of vinyl chloride, among other chemicals.
Mice, hamsters and rats developed mammary gland tumors after being exposed to varying levels of vinyl chloride beginning at a young age. 
They also experienced shorter life spans.
Who is most likely to be exposed to vinyl chloride?
People who work in vinyl chloride manufacturing or processing plants are most likely to be exposed. Residents who live near PVC production plants are also at risk of exposure.

Who is most vulnerable to the health effects of is vinyl chloride?
Children may be more vulnerable to the cancer-causing effects of vinyl chloride.

What are the top tips to avoid exposure?
Limit use of PVC plastic containers and food packaging, as they may have traces of vinyl chloride.
Industrial workers in close contact with vinyl chloride should use respirators and wear protective clothing.

What immediate health effects can result from vinyl chloride exposure?
Inhaling vinyl chloride causes sleepiness and dizziness, and can cause loss of consciousness. 
If pressurized liquid vinyl chloride escapes from its container and comes in contact with the skin or eyes, it can cause frostbite or irritation.

Can vinyl chloride poisoning be treated?
There is no antidote for vinyl chloride, but its effects can be treated and most exposed persons recover completely. 
Persons who have inhaled large amounts of vinyl chloride might need to be hospitalized.

Are any future health effects likely to occur?
A single small exposure from which a person recovers quickly is unlikely to cause delayed or long-term effects. 
Exposure to vinyl chloride over many years can affect the liver, nervous system, and skin. 
Long-term exposure can cause a rare form of liver cancer.

What tests can be done if a person has been exposed to vinyl chloride?
Specific tests for the presence of vinyl chloride in the breath or breakdown products in the urine are available, but they must be performed shortly after exposure and are not generally helpful. 
If a severe exposure has occurred, blood and other tests might show whether the liver or other organs have been damaged. 
Testing is not needed in every case.

CAS Number: 75-01-4 
EC Number:  200-831-0
IUPAC name: Chloroethene
Molecular Formula:  C2H3Cl


MeSH Entry Terms:
Chloride, Vinyl


Vinyl Chloride

Depositor-Supplied Synonyms    



Ethene, chloro-




Ethylene monochloride




Monovinyl chloride

Chlorure de vinyle

Ethylene, chloro-



Poly(vinyl chloride)

Vinyl C monomer

Vinyl chloride monomer


Winylu chlorek

Cloruro di vinile

RCRA waste number U043

Vinyle(chlorure de)



cloruro de vinilo



UN 1086





Vinyl chlorine

Vinylchlorid [German]

Polyvinyl chloride resin


Winylu chlorek [Polish]

Chlorure de vinyle [French]

Cloruro di vinile [Italian]


Vinyle(chlorure de) [French]

HSDB 169

Vinile (cloruro di)

Vinile (cloruro di) [Italian]

Polyvinylchloride latex


EINECS 200-831-0


RCRA waste no. U043

BRN 1731576

Vinyl chloride Chloroethylene


1-Chloroethylene #

EC 200-831-0

4-01-00-00700 (Beilstein Handbook Reference)

Vinyl chloride, >=99.5%

Vinyl chloride, >=99.95%



Vinyl chloride, inhibited or Vinyl chloride stabilized [UN1086]




Vinyl chloride 100 microg/mL in Methanol

Vinyl chloride 1000 microg/mL in Methanol

Vinyl Chloride 5000 microg/mL in Methanol







Vinyl chloride, inhibited or Vinyl chloride stabilized


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