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CAS No: 137-08-6
EC No.: 205-278-9
Beilstein No.:3769272
Formula: C9H19NO4
Molecular Weight: 205.25 g/mol
Physical Appearance: Clear, viscous liquid
Solubility: Soluble in water, alcohol and glycerin
Linear Formula: HOCH2C(CH3)2CH(OH)CONHCH2CH2CO2 ·1/2Ca

Pantothenic acid is vitamin B5. 
Pantothenic acid is widely found in both plants and animals including meat, vegetables, cereal grains, legumes, eggs, and milk.
Pantothenic acid helps the body utilize carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. 

Pantothenic acid is also important for maintaining healthy skin. 
Vitamin B5 is available as D-pantothenic acid, as well as dexpanthenol and calcium pantothenate, which are chemicals made in the lab from D-pantothenic acid.
People most commonly use pantothenic acid for pantothenic acid deficiency. 
Dexpanthenol, a chemical similar to pantothenic acid, is used for skin irritation, nasal swelling, wound healing, and other conditions.

Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B5 is a water-soluble B vitamin and therefore an essential nutrient.
All animals require pantothenic acid in order to synthesize coenzyme A (CoA) – essential for fatty acid metabolism – as well as to, in general, synthesize and metabolize proteins, carbohydrates, and fats.
Pantothenic acid is the combination of pantoic acid and β-alanine. 
Pantothenic acids name derives from the Greek pantos, meaning "from everywhere", as minimally, at least small quantities of pantothenic acid are found in nearly every food.

Human deficiency is very rare.
As a dietary supplement or animal feed ingredient, the form commonly used is calcium pantothenate because of chemical stability, and hence long product shelf life, compared to sodium pantothenate or free pantothenic acid.
Pantothenic acid is a water-soluble vitamin, one of the B vitamins. It is synthesized from the amino acid β-alanine and pantoic acid (see biosynthesis and structure of coenzyme A figures). 

Unlike vitamin E or vitamin K, which occurs in several chemically related forms known as vitamers, pantothenic acid is only one chemical compound. 
Vitamin B5 is a starting compound in the synthesis of coenzyme A (CoA), a cofactor for many enzyme processes.

Use in biosynthesis of coenzyme A
Pantothenic acid is a precursor to CoA via a five-step process. 
The biosynthesis requires pantothenic acid, cysteine, four equivalents of ATP.

Pantothenic acid is phosphorylated to 4′-phosphopantothenate by the enzyme pantothenate kinase. 
This is the committed step in CoA biosynthesis and requires ATP.
A cysteine is added to 4′-phosphopantothenate by the enzyme phosphopantothenoylcysteine synthetase to form 4'-phospho-N-pantothenoylcysteine (PPC). 

This step is coupled with ATP hydrolysis.
PPC is decarboxylated to 4′-phosphopantetheine by phosphopantothenoylcysteine decarboxylase
4′-Phosphopantetheine is adenylated to form dephospho-CoA by the enzyme phosphopantetheine adenylyl transferase.

Finally, dephospho-CoA is phosphorylated to coenzyme A by the enzyme dephosphocoenzyme A kinase. 
This final step also requires ATP.
This pathway is suppressed by end-product inhibition, meaning that CoA is a competitive inhibitor of pantothenate kinase, the enzyme responsible for the first step.

Coenzyme A is necessary in the reaction mechanism of the citric acid cycle. 
This process is the body's primary catabolic pathway and is essential in breaking down the building blocks of the cell such as carbohydrates, amino acids and lipids, for fuel.
CoA is important in energy metabolism for pyruvate to enter the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) as acetyl-CoA, and for α-ketoglutarate to be transformed to succinyl-CoA in the cycle.

CoA is also required for acylation and acetylation, which, for example, are involved in signal transduction, and various enzyme functions.
In addition to functioning as CoA, this compound can act as an acyl group carrier to form acetyl-CoA and other related compounds; this is a way to transport carbon atoms within the cell.
CoA is also required in the formation of acyl carrier protein (ACP), which is required for fatty acid synthesis.
CoAs synthesis also connects with other vitamins such as thiamin and folic acid.

Vitamin B5, also called pantothenic acid and pantothenate, is vital to living a healthy life. 
Like all B complex vitamins, B5 helps the body convert food into energy. 
B5 is naturally found in many food sources. "Pantothenic," in fact, means "from everywhere," because the vitamin is available in so many food sources. 

Pantothenic acid (also known as vitamin B5) is an essential nutrient that is naturally present in some foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. 
The main function of this water-soluble B vitamin is in the synthesis of coenzyme A (CoA) and acyl carrier protein. 
CoA is essential for fatty acid synthesis and degradation, transfer of acetyl and acyl groups, and a multitude of other anabolic and catabolic processes.
Acyl carrier protein’s main role is in fatty acid synthesis.

A wide variety of plant and animal foods contain pantothenic acid. About 85% of dietary pantothenic acid is in the form of CoA or phosphopantetheine. 
These forms are converted to pantothenic acid by digestive enzymes (nucleosidases, peptidases, and phosphorylases) in the intestinal lumen and intestinal cells. 
Pantothenic acid is absorbed in the intestine and delivered directly into the bloodstream by active transport (and possibly simple diffusion at higher doses). 

Pantetheine, the dephosphorylated form of phosphopantetheine, however, is first taken up by intestinal cells and converted to pantothenic acid before being delivered into the bloodstream. 
The intestinal flora also produces pantothenic acid, but its contribution to the total amount of pantothenic acid that the body absorbs is not known. 
Red blood cells carry pantothenic acid throughout the body. 
Most pantothenic acid in tissues is in the form of CoA, but smaller amounts are present as acyl carrier protein or free pantothenic acid.

Pantothenic acid status is not routinely measured in healthy people. Microbiologic growth assays, animal bioassays, and radioimmunoassays can be used to measure pantothenic concentrations in blood, urine, and tissue, but urinary concentrations are the most reliable indicators because of their close relationship with dietary intake. 
With a typical American diet, the urinary excretion rate for pantothenic acid is about 2.6 mg/day. 
Excretion of less than 1 mg pantothenic acid per day suggests deficiency. 

Like urinary concentrations, whole-blood concentrations of pantothenic acid correlate with pantothenic acid intake, but measuring pantothenic acid in whole blood requires enzyme pretreatment to release free pantothenic acid from CoA. 
Normal blood concentrations of pantothenic acid range from 1.6 to 2.7 mcmol/L, and blood concentrations below 1 mcmol/L are considered low and suggest deficiency. 
Unlike whole-blood concentrations, plasma levels of pantothenic acid do not correlate well with changes in intake or status.

Vitamin B5 or pantothenic acid is water-soluble. 
Vitamin B5 is thus lost in cooking water.
Vitamin B5 is resistant to oxidation and light but destroyed by heat (thus denatured during cooking).

As the body does not produce it on its own, dietary sources are necessary.
Vitamin B5 is absorbed in the intestine, but the vitamin is not stored by the body. 
Every day, a sufficient amount of vitamin B5 must be obtained from dietary sources to cover the body’s requirements.

Pantothenic acid or vitamin B5 is a light-yellowish viscous oil that is soluble in water and in ethanol. 
Pantothenic acid  is heat- and light-stable, but otherwise unstable. 
Thus, the Na+ or Ca2+ salts of panthenol are usually used in pharmaceutical preparations. 
In the overall diet, about 50–95% of pantothenic acid occurs as CoA or pantetheine (fatty acid synthetase complex). 

Pantothenic acid exerts its major function as part of coenzyme A (CoA) which itself plays a role in numerous steps of cellular metabolism, e.g., acylation and acetylation of proteins, transfer of C2-units, and synthesis of several substances. 
Pantothenic acid appears in relevant amounts in liver and kidney, but also in pea and soybean and in several dairy products. 
Thus, deficiencies in human do not occur under normal circumstances. 

Under experimental conditions with severe deficiencies, fatigue, headache, burning feet syndrome, and others are described, all symptoms were reversible. 
Therapeutically, vitamin B5 is used to treat sunburn, rhagades, or conjunctivitis. 
Pantothenic acid is used during parenteral nutrition, dialysis, and to improve wound healing during surgery.

Vitamin B5, pantothenic acid, is present in nature only as d- or (R)-enantiomer. 
In plants and microorganisms, the route of pantothenic acid synthesis begins from 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoic acid, a precursor of valine.
Secondary metabolites of pantothenic acid formation are 2-oxopantoic acid and its reduced metabolite, (R)-pantoic acid (formed from pantoic acid and β-alanine), which lead to the final synthesis of pantothenic acid.

-Vitamin B5 also known as pantotheneic Acid
-Vitamin B5 is widely found in every living cell in nature.
-Vitamin B5 is not stored in the body, it is easily excreted because it dissolves in water.
-Vitamin B5 should be taken daily.
-Although Vitamin B5 is resistant to humid heat, oxidation and reduction, it is resistant to acid (vinegar, lemon), alkali (baking soda) and dry heat (baking).
- Vitamin B5 Vitamin B-5 in grains is lost 50% during milling.
- 1/3 of the vitamin B5 in meat is destroyed during cooking.

Roles of vitamin B5
The functions of vitamin B5 are based on its action as coenzyme A.
Vitamin B5 supports the normal synthesis and normal metabolism of steroid hormones, vitamin D and some neurotransmitters.

Vitamin B5 plays a role in healthy nervous system function. 
Coenzyme A is involved in acetylcholine biosynthesis, a chemical neuromediator of the central nervous system. 
Vitamin B5 supports normal psychological functions such as memory, reasoning and concentration.

Vitamin B5 provides a multitude of benefits to the human body. 
Pantothenic acid is found in living cells as a coenzyme A (CoA), which is vital to numerous chemical reactions, according to a study published in the journal Vitamins and Hormones. 

Pantothenic acid is typically used in combination with other B vitamins in the form of a vitamin B complex formulation.
B vitamins turn carbohydrates into glucose, which is the fuel that produces energy. 
B vitamins also help the body use fat and protein and are also important for maintaining a healthy nervous system, eyes, skin, hair and liver.

Vitamin B5, taken as a supplement, has also been found to help with lowering cholesterol. 
In a 2011 study found that supplements of pantethine, a derivative of vitamin B5, reduced total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in subjects with low-to-moderate cardiovascular risk. 
Founding that pantethine might be beneficial in the prevention of diabetic angiopathy and also found that pantethine can be useful in the treatment of diabetes. 

Pantothenic acid is used in treating and preventing pantothenic acid deficiency and skin reactions from radiation therapy.
Other health benefits of pantothenic acid that have been suggested but not scientifically proven include improve symptoms related to ADHD, arthritis, athletic performance, skin problems, alcoholism, allergies, hair loss, asthma, heart problems, carpal tunnel syndrome, lung disorders, nerve damage, colitis, eye infections, convulsions, kidney disorders, dandruff, depression, diabetic problems, immune function, headaches, hyperactivity, low blood pressure, insomnia, irritability, multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, and muscle cramps.
Food sources of pantothenic acid include animal-sourced foods, including dairy foods and eggs.
Potatoes, tomato products, oat-cereals, sunflower seeds, avocado and mushrooms are good plant sources. 
Whole grains are another source of the vitamin, but milling to make white rice or white flour removes much of the pantothenic acid, as Pantothenic acid is found in the outer layers of whole grains.
In animal feeds, the most important sources are alfalfa, cereal, fish meal, peanut meal, molasses, rice bran, wheat bran, and yeasts.

Dietary supplements of pantothenic acid commonly use pantothenol (or panthenol), a shelf-stable analog, which is converted to pantothenic acid once consumed.
Calcium pantothenate – a salt – may be used in manufacturing because it is more resistant than pantothenic acid to factors that deteriorate stability, such as acid, alkali or heat.
The amount of pantothenic acid in dietary supplement products may contain up to 1,000 mg, without evidence that such large amounts provide any benefit.

Pantothenic acid supplements have a long list of claimed uses, but there is insufficient scientific evidence to support any of them.
As a dietary supplement, pantothenic acid is not the same as pantethine, which is composed of two pantothenic acid molecules linked by a disulfide bridge.
Sold as a high-dose supplement (600 mg), pantethine may be effective for lowering blood levels of LDL cholesterol – a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases – but its long-term effects are unknown, requiring that its use be supervised by a physician.
Dietary supplementation with pantothenic acid does not have the same effect on LDL.

Vitamin B5, known as pantothenic acid, is one of the eight B vitamins and is water-soluble.
The origin of its name comes from the Greek word 'pantos' meaning 'everywhere', as it can be found throughout all living cells.
Pantothenic acid is an important vitamin that contributes to normal energy-yielding metabolism, reduction of fatigue and exhaustion, normal synthesis and metabolism of steroid hormones, vitamin D and some neurotransmitters.

Although the daily requirement of vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) is determined as 6 mg for healthy individuals aged 4 years and above, it varies between 3-12 mg in most countries.
Foods rich in Vitamin B5 include organ meats such as liver, kidney, liver, brain, and yeast.
In addition, eggs, milk, vegetables, legumes and whole grains are more common sources.

What is Vitamin B5?
Vitamin B5, also called pantothenic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin. Pantothenic acid is an important nutrient for the human body.
It is necessary for making blood cells and helps you convert the food you eat into energy.
Animals also need pantothenic acid to synthesize and metabolize coenzyme-A (CoA), proteins, carbohydrates, fats.

What Are the Benefits of Vitamin B5?
Vitamin B5 benefits can be listed as follows:
Pantothenic acid contributes to normal energy-yielding metabolism.
Pantothenic acid contributes to the normal synthesis and metabolism of steroid hormones, vitamin D and some neurotransmitters.
Pantothenic acid contributes to the reduction of tiredness and fatigue.

Vitamin B5 is a water-soluble vitamin from the B group of vitamins. 
Vitamin B5 helps produce energy by breaking down fats and carbohydrates. 
Vitamin B5 also promotes healthy skin, hair, eyes, and liver.
People need B5 to synthesize and metabolize fats, proteins, and coenzyme A.

B5 is one of the less known vitamins, possibly because deficiencies of it are rare.
Vitamin B5 is also known as pantothenic acid, or Pantothenate. 
The word pantothenic comes from the Greek “pantou,” meaning everywhere. 
Nearly all foods contain small quantities of pantothenic acid.

Why do we need vitamin B5?
Vitamin B5 is also known as pantothenic acid and can be found in most foods.
Vitamin B5 has many important functions. 

These include:
-converting food into glucose
-synthesizing cholesterol
-forming sex and stress-related hormones
-forming red blood cells

As with all B vitamins, pantothenic acid helps the body break down fats, carbohydrates, and proteins so that our bodies can use them for energy and rebuilding tissues, muscles, and organs.

Digestive system
Vitamin B5 helps maintain a healthy digestive system and assists the body in using other vitamins, especially vitamin B2. 
Vitamin B2 helps manage stress, but there is no evidence that pantothenic acid reduces stress.

Skin care
Some studies have shown that vitamin B5 works as a moisturizer on the skin and enhances the healing process of skin wounds.
One study showed that vitamin B5 helped facial acne and reduced the number of acne-related facial blemishes when taken as a dietary supplement. 
Researchers noted a “significant mean reduction in total lesion count” after 12 weeks of taking a B5 dietary supplement. 
The authors call for more trials to confirm the results.

Cholesterol and triglycerides
Some studies suggest that vitamin B5 intake can help lower cholesterol and levels of blood triglycerides, or fats. 
This course of management should only be pursued under medical supervision.

Rheumatoid arthritis
Some researchers have found that people with rheumatoid arthritis have lower levels of vitamin B5. 
However, more evidence is needed to confirm these results.

Recommended daily intake
Avocadoes are a great source of vitamin B5.
Experts recommend daily intakes of vitamin B5 recommend:

Infants 0-6 months – 1.7 milligrams (mg) per day
Infants 7-12 months – 1.8 mg per day
Children 1 -3 years – 2 mg per day
Children 4-8 years – 3 mg per day
Children 9-13 years – 4 mg per day
Males and females 14 years and over – 5 mg per day
Pregnant women – 6 mg per day
Breastfeeding women – 7 mg per day
Vitamin B5 is soluble in water and is excreted in urine. 
Our bodies do not store Vitamin B5, and we need to consume Vitamin B5 every day to replenish supplies.

Vitamin B5, or pantothenic acid, is naturally present in foods, added to foods, and available as a supplement. 
Vitamin B5 is used to make coenzyme A (CoA), a chemical compound that helps enzymes to build and break down fatty acids as well as perform other metabolic functions, and acyl carrier protein, which is also involved in building fats.
Pantothenic acid is found in a wide variety of foods. Bacteria in the gut can also produce some pantothenic acid but not enough to meet dietary needs.

Vitamin B5, also called pantothenic acid, is one of the most important vitamins for human life. 
Vitamin B5’s necessary for making blood cells, and Vitamin B5 helps you convert the food you eat into energy.
Vitamin B5 is one of eight B vitamins. 
All B vitamins help you convert the protein, carbohydrates, and fats you eat into energy. 

B vitamins are also needed for:
-healthy skin, hair, and eyes
-proper functioning of the nervous system and liver
-healthy digestive tract
-making red blood cells, which carry oxygen throughout the body
-making sex and stress-related hormones in the adrenal glands

Sources of vitamin B5
The best way to make sure you’re getting enough vitamin B5 is to eat a healthy, balanced diet every day.
Vitamin B5 is an easy vitamin to incorporate into a good diet. 
Vitamin B5’s found in most vegetables, including:
-members of the cabbage family
-white and sweet potatoes
-whole-grain cereals

Other healthy sources of B5 include:
-dairy products

Use in medical conditions
People take vitamin B5 supplements and derivatives to help with a range of conditions.
These conditions include:
-burning feet syndrome
-carpal tunnel syndrome
-celiac disease
-chronic fatigue syndrome
-diabetic nerve pain
-enlarged prostate
-heart failure
-leg cramps
-low blood pressure
-low blood sugar
-multiple sclerosis
-muscular dystrophy
-Parkinson’s disease
-premenstrual syndrome
-respiratory disorders
-rheumatoid arthritis
-salicylate toxicity
-tongue infections
-wound healing
-yeast infections

While people take vitamin B5 for these conditions, there’s little evidence that it helps most of the conditions. 
More scientific study is needed to determine its effectiveness.

Cosmetic uses of B5
Vitamin B5 is often added to hair and skin products, as well as makeup. 
Dexpanthenol, a chemical made from B5, is used in creams and lotions designed to moisturize the skin.
In hair products, B5 can help add volume and sheen. 

B5’s also said to improve the texture of hair that is damaged by styling or chemicals.
One study found that the application of a compound containing panthenol, a form of vitamin B5, could help stop thinning hair. 
However, Pantothenic acid won’t make your hair grow back.

B5 chemicals
Vitamin B5 can also be applied to the skin to relieve itchiness and promote healing from skin conditions, such as:

-insect bites
-poison ivy
-diaper rash
-Dexpanthenol has also been used to prevent and treat skin reactions from radiation therapy.

Researchers are also studying the chemical pantethine, a chemical made from vitamin B5, to see if it can lower cholesterol. 
One study reported that taking daily doses of pantethine for up to 16 weeks can lower LDL-C, or “bad” cholesterol. 
The study also found it can help lower the risk of coronary heart disease.

The takeaway
Vitamin B5 is an important vitamin that helps your body make blood cells and convert food into energy. 
As long as you eat a balanced and healthy diet that incorporates a variety of foods, Pantothenic acid’s unlikely you’ll ever suffer from vitamin B5 deficiency or need to use supplements.

Because pantothenic acid is found in a wide variety of foods, a deficiency is rare except in people who have other nutrient deficiencies, as seen with severe malnutrition. 
Other rare cases are seen in persons with genetic mutations in which pantothenic acid cannot be metabolized.

Symptoms of deficiency may include:
-Irritability, restlessness
-Disturbed sleep
-Nausea, vomiting, stomach cramps
-Numbness or burning sensation in hands or feet
-Muscle cramps

Vitamin B5 and Health
Because pantothenic acid helps to break down fats, it has been studied for a potential role in reducing cholesterol levels in people who have dyslipidemia. 
This is a condition in which there is an abnormally high concentration of fat or lipids in the blood (e.g., LDL “bad” cholesterol, triglycerides), and low levels of HDL “good” cholesterol. 
Low levels of CoA may prevent the breakdown and clearance of fats in the blood.

CoA has also been proposed that pantothenic acid may have an antioxidant effect that reduces low-grade inflammation, which is present in the early stages of heart disease. 
However, research in this area is still limited, and it is unclear if pantothenic acid supplements can lower blood fats independently of (or enhance the cholesterol-lowering effects of) eating a heart-healthy diet.
A double-blinded randomized trial following 216 men and women with moderate dyslipidemia were given supplements of 400 mg CoA or 600 mg pantethine daily for 8 weeks (pantethine is another form of pantothenic acid that has been studied to control dyslipidemia).

The participants were also counseled on a cholesterol-lowering diet. 
After 8 weeks, the CoA group had a 33% reduction in triglycerides compared with baseline levels. 
Total cholesterol also decreased, and HDL cholesterol increased from baseline. 
The pantethine group showed smaller reductions in total cholesterol and triglycerides. 
No negative side effects from the supplements were observed.

Animal nutrition
Pantothenic acid biosynthesis
Calcium pantothenate and dexpanthenol (D-panthenol) are European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) approved additives to animal feed. 
Supplementation is on the order of 8–20 mg/kg for pigs, 10–15 mg/kg for poultry, 30–50 mg/kg for fish and 8–14 mg/kg feed for pets. 
These are recommended concentrations, designed to be higher than what are thought to be requirements.

There is some evidence that feed supplementation increases pantothenic acid concentration in tissues, i.e., meat, consumed by humans, and also for eggs, but this raises no concerns for consumer safety.
No dietary requirement for pantothenic acid has been established in ruminant species. 
Synthesis of pantothenic acid by ruminal microorganisms appears to be 20 to 30 times more than dietary amounts.

Net microbial synthesis of pantothenic acid in the rumen of steer calves has been estimated to be 2.2 mg/kg of digestible organic matter consumed per day. 
Supplementation of pantothenic acid at 5 to 10 times theoretical requirements did not improve growth performance of feedlot cattle.

Vitamin B5, or pantothenic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin. It is used to make a coenzyme, called Coenzyme A. 
Coenzyme A is used by enzymes to build and break down fatty acids and for lipid synthesis. 
Vitamin B5 is involved in the maintenance and repair of skin and hair cells, healing of wounds, neurotransmitters, synthesis of hemoglobin, and the functioning of steroid hormones.

Sources of vitamin B5. Edible animal and plant tissues have proportionally high concentrations of vitamin B5. 
Good sources of vitamin B5 include beef, animal organs, poultry, eggs, fish, and some vegetables. 
Broccoli, mushrooms, and tomatoes are good plant sources of vitamin B5. Intestinal bacteria can also produce vitamin B5. 

However, this is not enough to meet the total needs of vitamin B5 in the body.
Although it is quite a heat-stable vitamin, cooking foods with vitamin B5 at high temperatures for extended periods can cause significant losses.

Vitamin B5 Deficiency and Prevention. 
The deficiency of vitamin B5 is rare because it is well-absorbed from most foods and is added to many fortified or enriched foods. 
People at risk of vitamin B5 deficiency include individuals with severe malnutrition and people with a genetic mutation known as pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration mutation.
The deficiency of vitamin B5 is usually accompanied by deficiencies of other nutrients. 

Symptoms of vitamin B5 are headache, fatigue, numbness or burning in the hands or feet, irritability, disturbed sleep, nausea, vomiting, and stomach cramps. 
Deficiency can be prevented by adequate consumption of foods rich in vitamin B5 or vitamin B5 supplementation.

What is Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid)?
Water-soluble vitamin B5 is most commonly found in herbal products. 
However, many animal foods also contain high levels of pantothenic acid.
Consuming too much vitamin B5, like other types of vitamins and minerals, can lead to various health problems.

The most common side effects are indigestion and diarrhea.
People with such health problems should change their eating habits and consume less foods containing vitamin B5.
If vitamin B5 is not taken as much as the body needs, stomach diseases such as gastritis and ulcers may occur.

What Are the Benefits of Vitamin B5?
1- Gives energy:
Vitamin B5, which many nutritionists define as an energy store, prevents fatigue.
Eggs and cheese should be consumed frequently, especially for breakfast.

2- Accelerates the healing process of wounds:
The main cause of oral ulcers is vitamin deficiency.
Consuming foods containing vitamin B5 at regular intervals allows the wounds in the mouth to pass in a much shorter time.

3- Balances the acid rate in the stomach:
In vitamin B5 deficiency, the acid rate in the stomach increases by 20% to 30%.
Vitamin B5 deficiency causes indigestion, abdominal bloating and stomach pain.
Vegetables such as spinach and cauliflower are especially effective in reducing stomach complaints.

4- It is good for skin health:
One of the biggest benefits of pantothenic acid is balancing the moisture content of the skin.
People with dry or oily skin should consume meat and vegetable dishes containing vitamin B5 in a balanced way.
In addition, pantothenic acid makes the skin look much more lively and clears acne.

5- Strengthens memory:
It helps people who have focus problems to solve their problems in this direction.
Vitamin B5, which strengthens memory, should also be consumed frequently by people who suffer from distraction.

B5, also known as pantothenic acid; It is a vitamin that dissolves easily in water and also belongs to the B complex group such as vitamin B6.
Pantothenic acid, which is extremely important for human health, that is, vitamin B5, known among the people; It provides a great benefit in the development of the nervous system of people and the growth of cells.
Vitamin B5 also plays an important role in the normal functioning of people's adrenal glands.
Vitamin B5, which has many different tasks and functions; It is also involved in the conversion of fat and sugar taken into the body into energy.

Pantothenic acid, that is, vitamin B5, is a type of vitamin belonging to the B complex group, which is very important and necessary for people to have a healthy body.
Among the properties of vitamin B5; to ensure the development of the nervous system and to play a role in the growth of cells.
In addition, vitamin B5 has an important place in the normal functioning of the adrenal glands, in the conversion of fat and sugar into energy, and in minimizing skin defects.
Vitamin B5 is a type of vitamin known for its benefits to the skin.

What does vitamin B5 do?
The benefits of vitamin B5 are too many to count.
Vitamin B5 plays a role in the normal functioning of the adrenal glands, in the conversion of fat and sugar taken into the body into energy, in minimizing skin defects, ensuring the development of the nervous system and the growth of cells.

In addition, vitamin B5; It contributes to faster healing of wounds in the body, fight against infections, high cholesterol and elimination of fatigue.
Vitamin B5 deficiency occurs when there is not enough vitamin B5 in the body. deficiency of vitamin B5; anemia, skin problems, wounds that do not heal for a long time, ulcers and blood diseases.

Which foods contain vitamin B5?
Vitamin B5, in other words pantothenic acid, is an extremely important and necessary vitamin for people to have a healthy body.
In the case of vitamin B5 deficiency, foods containing vitamin B5 are consumed and the missing vitamin B5 in the body is completed in a short time.
Vitamin B5 is especially abundant in whole grain foods, red meat products and foods such as mushrooms.
People who encounter health problems or minor ailments due to vitamin B5 deficiency regain their health in a very short time if they take adequate vitamin B5 supplements.

Pantothenic acid (also known as pantothenate) is the essential vitamin known as Vitamin B5. 
The origin of the name is derived from the Greek word "pantos" (meaning "everywhere") as it is not only present in the majority of food products but also a required cofactor in numerous enzymes; the molecule it produces, a coenzyme known as Coenzyme A (CoA) is ubiquitous in the human body.
Generally speaking, pantothenic acid is found in most food groups with chicken, beef, egg yolk, and organs being high sources for animal products while root vegetables (potatoes), whole grains, tomatoes, and broccoli also have a large level of pantothenic acid.

Pantothenic acid can also be found in human breast milk mostly in free form (85-90%) and some in a conjugated form (10-15%) and appears to correlate with the amount of pantothenic acid circulating in the mother at the time of providing milk.
Pantothenic acid appears to be somewhat susceptible to losses during preservation (freezing and canning) of meats and vegetables.

Biological Significance of Vitamin B5
Co-enzyme A (CoA) is required in approximately 4% of all known enzymes as a cofactor, mostly known for being involved in energy production. 
Dietary pantothenic acid, whether in the form of CoA itself (broken down into pantothenic acid before absorption) or as supplemental pantothenic acid, is initially converted via pantothenate kinases (PanKs) into 4'-phosphopantothenate;this step is the rate-limiting step of CoA synthesis and consumes ATP in the process.

Subsequently the metabolite is converted into 4'-phospho-N-pantothenoylcysteine (via phosphopantothenoylcysteine synthetase adding a cysteine molecule), into 4'-phosphopantetheine (by phosphopantothenoylcysteine decarboxylase), into dephospho-CoA (by phosphopantetheine adenylyl transferase), and finally dephospho-CoA gains a phosphorus group via dephosphocoenzyme A kinase and becomes CoA.

Formulations and Variants
Dexpanthenol is the name for D-panthenol, the biologically active enantiomer of an alcohol analogue of pantothenic acid known as 'Panthenol' (aka. pantothenylalcohol). 
This form is hygroscopic similar to pantothenic acid but more stable, the increased stability being relevant when used on the skin as an external cosmetic.
It does, however, convert directly into pantothenic acid and is considered to be a more stable prodrug for pantothenic acid due to being highly soluble and stable in water and alcohol solutions.

Consuming CoA from the diet provides pantothenic acid to the body as it is hydrolyzed in the intestinal lumen into phosphopantetheine, pantetheine, and subsequently pantothenate.
Panthothenic acid can be absorbed in both the small and large intestines via the sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT), similar to biotin and can compete for absorption with an Ki of 14.4μM which appears to be wholly responsible for panthothenic acid uptake as knocking the gene out in mice (via siRNA) ablates uptake of the vitamin.
The rate of uptake in all three segments of the small intestine seems similar in the rat.

There is bacteria in the large intestine that is able to produce panthothenic acid. 
When dividing the gut biome into enterotypes (clusters of similarly acting bacteria) enterotype 1 appears to contain many enzymes capable of synthesizing pantothenic acid (as well as biotin, Vitamin C, and Riboflavin).

Pantothenic acid exists at higher concentrations in the brain relative to plasma, being about 50-fold higher and almost exclusively due to the sodium dependent multivitamin transporter (SLC5A6) which accounted for 98.6% of uptake in cells of the blood brain barrier in vitro.
The pantothenic acid that exists in cerebrospinal fluid and brain plasma is usually intact (neither metabolized nor conjugated)[39] and even within neuron cells where it accumulates a large amount remains unmetabolized rather than forming CoA or phorphorylated metabolites.
While SLC5A6 is known to be inhibited by many compounds in vitro such as medium chain triglycerides, a deficiency of pantothenic acid in the brain appears highly unlikely due to these high levels.
Due to being the substrate which eventually produces CoA, pantothenic acid serves its role in the brain in assisting the synthesis of various neurotransmitters.

Vitamin B5, also known as pantothenic acid, is a water-soluble heat-sensitive vitamin. 
Very little of it is stored in the body, and it must therefore be ingested into the body every day.

Principal natural sources of Vitamin B5
Animal sources: Vitamin B5 is very abundant in foods such as offal (liver and kidneys), neat, egg yolks, milk and fish.

Plant sources: Vitamin B5 is also found in yeast (principally brewer's yeast), whole cereals, leguminous vegetables, dry vegetables (peanuts etc.), and other vegetables (such as mushrooms, avocados, green vegetables etc.).

Properties of Vitamin B5
Vitamin B5, or pantothenic acid, helps to reduce fatigue, maintain good metabolism of energy and maintain good intellectual performance (such as memory, reasoning and concentration). 
Vitamin B5 also plays a role in the synthesis and metabolism of certain hormones, Vitamin D and various neurotransmitters.

Vitamin B5: Vitamin B5 is pantothenic acid, one of the less well known B vitamins, perhaps because it is widely distributed in nature.
Pantothenic acid is virtually ubiquitous. It is present in foods as diverse as poultry, soybeans, yogurt, and sweet potatoes.
No naturally occurring disease due to a deficiency of pantothenic acid has been identified, due to the plentifulness of this vitamin.

An experimental deficiency of pantothenic acid has, however, been created by administering an antagonist to pantothenic acid. 
This experiment produced disease, thereby demonstrating that pantothenic acid is essential to humans.
Pantothenic acid was discovered in 1940.

Pantothenic Acid and Health
Because of pantothenic acid’s role in triglyceride synthesis and lipoprotein metabolism, experts have hypothesized that pantothenic acid supplementation might reduce lipid levels in patients with hyperlipidemia.
Several clinical trials have shown that the form of pantothenic acid known as pantethine reduces lipid levels when taken in large amounts , but pantothenic acid itself does not appear to have the same effects. 

A 2005 review included 28 small clinical trials (average sample size of 22 participants) that examined the effect of pantethine supplements (median daily dose of 900 mg for an average of 12.7 weeks) on serum lipid levels in a total of 646 adults with hyperlipidemia. 
On average, the supplements were associated with triglyceride declines of 14.2% at 1 month and 32.9% at 4 months. 
The corresponding declines in total cholesterol were 8.7% and 15.1%, and for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were 10.4% and 20.1%. 
The corresponding increases in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were 6.1% and 8.4%.

A few additional clinical trials have assessed pantethine’s effects on lipid levels since the publication of the 2005 review. 
A double-blind trial in China randomly assigned 216 adults with hypertriglyceridemia (204–576 mg/dl) to supplementation with 400 U/day CoA or 600 mg/day pantethine. 
All participants also received dietary counseling. 

Triglyceride levels dropped by a significant 16.5% with pantethine compared with baseline after 8 weeks. 
Concentrations of total cholesterol and non–HDL cholesterol also declined modestly but significantly from baseline. 
However, these declines might have been due, at least in part, to the dietary counseling that the participants received.

Two randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled studies by the same research group in a total of 152 adults with low to moderate cardiovascular disease risk found that 600 mg/day pantethine for 8 weeks followed by 900 mg/day for 8 weeks plus a therapeutic lifestyle change diet resulted in small but significant reductions in total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and non-HDL cholesterol compared with placebo after 16 weeks. 
Increasing the amount of pantethine from 600 to 900 mg/day did not increase the magnitude of reduction in the lipid measures.

The B complex crew is like the superhero squad of vitamins. 
And though vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) doesn’t get much hype, this little water-soluble micronutrient is still essential for good health.
Together with the other B vitamins, Vitamin B5 helps your body make red blood cells and convert your next meal into much-needed energy.
The good news is Vitamin B5 is present in basically *all* the foods so deficiency is super rare. 

Vitamin B5: What is it good for and why do I need it?
Vitamin B5 is just one of *eight* essential B vitamins. 
Together, they keep you running on all cylinders.

Here’s how B5 helps:
-makes and breaks down fats for energy
-promotes red blood cell formation
-supports healthy hair, skin, and nails
-nurtures your liver
-synthesizes cholesterol
-keeps your nervous system healthy
-Without a healthy dose of B vitamins, you’d be struggling with daily energy, rebuilding damaged tissue, strengthening muscles, and keeping all your organs functioning.

Deep dive: B5’s biggest benefits
There are *at least* four important ways that B5 boosts your health.

Coenzyme A processing. 
This is perhaps B5’s greatest achievement. Vitamin B5 helps make coenzyme A, which converts your meals into fatty acids and cholesterol (the good kind!). 
Coenzyme A also helps your liver filter drugs and toxins, which is pretty important for your overall health.

Digestion optimization. 
What’s the point in popping vitamins and supplements if your body doesn’t do a good job absorbing them? 
One of B5’s roles is helping your body digest things — including other vitamins.
Geese that ingested vitamin B5 grew faster and were better at digesting and converting fats into energy.

Skin plumping. 
Several older studies suggest that B5 can moisturize your dry, irritated, or inflamed skin. 
TBH, we need more research to understand what it does for skin — and how much is needed — but results are promising.

Cholesterol management. 
Preliminary research suggests that taking vitamin B5 might help reduce unhealthy cholesterol levels.

Could vitamin B5 help with acne or hair loss?
The short answer is maybe.

For acne
Some B5 supplements are marketed toward folks with severe breakouts, but research is slim.

The results of one 2014 study were promising: 41 folks with mild or moderate acne took vitamin B5 supplements for 8 weeks. 
At the end of the trial, the participants reported significantly fewer zits.
That’s great news, but we need more evidence to prove that it was vitamin B5 that truly triggered the healing.

For hair probs
Many skin creams and hair products contain dexpanthenol, a chemical made from vitamin B5. 
That’s because it has a reputation for improving hair and skin texture.

A single older study (way back in 2011) did find that applying panthenol, a form of vitamin B5, to your scalp could prevent hair thinning.

What is Pantothenic Acid / Vitamin B5 and What Does It Do?
Pantothenic acid (also known as vitamin B5) helps convert the food you eat into the energy you need.
Pantothenic acid is important for many functions in the body, especially for the production and breakdown of fats.

Which Foods Contain Pantothenic Acid?
Pantothenic acid occurs naturally in almost all foods. It is also added to some foods, including some breakfast cereals and beverages (such as energy drinks).
You can get the recommended amount of vitamin B5 by eating a variety of foods, including:

-Beef, poultry, seafood and offal
-Eggs and milk
-Vegetables such as mushrooms (especially shiitake mushrooms), avocados, potatoes, and broccoli
-Whole grains such as whole wheat, brown rice, and oats
-Peanuts, sunflower seeds and chickpeas

What Types of Pantothenic Acid / Vitamin B5 Dietary Supplements Are Available?
Vitamin B5 is found in dietary supplements containing only pantothenic acid, B-complex dietary supplements, and some multivitamin/multimineral supplements.
Pantothenic acid in dietary supplements is usually in the form of calcium pantothenate or pantethine.
Studies have shown that any form of pantothenic acid is better than any other.

Am I Taking Enough Vitamin B5 / Pantothenic Acid?
People who eat healthily get enough vitamin B5.
However, people with a rare inherited disorder called pantothenate kinase-related neurodegeneration may not be able to use pantothenic acid properly.
This disorder can lead to symptoms of vitamin B5 deficiency.

What Happens If I Don't Get Enough Pantothenic Acid?
Vitamin B5 deficiency is very rare in developed countries.
Severe pantothenic acid deficiency can cause numbness and burning in the hands and feet, headache, extreme tiredness, irritability, restlessness, sleep problems, stomach pain, heartburn, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite.

What Are the Effects of Pantothenic Acid on Health?
Scientists are studying pantothenic acid to understand how it affects health. Here is an example of these research results:

High cholesterol and triglyceride levels: Research is being done to see if a form of pantothenic acid called pantethine can help lower total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL or "bad") cholesterol, and triglyceride levels.
It is also being studied to see if it raises high-density lipoprotein (HDL or "good") cholesterol levels.
So far, the results of these studies are promising, but more research is needed to understand the effects of pantethine dietary supplements alone or in combination with a heart-healthy diet.

History Of Vitamin B5
The term vitamin is derived from the word vitamine, which was coined in 1912 by Polish biochemist Casimir Funk, who isolated a complex of water-soluble micronutrients essential to life, all of which he presumed to be amines. 
When this presumption was later determined not to be true, the "e" was dropped from the name, hence "vitamin".
Vitamin nomenclature was alphabetical, with Elmer McCollum calling these fat-soluble A and water soluble B.
Over time, eight chemically distinct, water-soluble B vitamins were isolated and numbered, with pantothenic acid as vitamin B5.

The essential nature of pantothenic acid was discovered by Roger J. Williams in 1933 by showing it was required for the growth of yeast.
Three years later Elvehjem and Jukes demonstrated that it was a growth and anti-dermatitis factor in chickens.
Williams dubbed the compound "pantothenic acid", deriving the name from the Greek word pantothen, which translates as "from everywhere". 

His reason was that he found it to be present in almost every food he tested.
Williams went on to determine the chemical structure in 1940.
In 1953, Fritz Lipmann shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism", work he had published in 1946.

-(R)-(+)-N-(2,4-Dihydroxy-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutyl)-β--alanine hemicalcium salt
-Pantothenic acid 
-Calcium D-pantothenate
-Vitamin B5
-D-Pantothenic acid hemicalcium salt
-Hemicalcium salt 

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