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Zincate = Sulfuric acid, zinc salt

CAS Number:7446-19-7
Molecular Weight:179.47
MDL number:MFCD00149893
Type:Small Molecule

Product Information
CAS number: 7446-20-0
EC index number: 030-006-00-9
EC number: 231-793-3
Grade: ACS,ISO,Reag. Ph Eur
Hill Formula: O₄SZn 
Chemical formula: ZnSO₄ 
Molar Mass: 161g/mol
HS Code: 2833 29 20
Net Charge: 0
Average Mass: 161.45360
Monoisotopic Mass: 159.88087
SMILES: [Zn++].[O-]S([O-])(=O)=O

A colorless, crystalline, water-soluble powder, ZnSO4⋅7H2O, used for preserving skins and wood, in the electrodeposition of zinc, in the bleaching of paper, as a mordant in calico printing, and in medicine as an astringent, styptic, and emetic.
Zinc sulfate is a naturally occurring mineral. 
Zinc sulfateis important for growth and for the development and health of body tissues.
Zinc sulfate is an important trace mineral in the body that plays a role in many cellular processes, wound healing, growth, and development.
Zinc sulfate is used to treat and to prevent zinc deficiency.
Zinc sulfate may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

Zinc sulfate is an inorganic compound. 
Zinc sulfate is used as a dietary supplement to treat zinc deficiency and to prevent the condition in those at high risk. 
Side effects of excess supplementation may include abdominal pain, vomiting, headache, and tiredness.
The most common form includes water of crystallization as the heptahydrate, with the formula ZnSO4•7H2O. 
Zinc sulfate was historically known as "white vitriol". Zinc sulfate and its hydrates are colourless solids.
A crystalline salt ZnSO4 used especially in making a white paint pigment, in printing and dyeing, in sprays and fertilizers, and in medicine as an astringent, emetic, and weak antiseptic.
Anhydrous zinc sulfate is a colorless crystalline solid. 
Zinc sulfate is also obtained as a hexahydrate, ZnSO4.6H2O, and as a heptahydrate ZnSO4.7H2O. 
All forms are soluble in water. 
All are noncombustible. 
The primary hazard is the threat posed to the environment.
Immediate steps should be taken to limit its spread to the environment. 
Zincate is used in the production of rayon, as a feed supplement, and as a fertilizer ingredient.
Zinc sulfate is a metal sulfate compound having zinc(2+) as the counterion. It has a role as a fertilizer. 
Zincate is a metal sulfate and a zinc molecular entity. 
Zincate contains a zinc(2+).
Zinc sulfate is the inorganic compound with the formula ZnSO4 and historically known as "white vitriol". 
Zincate is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, a list of the most important medication needed in a basic health system.
Zinc sulfate, ZnSO4, is an intermediate compound in the production of zinc from its ores by the electrolytic process. 
Zincate is used as a weed killer, in the manufacture of viscose rayon, and in dyeing, in which it functions as a mordant.

Zinc sulfate is a drug used to replenish low levels of zinc or prevent zinc deficiency, or to test for zinc deficiency.
Zincate is a salt of the essential trace metal zinc. 
Zinc is involved in tissue repair and is an important constituent of some proteins, including those involved in taste and smell. 
Zinc sulfate supplementation may prevent radiation-induced aguesia.
Zinc Sulfate is a dietary supplement. It was historically called as white vitriol. It is also known as Zincate, Zinc sulfate (1:1). 
Zincate is listed on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines. 
You must avoid taking this medication with foods that are high in phosphorus or calcium because it can make harder for your body to absorb.
Zinc Sulfate is odourless and has a white powder appearance. 
Zinc Sulfate is non combustible and is soluble in water. 
Zincate emits toxic fumes of zinc oxide and sulphur oxides during decomposition. 
Zincate is widely used in the prevention and treatment of zinc deficiency.

Form: solid
Colour: colourless
Melting point: 100°C
Boiling point: -
Flash point: -
Density: 1,97 g/cm3
Mol Weight: 287.54 g/mol

What is zinc sulfate?
Sulfuric acid, zinc salt is a naturally occurring mineral. Zinc is important for growth and for the development and health of body tissues.
Zinc sulfate is used to treat and to prevent zinc deficiency.
Zinc sulfate may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.
Zinc is a naturally occurring mineral. Zinc is important for growth and for the development and health of body tissues.
Zinc sulfate is a combination of sulfur and zinc. 
Sulfuric acid, zinc salt is an herbicide typically used for moss control. 
The toxicity of zinc sulfate depends on the amount of zinc in the product. 
Zinc is an essential mineral for human, animal, and plant nutrition. 
Zinc can be found naturally in the environment, foods, and water.
Zinc sulfate is used to treat and to prevent zinc deficiency.
Zinc sulfate may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.


In medicine it is used together with oral rehydration therapy (ORT) and an astringent.

The hydrates, especially the heptahydrate, are the primary forms used commercially. 
The main application is as a coagulant in the production of rayon. 
Sulfuric acid, zinc salt is also a precursor to the pigment lithopone.
Sulfuric acid, zinc salt is also used as an electrolyte for zinc electroplating, as a mordant in dyeing, and as a preservative for skins and leather.

Zinc sulfate is used to supply zinc in animal feeds, fertilizers, toothpaste, and agricultural sprays. 
Zinc sulfate, like many zinc compounds, can be used to control moss growth on roofs.
Zinc sulfate can be used to supplement zinc in the brewing process. 
Zinc is a necessary nutrient for optimal yeast health and performance, although Sulfuric acid, zinc salt is not a necessary supplement for low-gravity beers, as the grains commonly used in brewing already provide adequate zinc. 
It is a more common practice when pushing yeast to their limit by increasing alcohol content beyond their comfort zone. 
Before modern stainless steel, brew Kettles, fermenting vessels and after wood, zinc was slowly leached by the use of copper kettles. 
A modern copper immersion chiller is speculated to provide trace elements of zinc; thus care must be taken when adding supplemental zinc so as not to cause excess. 
Excess zinc can also cause soapy or goaty flavors.
Zinc sulfate is a potent inhibitor of sweetness perception for most sweet-tasting substances.

As a mineral, ZnSO4•7H2O is known as goslarite. 
Zinc sulfate occurs as several other minor minerals, such as zincmelanterite, (Zn,Cu,Fe)SO4•7H2O (structurally different from goslarite). 
Lower hydrates of zinc sulfate are rarely found in nature: (Zn,Fe)SO4•6H2O (bianchite), (Zn,Mg)SO4•4H2O (boyleite), and (Zn,Mn)SO4•H2O (gunningite).

In addition to helping prevent zinc deficiency, zinc sulfate has been shown to reduce the severity of acne.
Zinc sulfate is used in medicine together with oral rehydration therapy (ORT) and astringent therapy.
The primary forms used commercially are hydrates, particularly heptahydrate. In the manufacture of rayon, the principal application is as a coagulant. It is also a precursor to lithopone, a pigment. 
Zinc sulfateis also used as an electrolyte for electroplating zinc, as a dye mordant, and as a skin and leather preservative.
Zinc sulfate is used in animal feed, fertilizers, toothpaste, and agricultural sprays. Zinc sulfate can be used to regulate moss growth on roofs, like many zinc compounds. 
In the brewing process, zinc sulfate can be used to replace zinc. For optimal yeast health and efficiency, zinc is a necessary nutrient, although it zincate not a necessary supplement for low-gravity beers, as sufficient zinc is already supplied by the grains widely used in brewing.
In practices like when pushing yeast to its limit by increasing the alcohol content outside their comfort zone, it is a more common practice. 
Zinc was steadily leached by the use of copper kettles before modern stainless steel, brewing kettles, fermenting pots, and after wood. 
In order to provide trace elements of zinc, a modern copper immersion chiller is speculated; so caution must be taken when adding supplemental zinc so as not to cause excess.
Zincate is used as an astringent in eye drops and lotions.
Zincate is used to treat acne.
You can take zinc sulfate with food if you are suffering from stomach upset.

Computed Properties    
Molecular Weight: 161.4    
Hydrogen Bond Donor Count: 0    
Hydrogen Bond Acceptor Count: 4    
Rotatable Bond Count: 0    
Exact Mass: 159.880871    
Monoisotopic Mass:159.880871    
Topological Polar Surface Area: 88.6 Ų    
Heavy Atom Count: 6    
Formal Charge: 0    
Complexity: 62.2    
Isotope Atom Count: 0    
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count: 0    
Undefined Atom Stereocenter Count: 0    
Defined Bond Stereocenter Count: 0    
Undefined Bond Stereocenter Count:0    
Covalently-Bonded Unit Count: 2    
Compound Is Canonicalized:Yes

Properties of Zinc Sulfate
Zinc Sulfate has a white powder look and is odorless. 
Zinc Sulfate, which is soluble in water, is non-combustible. 
During decomposition, Zincate releases poisonous gases of zinc oxide and sulfur oxides. 
Zinc sulfate is commonly used in zinc deficiency prevention and treatment.
Zinc sulfate is an inorganic compound. 
Zincate is used to treat zinc deficiency and to avoid the disease in those at high risk as a dietary supplement. 
Excess supplementation side effects can include stomach pain, vomiting, headache, and fatigue. 
As the already mentioned formula of zinc sulfate ZnSO4. 
The most popular form, with the formula ZnSO4•7H2O, contains crystallization water as the heptahydrate. 
"Historically, Zincate was known as "white vitriol". 
Zinc sulfate and its hydrates are solids that are colorless.

Physicochemical Information
Density    1.97 g/cm3
Melting Point    100 °C
pH value    4 - 6 (50 g/l, H₂O, 20 °C)
Bulk density    800 - 1000 kg/m3
Solubility    965 g/l

Information on Basic Physical and Chemical Properties
Physical State: Solid
Appearance : White to off-white
Odor: odorless
pH: 5.0
Relative Evaporation: Not available
Melting Point : 86°C (186.8°F)
Freezing Point/Boiling Point: 70°F (21°F) (crystallization)
Flash Point: Non flammable
Auto-ignition Temperature: Not available
Decomposition Temperature: Not available
Flammability (solid, gas): Non flammable
Lower Flammable Limit: Not available
Upper Flammable limit: Not available
Vapor Pressure: Negligible @ 68°F (20°C)
Relative Density: Not applicable
Specific Gravity: (H20=1): 3.28 - 3.54
Solubility (wt %): 53.8 g/100 ml @ 68°F (20°C)
Partition coefficient: n-octanol/water Not available

Reactivity: Hazardous reactions will not occur under normal conditions.
Chemical Stability: Stable under recommended handling and storage conditions.
Possibility of Hazardous Reactions: Hazardous polymerization will not occur.
Conditions to Avoid: Direct sunlight. 
Excessive heat which may lead to decomposition.
Incompatible Materials: None known.
Hazardous Decomposition Products: In a fire, toxic sulfur dioxide and zinc compounds may be released.

Physical Description    
Anhydrous zinc sulfate is a colorless crystalline solid.  
Zinc sulfate is also obtained as a hexahydrate, ZnSO4.6H2O, and as a heptahydrate ZnSO4.7H2O. 
All forms are soluble in water. 
All are noncombustible. 
The primary hazard is the threat posed to the environment. 
Immediate steps should be taken to limit Sulfuric acid, zinc salt's spread to the environment. 
Sulfuric acid, zinc salt is used in the production of rayon, as a feed supplement, and as a fertilizer ingredient.

Colorless, orthorhombic crystals

When heated to decomposition Sulfuric acid, zinc salt emits toxic fumes of /sulfur oxides and zinc oxide/.

Other Experimental Properties    
Powder or granules; loses water above 238 °C
White monoclinic crystals; mp: 238 °C (decomposes)
density: 3.20 g/cu cm
solubility: 57.7 g/100 g water at 25 °C 
insoluble in ethanol
Astringent, metallic taste
MP: 100 °C; 
Odorless crystals or granules or powder 
efflorescent in dry air 
decomposes above 500 °C
1 gram dissolves in 0.6 mL water, 2.5 mL glycerol 
insoluble in alcohol
aqueous solution is acid to litmus 
pH about 4.5 
Colorless orthorhombic crystals 
mp: 100 °C (decomposes)
 solubility 57.7 g/100 g water at 25 °C 
Anhydrous zinc sulfate forms when zinc sulfate's hydrates are heated above 238 °C; at about 680 °C, sulfur trioxide separates from the compound, forming 3Zn.2SO3. 
Above 930 °C zinc sulfate is decomposed to zinc oxide; three unstable hydrates are ZnSO4.4H2O, ZnSO4.2H2O, and ZnSO4.7H2O 

Zinc sulfate is a mineral used to treat or prevent low levels of zinc alone and together with oral rehydration therapy (ORT). 
Zinc sulfate is also used as a topical astringent. 
Zinc Sulfate Injection, USP is indicated for use as a supplement to intravenous solutions given for TPN.

Zinc sulfate has been identified as a cofactor for over 70 different enzymes, including alkaline phosphatase, lactic dehydrogenase and both RNA and DNA polymerase. 
Zinc sulfate facilitates wound healing, helps maintain normal growth rates, normal skin hydration and the senses of taste and smell.

Mechanism of action
Zinc sulfate inhibits cAMP-induced, chloride-dependent fluid secretion by inhibiting basolateral potassium (K) channels, in in-vitro studies with rat ileum. 
This study has also shown the specificity of Zn to cAMP-activated K channels, because zinc did not block the calcium (Ca)-mediated K channels. 
Zinc sulfate also improves the absorption of water and electrolytes, improves regeneration of the intestinal epithelium, increases the levels of brush border enzymes, and enhances the immune response, allowing for a better clearance of the pathogens.

Approximately 20 to 30% of dietary zinc sulfate is absorbed, primarily from the duodenum and ileum. 
The amount absorbed is dependent on the bioavailability from food. 
Zinc sulfate is the most bioavailable from red meat and oysters. 
Phytates may impair absorption by chelation and formation of insoluble complexes at an alkaline pH. 
After absorption, zinc sulfate is bound in the intestine to the protein metallothionein. 
Endogenous zinc sulfate can be reabsorbed in the ileum and colon, creating an enteropancreatic circulation of zinc.

Volume of distribution
After absorption zinc sulfate is bound to protein metallothionein in the intestines. 
Zincate is widely distributed throughout the body. 
Zincate is primarily stored in RBCs, WBCs, muscles, bones, Skin, Kidneys, Liver, Pancreas, retina, and prostate.

Protein binding
Zincate is 60% bound to albumin; 30 to 40% bound to alpha-2 macroglobulin or transferrin; and 1% bound to amino acids, primarily histidine and cysteine.

Not Available

Route of elimination
Primarily fecal (approximately 90%); to a lesser extent in the urine and in perspiration.

Half-life:3 hours

How does zinc sulfate work?
Zincate binds to proteins or organic acids in plants. 
In high concentrations, zincate affects the growth of moss and other plants, and damages the cells causing them to turn yellow.

Assay (complexometric)    99.5 - 103.0 %
Identity    passes test
Appearance of solution    passes test
Insoluble matter    ≤ 0.01 %
pH-value (5 %; water, 25 °C)    4.4 - 5.6
Chloride (Cl)    ≤ 0.0005 %
Total nitrogen (N)    ≤ 0.0005 %
Nitrate (NO₃)    ≤ 0.002 %
As (Arsenic)    ≤ 0.00005 %
Ca (Calcium)    ≤ 0.001 %
Cd (Cadmium)    ≤ 0.0005 %
Cu (Copper)    ≤ 0.0005 %
Fe (Iron)    ≤ 0.0005 %
K (Potassium)    ≤ 0.001 %
Mg (Magnesium)    ≤ 0.001 %
Mn (Manganese)    ≤ 0.0003 %
Na (Sodium)    ≤ 0.001 %
NH₄ (Ammonium)    ≤ 0.001 %
Pb (Lead)    ≤ 0.001 %

Appearance (Color): White
Appearance (Form): Powder
Complexiometric EDTA (% Zn): 35.2- 37.7 %
ICP Major Analysis Confirmed

Stability and reactivity
Sulfuric acid, zinc salt is stable and not considered reactive under normal temperatures and pressures.
Chemical stability
Sulfuric acid, zinc salt is stable under normal conditions. 
Zinc sulfate decomposes above 600°C to zinc oxide and sulfur trioxide.

Zincs Effect on Skin
In the skin, zinc sulfate exerts its effects through several means in the development and maintenance of the skin cells. 
Sulfuric acid, zinc salt is most concentrated in the stratum spinosum layer of the skin compared to the other three layers namely basal layer, stratum granulosum, and stratum corneum. 
Studies have shown that zincate facilitates the proliferation as well as the survival of keratinocytes in the stratum spinosum.
Sulfuric acid, zinc salt also suppressed the activation of interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha by these keratinocytes. 
Additionally, zincate plays an active role in the development of Langerhans cells, a type of antigen-presenting cells, within the skin. 
Furthermore, the expression of melanocytes in the human skin is facilitated by zincate through mechanisms that are not yet fully understood.

Zinc sulfate is given as an adjunct to oral rehydration therapy in order to reduce the duration and severity of diarrhoea, as well as to prevent further occurrences in the 2 to 3 months after treatment. 
Zinc sulfate must never replace oral rehydration therapy which is essential (nor can it replace antibiotic therapy that may, in specific cases, be necessary).

Zincate participation is essential for all physiological systems, including neural functioning, where it participates in a myriad of cellular processes. 
Converging clinical, molecular, and genetic discoveries illuminate key roles for zincate homeostasis in association with clinical depression and psychosis which are not yet well appreciated at the clinical interface. 
Intracellular deficiency may arise from low circulating zinc levels due to dietary insufficiency, or impaired absorption from aging or medical conditions, including alcoholism. 

Source or Origin of the Substance:
Commercially, zinc sulfate is manufactured from zinc ore mined from underground or open pit mines.
Zincate deposits are spread widely throughout the world. 
Zincate are extracted in more than 50countries. 
China, Australia, Peru, Europe and Canada are the biggest zinc mining countries. 
Zincate is normally associated with lead, other metals and minerals including barium, bismuth, cadmium, calcium, copper, magnesium, tin, gold and silver

Zinc or zinc sulfate?
The most significant difference to note concerns the labelling of medications and supplements. 
Food contains elemental zinc, where manufactured products use zinc compounds. 
The RDA is based on your need for essential zinc and shouldn’t be confused with the mg per day of compounds like zinc sulfate. 

What are the possible side effects of zinc sulfate?
Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Less serious side effects may include:
upset stomach.

Zincate and its Doses 
Infants and Children: 
When taken by mouth properly in the prescribed quantities, zincate is likely Healthy.
When used in high concentrations, zincate is likely Dangerous.

Pregnancy and Breast-Feeding: 
Zincate is likely safe when used in the prescribed daily quantities for most pregnant and breast-feeding women (RDA). 
Zincate, however, is potentially unsafe when used by breast-feeding women at high doses and likely unsafe when used by pregnant women at high doses.
No more than 40 mg of zincate should be taken per day by pregnant women over the age of 18; no more than 34 mg per day should be taken by pregnant women aged 14 to 18 years. 
No more than 40 mg of zincate per day should be taken by breastfeeding women over the age of 18; no more than 34 mg per day should be taken by breastfeeding women aged 14 to 18.

Excessive, long-term consumption of alcohol is related to low absorption of zincate in the body. 

Kidney Disease: 
The risk of having kidney disease rises with low zincate in the diet. 
People with hemodialysis kidney disease are also at risk for zincate deficiency and may need zincate supplements. 

First aid measures
Description of first-aid measures
General advice
Show this material safety data sheet to the doctor in attendance.
If inhaled:
After inhalation: fresh air.
In case of skin contact: 
Take off immediately all contaminated clothing. 
Rinse skin with
water/ shower.
In case of eye contact:
After eye contact: rinse out with plenty of water. 
Immediately call in ophthalmologist.
Remove contact lenses.
If swallowed
After swallowing: immediately make victim drink water (two glasses at most). 
Consult physician.

Firefighting measures
Extinguishing media:
Suitable extinguishing media:
Water Foam Carbon dioxide (CO2) Dry powder
Unsuitable extinguishing media:
For this substance/mixture no limitations of extinguishing agents are given.
Special hazards arising from the substance or mixture:
Sulfur oxides
Zinc/zinc oxides
Development of hazardous combustion gases or vapours possible in the event of fire.
Advice for firefighters:
In the event of fire, wear self-contained breathing apparatus

Accidental release measures
Personal precautions:
protective equipment and emergency procedures
Advice for non-emergency personnel: 
Avoid inhalation of dusts. 
Avoid substance contact.
Ensure adequate ventilation. 
Evacuate the danger area, observe emergency procedures
consult an expert.
Environmental precautions:
Do not let product enter drains.
Methods and materials for containment and cleaning up
Cover drains. 
Collect, bind, and pump off spills. 
Observe possible material restrictions
Take up dry. 
Dispose of properly.
Clean up affected area. 
Avoid generation of dusts.

Handling and storage
Precautions for safe handling
Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities.
Storage conditions:
Tightly closed.
Storage stability:
Recommended storage temperature:2 - 30 °C

Methods and material for containment and cleaning up
Inside plant: recover by pumping and recycle to process
Outside plant: dilute with water and collect in a convenient recycling container. 
If necessary neutralize residue with a diluted sodium carbonate solution. 
Wash down contaminated area. 
Collect water for recycling according to local and national regulations

Making zinc sulfate
Zinc sulfate is a complex fertiliser. 
Sulfuric acid, zinc salt is a source of the micronutrient zinc and the secondary nutrient sulfur. 
However, Sulfuric acid, zinc salt is as a source of zinc that it is important.
Zinc sulfate is produced by reacting zinc carbonate with sulfuric acid.
Zinc sulfate used for pharmaceutical preparations is made from the reaction of sulfuric acid with high purity zinc oxide.
Zinc sulfate crystallises from aqueous solution as a heptahydrate, zinc sulfate-7-water, ZnSO4.7H2O.
You can make zinc sulfate-7-water in the laboratory by reacting zinc carbonate with dilute sulfuric acid.

Zinc sulfate heptahydrate can be found in nature as the mineral known as goslarite.
Zinc supplements generally contain zinc sulfate, usually mixed with vitamins or sweeteners and are available at pharmacies.
Lastly, Sulfuric acid, zinc salt can also be bought from chemical suppliers.

Alternative Names
Zinc sulphate
Zinc sulfate anhydrous
Zinc sulfate (1:1)
zinc(II) sulfate
Sulfuric acid, zinc salt (1:1)
Zinci Sulfas
Zincum Sulfuricum
Zinc vitriol (VAN)
Caswell No. 927
White vitriol (VAN)
Sulfuric acid, zinc salt
Sulfate de zinc [French]
CCRIS 3664
Sulfuric acid zinc salt (VAN)

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