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CAS NUMBER:  1314-23-4

EC NUMBER: 215-227-2

Zirconium dioxide is a material with very high resistance to crack propagation. Zirconium dioxide ceramics also have very high thermal expansion and are therefore often the material of choice for joining ceramic and steel.Zirconium dioxide by Tec Star is a dry nanoparticle acting as filler. 
Solves typical problems for surface finishing like corrosion and scratch. 
Increases surface hardness, improves UV light resistance and antiseptic effect. 
Offers possibility to replace surface chrome passivation. 
Zirconium dioxide also decreases wear and friction coefficient. Zirconium Oxide is recommended for paints, galvanic coatings and in ink applications.

Zirconium dioxide (ZrO2), sometimes known as zirconia (not to be confused with zircon), is a white crystalline oxide of zirconium. 
Zirconium dioxides most naturally occurring form, with a monoclinic crystalline structure, is the mineral baddeleyite. 
A dopant stabilized cubic structured zirconia, cubic zirconia, is synthesized in various colours for use as a gemstone and a diamond simulant.
Zirconium dioxide products are characterised by good mechanical properties and stability at high temperatures, strong thermal and corrosion resistance, chemical inertness and consistent quality. 
This makes them ideal for use in a wide range of refractory products, ceramic colours and pigments and electronic applications.

Other applications include friction materials, welding rods and zirconium metal and alloys. 
Advanced zirconia ceramics have excellent biocompatibility ensuring zirconia has replaced alumina as the material of choice for prosthesis devices such as hip joints or femoral ball heads. 
Zirconium dioxide has superior strength and hardness, wear resistance, stability, resistance to scratching and biocompatibility with the human body. 
One of zirconia’s other most common uses is within dental implants.

Zirconium dioxide, also known as zirconium dioxide (Zr02), is found in its most natural form in the mineral baddeleyite. 
But Zirconium dioxide can also be chemically derived from zircon. 
Zirconium dioxide is the most commercially important oxide formed by zircon.
Zirconium dioxide or zirconia is one of the most widely used ceramic oxides. 

Zirconium dioxides applications range from use in abrasive products, dental bridges and crowns, additive in paints and lacquers, in fuel cell membranes and in joint implants. 
Zirconium dioxide is also utilised as white pigment for porcelain or in a mixture with vanadium oxide as yellow pigment. 
Most consumers associate the material with ceramic kitchen knives found in many households nowadays and their blades are made of zirconia.
Most products on the market are manufactured based on micro-crystalline zirconium dioxide powders, only niche markets have started to increasingly use powers of zirconium dioxide nanoparticles.Zirconium dioxide is a highly insoluble thermally stable Zirconium source suitable for glass, optic and ceramic applications. Zirconium dioxide is a white crystalline oxide also known as zirconia, the cubic crystalline form used in jewelry is rarely found in nature. 

Zirconium dioxides are not conductive to electricity. 
However, certain perovskite structured oxides are electronically conductive finding application in the cathode of solid oxide fuel cells and oxygen generation systems. 
Zirconium dioxides are compounds containing at least one oxygen anion and one metallic cation. 
Zirconium dioxides are typically High Purity (99.999%) Zirconium Oxide (ZrO2) Powderinsoluble in aqueous solutions (water) and extremely stable making them useful in ceramic structures as simple as producing clay bowls to advanced electronics and in light weight structural components in aerospace and electrochemical applications such as fuel cells in which they exhibit ionic conductivity. 

Metal oxide compounds arebasic anhydrides and can therefore react with acids and strong reducing agents in redox reactions. Zirconium dioxide is also available in pellets, pieces, powder, sputtering targets, tablets, and nanopowder (from American Elements' nanoscale production facilities). Zirconium dioxide is generally immediately available in most volumes. High purity, submicron and nanopowder forms may be considered. 
Additional technical, research and safety (MSDS) information is available.Zirconium dioxide(Zirconia) has the highest strength and toughness at room temperature of all the advanced ceramic materials. 
Zirconium dioxide finds use in high wear and corrosion applications including valves, pumps and liners. 
Zirconium dioxide is the material of choice for the chemical processing and petrochemical industries.

There are several grades of Zirconia available, the most common of which are Yttria Partially Stabilized Zirconia (Y-PSZ) and Magnesia Partially Stabilized Zirconia (Mg-PSZ), Both of these materials offer excellent properties.
Y-TZP (Yttria Stabilized Zirconium Oxide) is a specialty material for critical structural ceramic applications. 
This material has the highest flexural strength of the zirconia materials particularly when processed using a HIP (Hot Isostat Press). 
The material’s extremely fine grain size makes it ideal for creating sharp blades that will, because of its excellent wear resistance, remain razor sharp, It is used in tooling and process applications for its strength, superior toughness, and excellent abrasion resistant.
Mg-PSZ(Magnesia-partially stabilized zirconia) has excellent mechanical properties, including high strength, fracture toughness, wear resistance, good thermal shock and low thermal conductivity, Due to these characteristics it finds use in high wear and corrosion applications including valves, pumps and liners, It is the material of choice for the chemical processing and petrochemical industries.Zirconium dioxide has many useful properties that allow it to be suitable for a variety of purposes across many industries. 
The zirconia manufacturing and treatment processes further allow a zirconia injection molding company to modify its characteristics to fit the specific requirements and needs of a wide variety of clients and different applications.

In that respect, zirconium is similar to alumina. 
Aluminium oxide is also suitable for different uses and alumina can be manufactured and treated in several different ways to cater to different needs. 
However, the uses, applications, and characteristics tend to differ. 
Take a look at what zirconium dioxide can be used for and how hard it can be.

Zirconium Dioxide or zirconia (ZrO2) is a metallic oxide either processed from the mineral Baddeleyite (zirconium oxide) or extracted from zirconium silicate sand. 
While there is an abundance of raw material (mostly from Australia and South Africa), processes to extract the ZrO2 are varied and expensive (e.g. fusing, leaching, plasma arc, dissolution and precipitation). 
Purities range from 75 to >99%. 
Each process produces zirconias that have their own unique properties. Considerable tonnages of zirconia are used each year (10s of 1000s of tons), far more than hitech materials used for similar purposes.
The form in which zirconia crystals exist changes with temperature (monoclinic to 1170C, tetragonal to 2370C, cubic to melting at 2880C).
The zirconium oxide (ZrO2), sometimes known as zirconia (not to be confused with zircon), is a white crystalline oxide of zirconium. 

Zirconium dioxide is produced by calcining zirconium compounds, exploiting its high thermal stability. 
Zirconium dioxide is one of the most studied ceramic materials. ZrO2 adopts a monoclining crystal structure at room temperature and transitions to tetragonal and cubic at higher temperatures. 
The main use of Zirconium dioxide is in the production of ceramics, with other uses including as a protective coating on particles of titanium oxide pigments, as a refractory material, in insulation, abrasives and enamels. 
Stabilized zirconia is used in oxygen sendsors and fuel cell membranes because it has the ability to allow oxigen ions to move freely through the crystal structure at high temperatures. 
This high ionic conductivity (and a low electronic conductivity) makes it one of the most useful electroceramics.

Zirconium dioxide is also used as the solid electrolyte in electrochromic devices.
The very low thermal conductivity in the cubic phase of zirconia has allowed its use also as a thermal barrier coating, in jet engines and in diesel engines.
Zirconium dioxide is a very common material used in dentistry for the fabrication of dental restorations, in orthopedics are used in the realization of joint components such as the hip and the knee; because of its hardness can be employed to make ceramic knives; also it has potential applications as an insulator in the transistor.
Crystalline zirconium dioxide (zirconium oxide), ZrO2, called zirconia (not to be confused with zircon, which is a mineral, and Zirkon™, which is a product in the market) is manufactured for use as a white pigment from minerals by conversion to Zr(SO4)2, followed by hydrolysis. ZrO2 is used also as a refractory material (crucibles, furnace lining), and it is insoluble in water, only slightly soluble in HCl and HNO3, and, however, slowly soluble in HF upon heating with 66% H2SO4.

Zirconium dioxide is considered one of the best currently known biocompatible ceramic materials along with the metallic titanium.
Zirconium dioxide, or zirconia, ZrO2, is the word in presentday dentistry. 
We may say that zirconia is a material of choice in contemporary restorative dentistry for several reasons. 
Moreover, restorative dentistry is about adhesion promotion and about durable bonding of restorations. 

Zirconium dioxide has found wide applications in dental restorations, such as bridges, crowns, dental implant abutments, and full dental implant systems.
Zirconium dioxide caught attraction due its superior mechanical properties as superior flexure strength (which is 1200 MPa compared to 1000 MPa for steel), high fracture toughness, high hardness, excellent fatigue, and damage resistance. 
The material is resistant to chemical attacks and does not react easily with strong acids, alkalis, or other corrosive material. 
Regarding its physical properties, ZrO2 is a white and opaque material that does not dissolve or react with water and other solvents. 
Zirconium dioxide is an excellent thermal and chemical insulator and is used in fuel cells.


The main use of Zirconium dioxide is in the production of hard ceramics, such as in dentistry, with other uses including as a protective coating on particles of titanium dioxide pigments, as a refractory material, in insulation, abrasives, and enamels.
Stabilized zirconia is used in oxygen sensors and fuel cell membranes because it has the ability to allow oxygen ions to move freely through the crystal structure at high temperatures. 
This high ionic conductivity (and a low electronic conductivity) makes it one of the most useful electroceramics. 
Zirconium dioxide is also used as the solid electrolyte in electrochromic devices.

Zirconium dioxide is a precursor to the electroceramic lead zirconate titanate (PZT), which is a high-κ dielectric, which is found in myriad components.
The very low thermal conductivity of cubic phase of zirconia also has led to its use as a thermal barrier coating, or TBC, in jet and diesel engines to allow operation at higher temperatures. 
Thermodynamically, the higher the operation temperature of an engine, the greater the possible efficiency. 
Another low-thermal-conductivity use is as a ceramic fiber insulation for crystal growth furnaces, fuel-cell stacks, and infrared heating systems.

This material is also used in dentistry in the manufacture of subframes for the construction of dental restorations such as crowns and bridges, which are then veneered with a conventional feldspathic porcelain for aesthetic reasons, or of strong, extremely durable dental prostheses constructed entirely from monolithic zirconia, with limited but constantly improving aesthetics.[11] Zirconia stabilized with yttria (yttrium oxide), known as yttria-stabilized zirconia, can be used as a strong base material in some full ceramic crown restorations.
Transformation-toughened zirconia is used to make ceramic knives. 
Because of the hardness, ceramic-edged cutlery stays sharp longer than steel edged products.
Due to its infusibility and brilliant luminosity when incandescent, it was used as an ingredient of sticks for limelight.

Zirconium dioxide has been proposed to electrolyze carbon monoxide and oxygen from the atmosphere of Mars to provide both fuel and oxidizer that could be used as a store of chemical energy for use with surface transportation on Mars. 
Carbon monoxide/oxygen engines have been suggested for early surface transportation use, as both carbon monoxide and oxygen can be straightforwardly produced by zirconia electrolysis without requiring use of any of the Martian water resources to obtain hydrogen, which would be needed for the production of methane or any hydrogen-based fuels.
Zirconia can be used as photocatalyst since its high band gap allows the generation of high energetic electrons and holes. 
Some studies demonstrated the activity of doped zirconia (in order to increase visible light absorption) in degrading organic compounds and reducing Cr(VI) from wastewaters.
Zirconium dioxide is also a potential high-κ dielectric material with potential applications as an insulator in transistors.

Zirconium dioxide is also employed in the deposition of optical coatings; it is a high-index material usable from the near-UV to the mid-IR, due to its low absorption in this spectral region. 
In such applications, Zirconium dioxide is typically deposited by PVD.
In jewelry making, some watch cases are advertised as being "black zirconium oxide". 
In 2015 Omega released a fully ZrO2 watch named "The Dark Side of The Moon"with ceramic case, bezel, pushers, and clasp, advertising it as four times harder than stainless steel and therefore much more resistant to scratches during everyday use.
In gas tungsten arc welding, tungsten electrodes containing 1% zirconium oxide (a.k.a. zirconia) instead of 2% thorium have good arc starting and current capacity, and are not radioactive.
Zirconium dioxide, also known as zirconia and zirconium oxide, is a crystalline metal oxide that has found its way into the ceramics industry. 
Zirconium dioxide is characterised by its high thermal resistivity, mechanical resistance, and abrasive properties.

First used in the medical industry in 1969, zirconia has demonstrated exceptional biocompatibility, with good tribological properties, good aesthetic, and high mechanical properties. 
Zirconium dioxide is used quite pre-eminently in dental procedures, as in zirconia crowns and zirconia-based implant abutments.
One of its most popular forms is cubic zirconia, a cubic crystalline compound that is colourless and mechanically tough. 
Because of its optically flawless property, it serves as a low-cost alternative to diamonds in the jewellery industry.
Zirconium dioxide should not be confused with zircon (or zirconium silicate), a mineral that is also used in the ceramics industry and refractories.

Zirconium dioxide is a crystalline solid that is white in colour, but can be produced in different colours to be used as an alternative gemstone to diamond or as ceramic dental crowns in medical applications. 
Naturally, it occurs as the translucent (sometimes transparent) mineral baddeleyite, a rare mineral that has a monoclinic prismatic crystal structure; i.e. a mineral having unequal vectors. 
Also known as “ceramic steel”, this oxide of zirconium is chemically inert and is considered as one of the highly auspicious restorative materials, due to its excellent mechanical properties.
Out of all advanced ceramic materials, zirconia has the highest toughness and strength at room temperature. 
At high temperatures, zirconia may go through substantial change in volume during phase transformation. 

As a result, it is difficult to obtain stable zirconia products during sintering, which is why stabilisation of zirconia is generally required. 
Partially stabilised zirconia (PSZ) adds to the exceptional mechanical properties and chemical inertness a high level of chemical stability, even in harsh environments. 
Zirconium dioxide is used as a substitute for alumina in biomedical applications such as dental implants, thanks to its superior mechanical properties, and is comparable with teeth in terms of mechanical strength.Zirconium dioxide (ZrO2), or zirconia, is an advanced ceramic material most commonly used in the production of different types of hard ceramics. 
This material is most widely used for production of various dental implants due to its hardness, chemical unreactivity, and its various biocompatible aspects.

However, Zirconium dioxide’s use in dentistry is only the most well-known use of this advanced ceramic material.
There are other properties that make zirconia suitable for various applications. 
These properties include:

-Excellent resistance to corrosion and different chemicals
-Absence of innate brittleness of some other types of technical ceramics
-Very high room-temperature strength
-Very high fracture toughness
-High hardness and density
-Very good wear resistance
-Good frictional behavior
-Low thermal conductivity
-Solid electrical insulation

Zirconium dioxide is these and other characteristics of zirconium dioxide that have made it a common choice not just as the widely-spread material for dental substructures, but also across other industries. 
Zirconium dioxide is also used in:

-Fluid handling
-Aerospace components
-Cutting tools
-Biomedical applications
-Micro engineering
-Electronics parts
-Fiber optics
-Nozzles for spraying and extrusions
-Parts that require pleasant aesthetic appearance
-Components that require wear resistance and high strength

Zirconium dioxide is this kind of versatility that makes zirconia one of the most widely used advanced ceramic materials. 
What’s more, companies are able to manufacture a variety of different parts and components from zirconia, using injection molding, allowing Zirconium dioxide to become an even more widespread material.
In ceramics zirconia is used for a number of things:

-Zirconium dioxide is employed in stain formulations to stabilize and assist certain colors.
-Zirconium dioxide is added to non-oxide ceramics as a sintering aid (to help glue the particles together).
-Added to body and glaze formulations to promote hardness.
-Used in crucibles, nozzles, valves and even refractory bricks to resist the attack of molten metals.
-Used as an opacifier in glazes and frits (makes transparents white). Opacifying power is similar to zirconium silicate (6-9% for semi-opacity, 10-15% for full opacity).
-Used as a whitener in porcelains.

Zirconia has other interesting uses also:

-Zirconium dioxide has chemical and corrosion resistance at temperatures well above the melting point of alumina. 
-Zirconium dioxide's hardness and resistance to heat make it suitable for use in abrasives, cutting tools and engine parts.
-Zirconium dioxide is useful as a medical implant material.
-Zirconium dioxides ionic conductivity makes it valuable in sensors and fuel cells.

Zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) as an abrasive is used to make grinding wheels and special sandpaper. 
Zirconium dioxide is also used in ceramic glazes, in enamels, and for lining furnaces and hightemperature molds. 
Zirconium dioxide resists corrosion at high temperatures, making it ideal for crucibles and other types of laboratory ware. ZrO2 is used as a "getter" to remove the last trace of air when producing vacuum tubes.Zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) is the most common compound of zirconium found in nature. 

Zirconium dioxide has many uses, including the production of heat-resistant fabrics and high-temperature electrodes and tools, as well as in the treatment of skin diseases. 
The mineral baddeleyite (known as zirconia or ZrO2) is the natural form of zirconium oxide and is used to produce metallic zirconium by the use of the Kroll process. 
The Kroll process is used to produce titanium metal as well as zirconium. 
The metals, in the form of metallic tetrachlorides, are reduced with magnesium metal and then heated to “red-hot” under normal pressure in the presence of a blanket of inert gas such as helium or argon.Zirconium dioxide occurs in nature as the mineral baddeleyite. 
The oxide has many industrial applications. 

Zirconium dioxide is used as a refractory material. 
Zirconium dioxide is used in making highly reflective glazes for ceramics, glasses, linings of metallurgical furnaces, crucibles, and laboratory equipment. 
The oxide is used to produce oxyhydrogen and incandescent lights. 
Other uses are in producing piezoelectric crystals, heat-resistant fibers, and high-frequency induction coils. 
The hydrous oxide is used in treating dermatitis resulting from poison ivy.
Instead of lime for the oxyhydrogen light; with earths of the yttrium group in incandescent lighting (Nernst lamps); as pigment, abrasive; manufacture of enamels, white glass, refractory crucibles, and furnace linings.


There are several types of zirconia: a pure(monoclinic) oxide and a stabilized (cubic)form, and a number of variations such asyttria- and magnesia-stabilized zirconia andnuclear grades. 
Stabilized zirconia has a highmelting point, about 2760°C, low thermal conductivity,and is generally unaffected by oxidizingand reducing atmospheres and mostchemicals. 
Yttria- and magnesia-stabilized zirconiasare widely used for equipment and vesselsin contact with liquid metals. 
Monoclinicnuclear zirconia is used for nuclear fuel elements,reactor hardware, and related applicationswhere high purity (99.7%) is needed.
Zirconia has the distinction of being an electricalinsulator at low temperatures, graduallybecoming a conductor as temperaturesincrease.


Zirconium dioxide’s high mechanical properties, chemical inertness, high-temperature stability, corrosion resistance, and high quality have put this ceramic steel on the radar in many industries and application areas. 
Many products of today, ranging from refractory to medical products, pigments, electronics, coatings, and ceramics, have been based on zirconia due to its superior characteristics and advantages as compared to other materials. 
Some of the typical applications of zirconia include dies for hot metal extrusion, oxygen sensors, membranes in fuel cells, deep well valve seats, and marine pump seals. 
Here is a list of some of zirconia’s most common applications areas and uses.


The mechanical strength and resistance of zirconium dioxide makes it a suitable component for ceramic manufacturing. 
This includes ceramic knives, which are noticeably tougher than steel-edged cutlery due to the high hardness factor of zirconia.

-Refractory purposes:

Due to its high thermal resistance, zirconium dioxide is used as a component in crucibles, furnaces, and other high-heat environments. 
In addition, zirconium dioxide boosts the fireproof properties of ceramics. 
Refractory bricks and armour plates are examples of zirconia-based refractory applications. 
Furthermore, when added to melted quartz, zirconia can be used to produce siloxide glass, a harder and more stress resistant glass than quartz opaque glass. 
Zirconia can also be added to aluminium oxide to be used in components for steel casting process.

-Thermal barrier coating (TBC):

Zirconium dioxide is applied as a coating for jet engine components which are exposed to high temperatures. 
This is made possible through the compound’s low thermal conductivity and high heat resistance. 
Studies have confirmed the effectiveness of zirconium dioxide for TBC applications, as long as the material is applied properly and uniformly.

-Dental industry:

Due to Zirconium dioxides biocompatibility, good aesthetics, and high mechanical properties, one of the most popular uses of zirconium dioxide is in dentistry, mainly in dental restorations for bridges, crowns, and feldspar porcelain veneers and dental prostheses. Yttria-stabilized zirconium dioxide is also instrumental in producing near-permanent zirconia crowns.

-Scratch resistant and abrasive material:

With its elevated mechanical stability and abrasion resistance, zirconia is being used as an abrasive material. 
Zirconium dioxide is also useful as a protective layer for mechanical parts, due to the compound’s resistance to scratches and mechanical stress.

-Oxygen-rich systems:

While other materials may experience oxidation and compromise its integrity, zirconium dioxide is stable in the presence of oxygen. 
In fact, Zirconium dioxide is being used in fuel cell membranes and oxygen sensing mechanisms even at elevated temperatures.

-Jewellery industry:

Zirconium dioxide, in particular, has evolved as a viable alternative to diamond (which is extremely expensive). 
Aside from its durability and strong aesthetic similarity to diamond, cubic zirconia produces cuts unlike diamonds and has an optical flawlessness that appears completely colourless to the naked eye. 
Zirconium dioxide is commonly referred to as a diamond imitation rather than a synthetic diamond, as it resembles natural diamond visually but does not have the same chemical properties. 
Examples of zirconia-based jewellery include cubic zirconia rings and cubic zirconia earrings.


-Pumps, pistons, and liners
-Precision ball valve balls and seats
-Cutting Blades, Knives,
-Welding pins
-Fiber optic ferrules and sleeves
-Bearings & rollers
-Ceramic guiders
-High-performance bearings, pumps, and valves
-Check valves
-Flow meters
-Measurement instruments
-Medical & Pharmaceutical industries
-Food & Chemical industries
-Toners, inks, and dyes


They all involve the decomposition of zircon by chemical, thermal or mechanical means
All products obtained from zircon decomposition are subsequently treated by solubility differentiation
They all involve the isolation of zirconium compounds from residual impurities.

Zirconium dioxide are highly resistant to corrosion, abrasion, and stress from repetitive impacts. 
In fact, they will actually increase in toughness at the point of impact. Zirconia oxide balls also have incredibly high hardness, durability, and strength. 
High temperatures and corrosive chemicals are no issue for zirconia balls, and they will maintain their excellent properties up to 1800 degrees ºF.
This makes zirconia balls a great option for use in many high-impact and high-temperature environments. 
Their properties make them the most durable ball for grinding and milling applications. 
In addition, zirconium oxide ceramic balls are commonly used in flow control applications such as check valves, and they are also popular for use in the medical field due to their high strength and purity.


Another outstanding property combination is the very low thermal conductivity and high strength. 
In addition, some types of zirconium oxide ceramics can conduct oxygen ions. 
Components made from this material are significantly more expensive than components made of alumina ceramics. Zirconium oxide ceramics are used, among other applications, as tools for wire forming, as auxiliaries in welding processes, as materials for crowns and bridges in the dental industry, as insulating rings in thermal processes, and as oxygen measurement cells in lambda probe

Zirconium dioxide is one of the most studied ceramic materials. ZrO2 adopts a monoclinic crystal structure at room temperature and transitions to tetragonal and cubic at higher temperatures. 
The change of volume caused by the structure transitions from tetragonal to monoclinic to cubic induces large stresses, causing it to crack upon cooling from high temperatures. 
When the zirconia is blended with some other oxides, the tetragonal and/or cubic phases are stabilized. 
Effective dopants include magnesium oxide (MgO), yttrium oxide (Y2O3, yttria), calcium oxide (CaO), and cerium(III) oxide (Ce2O3).

Zirconium dioxide is often more useful in its phase 'stabilized' state. Upon heating, zirconia undergoes disruptive phase changes. 
By adding small percentages of yttria, these phase changes are eliminated, and the resulting material has superior thermal, mechanical, and electrical properties. 
In some cases, the tetragonal phase can be metastable. 
If sufficient quantities of the metastable tetragonal phase is present, then an applied stress, magnified by the stress concentration at a crack tip, can cause the tetragonal phase to convert to monoclinic, with the associated volume expansion. 
This phase transformation can then put the crack into compression, retarding its growth, and enhancing the fracture toughness. 
This mechanism, known as transformation toughening, significantly extends the reliability and lifetime of products made with stabilized zirconia.

The Zirconium dioxide band gap is dependent on the phase (cubic, tetragonal, monoclinic, or amorphous) and preparation methods, with typical estimates from 5–7 eV.
A special case of zirconia is that of tetragonal zirconia polycrystal, or TZP, which is indicative of polycrystalline zirconia composed of only the metastable tetragonal phase.
Zirconium dioxide’s exceptional strength, toughness, biocompatibility, high fatigue and wear resistance render it optimal for dental applications. 
Zirconium dioxide, in particular, is in fact one of the two most commonly used metals in dental implants, alongside titanium, as they both show very good physical and chemical properties and they allow the growth of osteoblasts, the cells that actually form bones. 
Here’s a list of zirconia’s most prominent physical and chemical properties. 
Notice how these properties are high enough to allow zirconia to be an effective material for many applications, especially for refractory and dentistry purposes.

-High thermal expansion (α=11 x 10-6/K, similar to some types of steel)
-Excellent thermal insulation/low thermal conductivity (2.5 to 3 W/mK)
-Very high resistance to crack propagation, high fracture toughness (6.5 to 8 MPam1/2)
-Ability to conduct oxygen ions (used for the measurement of oxygen partial pressures in lambda probes)


-Compound Formula: ZrO2
-Molecular Weight: 123.22
-Appearance: White powder or solid in various forms
-Melting Point: 2,715° C (4,919° F)
-Boiling Point: 4,300° C (7,772° F)
-Density: 5680 kg/m3
-Solubility in H2O: Negligible
-Refractive Index: n20/D 2.13
-Thermal Conductivity: 2.5-3.0 W/m·K
-Thermal Expansion: 10.5 x 10-6/°C
-Exact Mass: 121.895 g/mol
-Monoisotopic Mass: 121.894531


Heavy, white, amorphous powder. 
Mohs hardness 6.5, refr index 2.2. 
Insoluble in water and most acids or alkalies at room temperature; soluble in nitric acid and hot concentrated hydrochloric, hydrofluoric, and sulfuric acids. 
Most heat resistant of commercial refractories; dielectric.


White, heavy, amorphous powder or monoclinic crystals; refractive index 2.13; density 5.68 g/cm3; Mohs hardness 6.5; transforms to tetragonal structure above 1,100°C and cubic form above 1,900°C; melts at 2,710°C and vaporizes at about 4,300°C; insoluble in water; soluble in hydrofluoric acid and hot sulfuric, nitric and hydrochloric acids.


-High Mechanical Strength
-Excellent Wear Resistance
-Good Surface Finish
-High Fracture Toughness
-Low thermal conductivity
-High density
-Good thermal conductivity


Three phases are known: monoclinic below 1170 °C, tetragonal between 1170 °C and 2370 °C, and cubic above 2370 °C. 
The trend is for higher symmetry at higher temperatures, as is usually the case. 
A small percentage of the oxides of calcium or yttrium stabilize in the cubic phase. 
The very rare mineral tazheranite is cubic. Unlike TiO2, which features six-coordinated titanium in all phases, monoclinic zirconia consists of seven-coordinated zirconium centres. 
This difference is attributed to the larger size of the zirconium atom relative to the titanium atom.

Production of zirconium dioxide may result in the aforementioned three possible phases depending on the temperature: monoclinic, tetragonal, and cubic. 
This unique property of zirconium dioxide provides flexibility of use in a wide variety of purposes and industries.
Zirconium dioxide is produced through thermal treatment, or thermal dissociation, although doing it in its pure form may cause abrupt phase changes that may crack or fracture the material. 
That is when doping with stabilisers, such as magnesium oxide, yttrium oxide, and calcium oxide, is applied to keep the structure intact. 
This thermal process is also referred to as calcination, where heating to high temperatures is performed within an oxygen or air medium.
Zirconium dioxide can also be produced by decomposing zircon sand via fusion with compounds such as calcium carbonate, calcium oxide, sodium carbonate, magnesium oxide, and sodium hydroxide


Zirconium dioxide is chemically unreactive. 
It is slowly attacked by concentrated hydrofluoric acid and sulfuric acid. 
When heated with carbon, Zirconium dioxide converts to zirconium carbide. 
When heated with carbon in the presence of chlorine, Zirconium dioxide converts to zirconium(IV) chloride. 
This conversion is the basis for the purification of Zirconium dioxide metal and is analogous to the Kroll process.


Zirconium(IV) oxide
dioxozirconiumZirconium dioxide (ZrO2)
Baddeleyite (ZrO2)
Zirconium White
Zirconic anhydride
Pigment White 12
C.I. 77990
Zirconium(IV) oxide, 98.5%Zirconium dioxide, catalyst support


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